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Full text of "Technology of textile design. A practical treatise on the construction and application of weaves for all textile fabrics... Containing also an appendix describing all the latest methods and improvements in designing and manufacturing"

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i R 




WE FURNISH 



Complete Plants 



FOR THE PREPARATION OF 



JACQUARD CARD-LACING 
MACHINE. 



Jacquard Cards, 
Repeating, Lacing, 
Cutting, Etc. 






POWER CARD-STAMPER. 



STE11U N G 
AND FRANC1NE 

C1A1UC 
ART INSTITUTE 
L1BRART 




DOBBY CARD-STAMPER. 



OUR DIRECT-ACTING 

Repeater. 

Automatically Repeats 15,000 to 20,000 a day! 
Catalogue No. io Free. 

Schaum&Uhlinger 

Glenwood Av. and Second St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 




FOOT-POWER STAMPER- 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

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ADVERTISEMENT. 




Makers of 



Knowles L oom W or ks 

WORCESTER, MASS., U. S. A. 

Fiue Awards 

AT THE 

World's 

Columbian 

Exposition. 

Power Looms of Every Description, 
Also Jacquards and Dobbies, 

The extraordinary demand for our 

Rise and Fall $ingle-Leuer Jacquards 

is sufficient evidence that they are superior to all others. 
They can be operated at a Higher Rate of Speed than 
any other (Rotary not excepted). 

We manufacture Jacquards for 
every class of Weaving for which such 
machines can be used. 

The plujgOrU UODDy is too well known to need more 
than mere reference, over i6,oco being in use. It is adapted for 
Lenos, Double Weaves, Towels, or any class of goods requiring 
fancy effects, not sufficiently elaborate to require Jacquards. 
SEND FOR CATALOGUES AND PRICES OF ALL OUR MACHINERY. 





THE "KNOWLES LOOM" FOR FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

i^BuHtbyHUTrHiN^ON HOLLINGWORTH & CO., 

DOBCROSS, ENGLAND. 
WE ALSO HAVE BRANCH WORKS LOCATED AT PROVIDENCE, R. I., U. S. A. 

(See also Outside Back Cover.) 



11 



LIST OF ADVERTISERS. 



^damson, Edward Pawtucket, R. I v 

Altemus, W. W. & Son Philadelphia viii 

American Supply Co Providence, R. I x 

Atlas M'PgCo Newark, N.J xviii 

Barker, James Philadelphia xv 

Beer, Paul Philadelphia xiv 

Burkhardt's, Geo. J. Sons Philadelphia xvi 

Charlotte Supply Co Charlotte, N. C xiv 

Cheney Bros South Manchester, Conn iv 

Cleaver & Leather Paterson, N.J xiii 

Crompton Loom Works ... Worcester, Mass ix 

Draper, Geo. & Son Hopedale, Mass vi 

Excelsior Loom Reed Works Pawtucket, R. I v 

Fairmount Machine Co Philadelphia '. viii 

Fleming & Chapin Philadelphia xvi 

Forrest, John Philadelphia xx 

Friedberger, S Gerrnantown, Philadelphia v 

Funk & Wagnalls Co New York xix 

Furbush, M. A. & Son, Machine Co Philadelphia xii 

Fox & Lentz Philadelphia xxi 

H adley Company , Holyoke, Mass xvi 

Hall, I. A Paterson, N. J xiii 

Halton, Thomas Philadelphia xi 

Hand, Frederic & Co Paterson, N. J xi 

Holbrook M't'g Co New York xiii 

Howson & Howson Philadelphia xiv 

Jones, Frederick & Co Philadelphia xx 

Kilburn, Lincoln & Co Fall River, Mass xix 

Knowles Loom Works Worcester, Mass ii 

Liotard, Louis F Paterson, N. J xiii 

M ason Machine Works Taunton, Mass v 

McCloud, Chas. & Co Philadelphia xx 

providence Machine Co Providence, R. I iv 

Philadelphia School of Design Philadelphia xvii 

Posselt, E. A. (Publisher) Philadelphia xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv 

Posselt's Textile School Philadelphia Opposite Table of Contents- 
Queen & Co Philadelphia xi 

Royle, John & Sons Paterson , N. J xxvi 

Riehl, Henry & Son Philadelphia xiv 

Schaum & Uhlinger Philadelphia , i 

Schofield, Geo, L • Philadelphia xvi 

Standard Dictionary New York xix: 

Textile Record Co Philadelphia xxi 

Troemner, Henry Philadelphia xi 

Watson, L. S. M'f g Co Leicester, Mass xxi 

Widmer Bros Paterson, N. J xiv 

Woolford, Geo Philadelphia xvi 



CLASSIFIED INDEX. 



Belting. 

American Supply Co. 
Charlotte Supply Co. 
Danforth Belting Co. 
Josiah Gates & Sons. 
Geo. L. Schofield. 

Books. 
Funk & Wagnalls Co. 
F. A. Posselt. 

Burring Machinery. 
Atlas M'f'g Co. 

The Phila. Textile Machinery Co. 
James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 
C. G. Sargent's Sons. 



Carbonizing Machines. 

Kitson Machine Co. 

Card Cutting and Lacing Ma- 
chinery. 

John Royle & Sons. 
Schaum & Uhlinger. 
Henry Riehl & Son. 

Cards for Jacquard Looms. 
C. F. Crehore & Son. 

Condensers. 

James Barker. 

M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co. 

James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 

CONTINUED OIM RAGE 



Coppersmiths. 

Paul Beer. 
D. H. Wilson. 

Designing. 

Fox & Lentz. 
Fred. Hand & Co. 

Design Papers. 

F. Jones & Co. 
Queen & Co. 

Dyeing, Printing, and Sizing 
Machines. 

Fairmount Machine Co. 
Sprowles& Houseman. 

VII. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



WM. C. PEIRCE, 

Pres. and Treas. 



SSTABIjISHED 1835. 



THOS. P. DAVIS. 

Sec'y 



PROVIDENCE MACHINE CO 



Manufacturers and Dealers in 



MACHINERY 



con 




D 





ES. 



Flyers, Pressers, Spindles, Fluted Rolls, Top Rolls, Bobbin Gears, Etc., for Speeders. 

Cotton Combers and Lap Winders, Machinery 

SMALL CASTINGS A SPECIALTY. 

Worsted Frame Rolls, Gill Screws and Fallers, Wood and Metal Patterns. 



| Cheney Brothers, 

SILK MANUFACTURERS, 

MILLS: South Manchester and Hartford, Conn. 

I SALESROOMS: 

447 Broome Street, New York; 79 Chauncy Street, Boston; 

Medinah Building, 5th Avenue and Jackson Street, Chicago. 

SPUN SILK YAftNS, OUGAUZINE AND TRAM, 

In tlie Gra,37-, Dyed or ZFrintecL. 

FAST COLORS WARRANTED. 

ON SPOOLS, CONES OR' SHUTTLE BOBBINS; IN WARPS OR IN THE HANK. 
Special Yarns made to order for all sorts of Silk or Silk Mixture Goods. 



MANUFACTURERS' ORDERS PROMPTLY EXECUTED. 



IV 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Mason Machine Works 



p 



TAUNTON, MASS., 
U. S. A. 



COTTON MACHINERY. 



LATEST 

PATTERN 

REVOLVING 

FLAT CARDS, 

RAILWAY 

HEADS 

AND 

DRAWING 

FRAMES. 




- ZQ&c 

iiii ii i i. ,,. 



SPINNING 

FRAMES, 
MULES. 

LOOMS 
IN GREAT 

VARIETY, 

PLAIN 
AND FANCY. 



Licensed and Prepared to Build NORTHROP or DRAPER LOOMS. 



I 



nil in m f«s 



PATENTEES AND SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF 



ADAMSONS 



E 



nglish Cemented 

Flexible Bevel 
Dent Reeds. 

REINFORCED WITH SOLDERED SELVEDGES. 

ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR WEAVING 

FINE WORSTEDS, WOOLENS, 

FINE AND FANCY COTTON GOODS. 

You will save expense in your Weaving Department 
by using Our Patent Cemented Flexible Dent Reeds, in 
preference to any other make. They cause no "Streaky" 
Goods, no friction on Warp Threads, no broken Yarn, no 
Reed-Rowy Goods. These Reeds are more durable, and 
are in every way an improvement on the ordinary kind. 
Please place with us a trial order, and you will adopt them. 

Excelsior Loom Reed Works, 

EDWARD ADAMSON, Prop., PAWTUCKET, R. I. 



Silk Yarns 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

SKEINS, CONES, COPS, WARPS, 



IN CHAIN OR ON BEAM. 



FAST COLORS. 

Warranted to Stand Fulling. Correspondence Solicited. 



» » 4 



5. FRIEDBERGER, 

CERMANTOWN, PHILA. 



» » 4 



city office. ^ Local and Long Distance 

435 Bourse Building. ?r\ Telephone Connection. 



» » 4 



ALSO, FULL LINE OF 



Braids and Laces 

For Trimming Ladies' Jersey Ribbed Underwear. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE 



Northrop Loom 



BEGAN ITS ACTIVE CAREER 



IN APRIL, 1895. 




e^v^^'*^/%^^*/V'*.'V'*/*/%^%^'%^^.^fc/%^'%/^%^i» 



Its introduction has been steadily progressive, 
and its record to date more than fulfils our promises. 

We do not have to rely on assertion. Thou= 
sands of Looms are in actual use, testifying to 
their own merit. The reports from mills using 
them in large numbers are universally satisfactory. 



"HESE LOOMS and Looms with our improvements 
are now weaving 



T 

Print Cloth, 

Coarse and Fine .^H f*f*t 1 n <TS 

Lawns «* Ginghams. 

The above grades are woven on our Looms cheaper 
than on any others in this country. We have also woven 

DRILLS, TWILLS, SATEENS, COTTON FLANNELS 

DENIMS, TOWELS, etc., 

on sample lots of Looms, and expect eventually to apply 
our devices to Looms of every description. 



Any manufacturer who buys common Looms for any kind 
of weaving without investigating our improve- 
ments probably injures his future 
profits beyond repair. 



GEO. DRAPER & SONS, 



HOPEDALE, MASS. 



VI 



CLASSIFIED INDEX— Continued. 



Dryers. 

Kitson Machine Co. 
E. A. Leigh. 

The Phila. Textile Machinery Co. 
i G. Saigtnt's- Sets. 
James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 

Dye Kettles. 

Paul Beer. 

D. H. Wilson & Co. 

Edgings. 

Fleming & Chapin. 
S. Friedberger. 

Finishing Machinery. 

W. W. Altemus & Son. 
Richard C. Borchers & Co. 
Curtis & Marble. 
Elliott & Hall. 
James Hunter Machine Co. 

E. A. Leigh. 

Parks & Wolson Machine Co. 

J. E. Windle. 

Woonsocket Machine and Press Co. 

Heddles and Heddle Frames. 

American Supply Co. 
Cleaver & Leather. 
I. A. Hall & Co. 
Louis F. Liotard. 
L. S. Watson M'f'g Co. 

Hydro-Extractors. 

Schaum & Uhlinger. 
Geo. L. Schofield. 

Jacquards and Dobbies. 

Crompton Loom Works. 

M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co. 

Thomas Halton. 

Knowles Loom Works. 

Henry Riehl & Son. 

John Royle & Sons. 

Schaum & Uhlinger. 

Widmer Bros. 

Journals. 
Textile Record Co. 

Looms. 
Cromptom Loom Works. 
Geo. Draper & Sons. 
Fairmount Machine Co. 
M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co. 
Kilburn, Lincoln & Co. 
Knowles Loom Works. 
Mason Machine Works. 
Henry Riehl & Son. 
Schaum & Uhlinger. 
Widmer Bros. 
Woonsocket Machine and Press Co. 

Machinery (Cotton, Wool and Silk). 

W. W. Altemus & Son. 

Atlas M'f g Co. 

James Barker. 

Richard C. Borchers & Co. 

Crompton Loom Works. 

Curtis & Marble. 



Geo. Draper & Sons. 

Benjamin Eastwood. 

Fairmount Machine Co. 

M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co. 

Globe Machine Works. 

Hardy Machine Co. 

Geo. S. Harwood & Son. 

Thomas Halton. 

Howard & Bullough. 

James Hunter Machine Co. 

Kilburn, Lincoln & Co. 

Kitson Machine Co. 

Knowles Loom Works. 

E. A- Leigh. 

Lowell Machine Shop. 

Mason Machine Works. 

J, B. Parker Machine Co. 

Parks & Woolson Machine Co. 

Pettee Machine Works. 

Providence Machine Co. 

John Royle & Sons. 

C. G. Sargent's Sous. 

Schaum & Uhlinger. 

Geo. L. Schofield. 

Sprowles & Houseman. 

James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 

The Phila. Textile Machinery Co. 

J. E. Windle. 

Woonsocket Machine and Press Co. 

Microscopes. 

Queen & Co. 
Joseph Zentmayer. 

Mill Supplies. 

American Supply Co. 

Charlotte Supply Co. 

Cleaver & Leather. 

Danforth Belting Co. 

Geo. Draper & Sons. 

Excelsior Loom Reed Works. 

Josiah Gates & Sons. 

M. A. Gould. 

I. A. Hall & Co. 

Thomas Halton. 

Louis F. Liotard. 

Paterson Reed and Harness Co. 

Henry Riehl & Son. 

Jacob Walder. 

L. S. Watson M'f'g Co. 

Widmer Bros. 

Moulders' Flasks. 
James Barker. 

Oils. 
E. F. Houghton & Co. 

Patent Solicitors. 

Howson & Howson. 

Pneumatic Conveyors. 

Charles H. Schnitzler. 

Press Papers. 

C. F. Crehore & Son. 

Scales. 
Henry Troemner. 

vii 



Schools. 

Posselt's School of Textile Design. 
Phila. School of Design for Women. 
Shafting, Pulleys and Couplings. 
Davis & Furber Machine Co. 
Benjamin Eastwood. 
Fairmount Machine Co. 
James Hunter Machine Co. 
Geo. L. Schofield. 
Wm. Sellers & Co. 
James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 
Woonsocket Machine and Press Co. 

Slasher and Dresser Cylinders. 

Fairmount Machine Co. 

D. H. Wilson & Co. 

Silk Yarns. 

Cheney Bros. 

S. Friedberger. 
Griswold Worsted Co. 
Chas. McCloud. 

Soaps. 

Holbrook M'f'g Co. 

Spinning Rings. 

Geo. Draper & Sons. 
Whitinsville Spinning Ring Co. 

Spur Gear Cutters. 

James Barker & Co. 

Tanks. 

Geo. J. Burkhardt's Sons. 
Amos H. Hall. 
Geo. Woolford. 

Tapes, Braids and Laces. 

Fleming & Chapin. 
S. Friedberger. 

Warping, Beaming and Winding 
Machinery. 

W. W. Altemus & Son 

Davis & Furber Machine Co. 

Geo. Draper & Sons. 

T. C. Entwistle. 

Fairmount Machine Co. 

M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co. 

Globe Machine Works. 

Providence Machine Co. 

Schaum & Uhlinger. 

John Royle & Sons. 

Wool-Scouring Machinery. 

James Hunter Machine Co. 
C. G. Sargent's Sons. 
Kitson Machine Co. 

E. A. Leigh. 

James Smith Woolen Machinery Co. 

Yarns. 

Cheney Bros. 

Fleming & Chapin. 
S. Friedberger. 
Griswold Worsted Co. 
Chas. McCloud. 

Yarn Printing. 
John Forrest. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Fairhount Machine Cohpany, 

Twenty - second and Wood Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



TEXTILE MACHINERY: 



TRANSMISSION 

flACHINERY: 



Patent LOOmS, {entirely new). 

•' Bridesburg" Looms. 

'* Ingraham" Patent Harness Motion. 

Mpii: r^flhhv Pa-tent pending, with superior under-motion. 
11CW 1/WWWJ) Patent Warp Tension Attachment for Looms. 

The Best Beaming and Winding flachines. 
Dyeing Machinery. 

Self=oiling Bearings. 

Patent Friction Pulleys. 

Patent Belt Tighteners. 

Patent Self=oiling Muley Driving. 

Special Driving. 

Rope Transmission. 



w. w. altemus. 




ESTABLISHED 1SS5. 

Flanufacturers 

who want an 



J. K. ALTEMUS. 



•slfe. 



Up=to=date 
Machine to wind 



Worsted Skein Yarn 

Cap Bobbins, 



OR FROM 



AND IN FACT ANY KIND OF YARN, SHOULD CONSULT 



W. W. ALTEMUS & SON, 



2816 North Fourth Street, Phil a Hf>lnhia 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Textile machinery: JKStSSK*.- 

We will GUARANTEE our Hachine to have NO EQUAL. 

Correspondence Solicited. Our prompt attention is given to all inquiries and sample tests. 

For description of Chenille Cutting Machinery sec pages 158-160 of this hook. 



Ylll 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



W 



OOLENS 
ORSTEDS <* 




UALITY / 
UANTITY 



...PRODUCED ON THE. 



CromptOll High Speed 

Close Shed I OOIttS 




With " 1895 » Patent Harness Motion :— 

Giving absolute freedom from mispicks. 

With " 1 895 » Positive Take-np :— 

The number of teeth in the ratchet indicat- 
ing the exact and corresponding number 
of picks. 

With Patent Adjustable Driving Motion:— 

Allowing quick change cf speed without 
removal of pulleys or belt. 



CROMPTON " 1895" WOOLEN AND WORSTED LOOM. 



CROMPTON pANCY (jINQHAM J^OOMS 

ALL OTHER MAKERS TAKE AS THEIR STANDARD. 



Are built with a Positive Take-up Motion. 

Number of teeth in gear produces correspond- 
ing number of picks in cloth. 

WEAR and TEAR 

guaranteed at a minimum point. 

Onr Patent Positive Compound Lever 

Sliding Tooth Box Motion, 

^las no rival for maximum speed and accuracy. 
All Combinations of Shuttle Boxes. 




CROMPTON STANDARD GINGHAM LOOM 4 x 1 BOX. 



Crompton Loom Works, 

WORCESTER, MASS. 



Correspondence Solicited.. 



IX 



NEW AND REVISED EDITION 

OF 



Technology of Textile Design. 



A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON 



The Construction and Application of Weaves for all Textile 

Fabrics and the Analysis of Cloth. 

CONTAINING ALSO AN APPENDIX DESCRIBING 

All the Latest Methods and Improvements in Designing and Manufacturing. 

FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS, OPERATIVES, OVERSEERS, DESIGNERS, MILL 
MANAGERS, COMMISSION MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS. 






-BY- 



^ 



E. A. POSSELT, 



Consulting Expert on Textile Designing and Manufacturing. Author and Publisher of " The facquara 
Machine Analyzed and Explained ;" "Structure of Eibres, Yarns and Fabrics;''' "Textile Calcula- 
tions;'''' " PosseWs Textile Library;" Editor of" The Textile Record;" Editor of Textile 
Terms in "Standard Dictionary ;" " Iconographic Encyclopedia of the Arts and 
Sciences;" Principal of PosseWs Private School of Textile Design ; formerly 
Headmaster of the Textile Department of the Pennsylvania. 
Museum and School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 



WITH OYER 1500 ILLUSTRATIONS 



PRICE, FIVE DOLLARS. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

E. A. POSSELT, Author and Publisher, 

2152 N. Twenty-first Street. 



LONDON 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON AND COMPANY, LIMITED, 
St. Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane, Fleet St. 



[Copyrighted, by E. A. I'osselt.J 



////^' ds~A. 






AA- 





l<n^ ^ ^^fe 



C ts-s*^ 




PREFACE. 



Eight years have expired since the first edition of "Technology of Textile Design' 
was published. The book has been an immense success, surpassing in its sale in this country and 
Europe any other book on the designing of Textile fabrics ever published. The value of this 
book is proven by the fact that its sale is constantly increasing, a feature which convinced the 
author of the necessity of publishing an entirely revised edition, adding all such chapters on new 
methods of Designing and Manufacturing as during the past eight years came to his notice, and 
also those which he was convinced should have been more thoroughly treated in former editions. 

This feature has been successfully accomplished in the present edition ; some 500 new illustra- 
tions of weaves and diagrams of fabrics have been added, making the book in its present state the 
greatest work on the Designing and Manufacturing of Textile fabrics ever published. Time and 
money have not been spared in the production of these 500 new illustrations, they having been 
prepared with the greatest of care, making them superior to all others ever before published. In 
its present state the work will not only find its way to all parties not yet possessing a copy, but it 
will eagerly be again bought by those possessing old editions, since the new chapters added contain 
the most advanced points on Designing and Manufacturing of Textile fabrics. 

These new chapters — of the greatest of interest to the Designer and Manufacturer are : — 
A New Method of Designing Weaves by Four Changes ; Shaded Fabrics ; Soleil Weaves; Checked 
Patterns Produced by Means of Straight arid Fancy Draws ; Crape Weaves ; Huck Patter?is ; Woven 
Tucks; Crimp Stripes; Bedford Cords; Crocodile Cloth; Combination of Bedford Cords; Combi- 
nation of 4.5 Twills i@i; Combination of 4.5 Twills with Weaves of Another System ; Combination 
of Granite Weaves ; Combination of 4.5° Twills 2@2, 4@4, J@J, 2@#, etc. ; Combination of 6j° 

Twills ; Combination of Motives of Weaves 2@i ; Combinalio?i of 75° Twills into Large Diago?ials ; 

Combination of 82° and 6j° Twills; How to Increase the Thickness of a Fabric Without Special 

Backing Threads ; Bracket Weaves. 

Although adding these new subjects explained by some 500 new illustrations — a great many 
of them being masterpieces in designing, engraving and typesetting, covering either entirely or 
nearly whole pages of the book — the Author and Publisher has concluded not to increase the cost, 
but thus offers the work to the public at the extremely cheap price of five dollars a copy, although 
knowing that there is not and will not be, in the near future, a work of that kind in print which 
can attempt to even reach the old editions. The new work will prove a veritable mine of informa- 
tion to the Student, Operative, Overseer, Designer, Mill Manager, Commission Merchant and 
Manufacturer. 



IMPORTANT TO TEXTILE MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES. 

Posselt's Private Sehool of Textile Design 

2152 North 21st Street, Philadelphia, Fa. 

FOR THE 

TEACHING OF DESIGNING AND MANUFACTURING 

ALL KINDS OF COTTON, WOOLEN, WORSTED, SILK AND LINEN 

TEXTILE FABRICS 

ALSO FREE HAND AND MECHANICAL DRAWING. 

w-WE SUIT COURSE OF INSTRUCTION TO THE WANTS OF EACH STUDENT. 

HE MAY TAKE UP HARNESS OR JACQUARD WORK EITHER IN COTTON, WOOL, WORSTED, SILK 

OR LINEN; UPHOLSTERY, CARPETS, ETC., ETC. 



TWENTY years of practical experience in the leading mills of this country and Europe ; six years as 
Headmaster and Instructor of Textile Industries at the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial 
Art of Philadelphia, have given the principal facilities to impart designing and manufacturing of any kind of Tex- 
tile fabric, most thoroughly, and besides, in the shortest possible time. 

A private tuition (the Student being all day under the supervision of practical designers) will give results 
in a few days or a few weeks ; besides the student is instructed only in the special branch of designing and manufac- 
turing required by him. 

Course of instruction laid out to suit the wants of each pupil, he being either Manufacturer, Overseer, 
Loomfixer, Weaver or Graduate of a Public School. 

I have instructed some of the leading Textile Manufacturers, Superintendents, Overseers and Designers in this 
country, and this with the highest satisfaction on their part. 

The largest collection of technical works and periodicals, as published in Europe and this country, in our 
library and of free use to pupils after school hours ; also reports and collections of samples of the latest foreign 
fashions at hand for the benefit of the student. 

The course of freehand drawing is designed with a special reference to practical designing for Jacquird 
work ; and mechanical drawing for the construction of looms and other textile machinery, cloth structures, etc, 
etc. No need to take up either course, if you don't care and only want textile designing alone. 

Only a limited number of students taken for instructions at one time. 

For further particulars address the principal, 



EC. A. POSSECLT, 

EXPERT IN TEXTILE DESIGNING AND MANUFACTURING, 

215 2 NORTH TWENTY-FIRST ST., 

PHILADELPHIA, RA. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Divisions of Textile Fabrics, According to their Construction, 

Squared Designing Paper for the Different Textile Fabrics. ......... 9 



Foundation Weaves, 

The Plain or Cotton-Weave, 13 

Fancy Effects Produced with the Plain Weave, 14 

Twill Weaves (Method for their Construction), J 6 

Combinations of Two or More Colors for Producing Fig ired Effects upon Fabrics Interlaced on Twills, 22 

S.itin Weaves (Method for their Construction), 25 

Influence of the Twist of the Yarn upon Fabrics Interlaced with Satin Weaves, ..... 29 

Arrangement fjr Commencing the S itin Weaves for Special Fabrics, such as Damask Table Covers, Etc., 29 



Drawing in the Warp in its Harness" and the Preparation of Drawing-in Drafts. 

The Harness, 31 

Principles of a Drawing-in Draft, 31 

Different Divisions of Drawing-in Drafts, .....* 32 

Sub-Divisions of Fancy Drawing-in Drafts, • 32 

A. — Broken Draws, 32 

B. — Point Draws, , . . 33 

C. — Drawing-in Drafts having a Section Arrangement, 34 

D. — Skip Draws, 35 

E. — Mixed or Cross Draws, 35 

Specimen of a Complete Drawing-in Order, ... 35 

Drafting of Drawing-in Drafts from Weaves 36 

Rules for Estimating the Number of Heddles Required on Each Harness 38 

The Reed, and Reed Calculations, 39 



Derivative Weaves from the Plain or Cotton Weave. 

I, — Common Rib-Weaves, 41 

II. — Common Basket Weaves, 42 

III — Fancy Rib-Weaves, 43 

IV. — Fancy Basket-Weaves, 45 

V.— Figured Rib-Weaves 46 

Effects Produced by Using Two or More Colors in Warp and Fil.ing in Fabrics Interlaced 

upon Rib and Basket-Weaves, 48 

VI.— Oblique Rib-Weaves 50 

Combining Common, Rib and Oblique Rib-Weaves, 51 



CONTENTS.— Continued. 

Derivative Weaves from the Regular Twills. page. 

I. — Broken Twills, ■ 52 

Using Two or More Colors in Warp and Filling for Producing Effects in Fabrics Interlaced 

with Broken Twills, 55 

II. — Steep Twills or Diagonals, 56 

III. — Reclining Twills, 60 

IV.— Curved Twills, . 62 

V. — Skip Twills, 63 

VI. — Combination Steep Twills, 67 

VII. — Corkscrew Twills, 6S 

VIII. — Entwining Twills, 75 

IX. — Twills having Double Twill Effects, 77 

X. — Twills Producing Checker-board Effects, 78 

XI. — Fancy Twill Weaves, ' So 

XII.— Pointed Twills, 81 



Derivative Weaves from Satins. 

Double Satins, 84 

Granite Weaves, . 85 

Granite Weaves as Constructed by other Methods than having Regular Satins for their Foundation, .' S8 

Combination of Different Systems of Weaves for One Design, . . . . . . . ... 90 

Figured Effects upon Fabrics interlaced with Derivative Weaves Produced by Arrangement of Two or 

More Colors in the Warp or the Filling, or in Both at the Same Time, 93 



Single Cloth Weaves for Fabrics of a- Special Construction and Peculiar Character. 

Honeycomb Weaves 98 

Imitation Gauze Weaves, 102 



Combination of Weaves for Fabrics Constructed with One System of Warp and Two 
Systems of Filling. 

Combining Two Systems of Filling with One Kind of Warp for increasing the Bulk in a Fabric, . . 105 
Combining Two Systems of Filling with One Kind of Warp for Figuring with Extra Filling upon the 

Face of the Fabric, 108 

Swivel Weaving, 109 

Combination of the Swivel Effect with figuring through the Warp, in 

Swivel Loom, in 



Combination of Weaves for Fabrics Constructed with Two Systems of Warp and One 
System of Filling. 

Two Systems of Warp and One System of Filling for Producing Double faced Fabrics, . . . 114 

Using an Extra Warp for Backing for Heavy-weight Worsted and Woolen Fabrics, .... 115 

Figuring with an Extra Warp upon the Face of a Fabric Otherwise Interlaced with its own Filling, 117 

Lappet Weaving, . 123 

Tricot Weaves, 126 



CONTENTS.— Continued. 

Double Cloth. page. 

Description of the Construction and the Purposes for Making Double Cloth Fabrics, . . . . 129 

Rules for Designing Double Cloth Weaves, 130 

Double Cloth Weaves having for their Arrangement One End Face to Alternate with One End Back 

in Warp and Filling, 132 

Double Cloth Composed with Different Proportions of Face and Back Threads, 134 

Double Cloth Weaving without Stitching both Fabrics, 137 

Double Cloth Fabrics in which the Design is Produced by the Stitching Visible upon the Face of the 

Fabric, . . 138 

Rib Fabrics, 142 

Tbree-Ply Fabrics, 146 

Four and Five-Ply Fabrics, 147 

Pile Fabrics. 

Pile Fabrics Produced by Filling. 

Velveteens, Fustians, Corduroys o ...... . 149 

Chinchillas, Whitneys, 152 

Chenille as Used in the Manufacture of Rugs, Curtains, etc., 153 

Chenille Cutting Machine, 158 

Chenille as Produced in the Manufacture of Fringes, 160 

Pile Fabrics in Which the Pile is Produced by a Separate Warp in Addition to the Ground Warp. 

Structure of Warp Pile Fabrics, 166 

Terry and Velvet Pile, 166 

Method of Operation in Producing Warp Pile Fabrics, 167 

Velvet and Plush Fabrics, 16S 

Figured Velvet, 171 

Astrakhans, 173 

Machines for Curling Warp-threads for Astrakhans, 180 

Tapestry Carpet, 185 

Brussels Carpet, . 188 

Double Faced Pile Carpets, 193 

Double Pile Fabrics, ' . . . . 194 

Terry Pile Fabrics, 216 

Pile Fabrics of a Special Method of Construction, 221 

Two-Ply Ingrain Carpet, 225 



Gauze Fabrics. 

Principle of Their Construction, 

Combination of Ordinary and Gauze Weaving, . 

Gauze Weaving Mechanism for Open-Shed Looms, 

Jacquard Gauze, 

Cross Weaving for Chenille Fabrics, . 

Cross Weaving as Used for the Manufacture of Filtering Bags 

Cross Weaving as Used for Producing Fast Centre Selvages, 

The Jacquard Machine, 

Modification of the Single-Lift Jacquard Machine, 

Card Stamping, 

The Jacquard Harness, 

The Comber-board and Methods of Figuring for it ; 

GCBELIN TAPESTRV, ... ..... 



228 
231 

237 
240 

244 

246 

247 
250 
252 

2 53 
253 

254 
-5,6 



CONTENTS.— Continued. 

Analysis of Textile Fabrics and Calculations Necessary for their Manufacture. 

I. — Ascertaining the Weight Per Yard of the Finished Fabric, and its Finished Texture, 

II. — Ascertaining the Weave, .... ... 

III. — Ascertaining Raw Materials Used in the Construction of a Fabric, 
IV. — Ascertaining the Texture for Fabrics as Required in Loom, . 
V. — Ascertaining the Arrangement of Threads in a Sample, 
VI. — Ascertaining the Size and Twist of Yarns (their counts) Found in 
VII. — Ascertaining the Weight of Cloth Per Yard from Loom, 
VIlI. — Ascertaining the Process of Finishing Necessary and the Amount 
the Fabric, ......... 

APPENDIX. 



Sample, 



of Shrinkage of 



PAGE. 

257 
259 
261 
263 
264 
264 
265 

268 



Draws, 



A New Method of Designing Weaves "by Four Changes." 

Rules for Constructing these Novel Weaves, 

3-Harness Weaves for Foundation, ....... 

4- Harness Weaves for Foundation, . 

5 -Harness Weaves for Foundation, 

Shaded Fabrics. 

A. — Satin Weaves, 

^.—Twills, 

Fancy Effects, ........... 

Figured Effects, .......... 

The Shading by Means of Color Combinations, .... 

Soleil Weaves, 

Checked Patterns Produced by Means of Straight and Fancy 

Crape Weaves, 

Huck Patterns, 

Woven Tu«ks, 

Crimp Stripes, 

Combination of Weaves. 

Combination of 45 Twills, ........ 

Combination of 45 ° Twills with Weaves of Another System, 
Combination of Granite Weaves, ....... 

Combination of 45 Twills Arranged 2@2 ; 4@4; 3@3; 2@4, etc., 
Combination of 63 Twills, ........ 

Combination of Motives or Weaves 2 @ 1 , ..... 

Combining Two 75 ° Twills into a 63 ° Large Diagonal, 
Combination of 82 ° Twills in 70 Large Diagonals, .... 

To Increase the Thickness of a Fabric Without Special Backing Threads. 
Origin of this Modern System of Producing Heavy Weights, . 
Increase Bulk of Fabric by the Warp Without Adding a Special Back Warp, 

Arrangement of Warp 2 @ 1 , 

Arrangement of Warp 3® 1, ......... 

Backing Fabrics in the Filling Without a Special Back Pick, . 

Bracket Weaves. 

Bracket Weaves Constructed with Two Systems Warp and One System Filling, 
Bracket Weaves Constructed with Two Systems Warp and Two Systems Filling, 
Figuring by Means of Bracket Weaves, ........ 

Fringes, 

Pearl Edges or Selvages for Ribbons, 



269 
269 
271 

274 

278 
280 
280 
282 
284 
286 
286 
287 
288 
288 
288 



291 
294 
296 
296 

297 
304 
305 
306 

307 
308 

3H 
316 

316 

319 
320 

321 

323 
324 



Divisions of Textile Fabrics According to Their Construction. 



Every fabric, commonly classified as "woven," is composed of two distinct systems of 
threads (warp and filling) which interlace with each other at right angles. The arrangement 
of this interlacing is technically known as the " weave." All woven fabrics, as to their general 
principle of construction, can be graded in two great divisions : 

Fabrics in which one system of parallel threads is interlaced at right angles with a second 
system of parallel threads. (For illustration see diagram, Fig. I.) 

Fabrics in which threads of one of the before-mentioned two systems of threads, the warp, 
in addition to the interlacing, are twisted with threads of its own system. (For illustration see 
diagram, Fig. 2.) 





Fig. I. 



Fig. II. 



The first mentioned system of fabrics is divided into the following sub-divisions : 
Single cloth, double cloth, and three or more ply cloth, pile fabrics. 

Before commencing with the construction of the weaves, as required for the various textile 
fabrics, it is necessary to give an explanation of the purpose and use of the 

Squared Designing Paper for the Different Textile Fabrics, 

and its relation for indicating the method of interlacing warp and filling. 

In this □ designing paper each distance between two lines, taken -in vertical direction, 
represents one warp-thread, see Fig. 3; and each distance between two lines, taken in a horizontal 
direction, represents one filling-thread, see Fig. 4. 

1st 2d 3d 4th Warp-thread. 



<^m 



4th Filling. 
3d 

2d 

1st 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. 



(9) 



10 



1st 


2d 


3d 


4th 


Warp-thread. 

< 


n 





P 


r 




i 


k 


I 


m 




e 


f 


g 


h 




a 


b 


c 


d 





Fig. 5. 



4th Filling. 
3 d " 
2d 

ISt 



It will readily be seen by the student 
that the different small rectangles illus- 
trate the place where a certain warp- 
thread meets with a certain filling- 
thread. Thus in our illustration, Fig. 5, 
the rectangle marked a will indicate the 
meeting of warp-thread 1 and filling 1. 
Rectangle marked b will indicate the 
meeting of warp-thread 2 and filling 1. 
Rectangle marked c will indicate the 
meeting of warp-thread 3 and filling 1. 
Rectangle marked d will indicate the 
meeting of warp-thread 4 and filling 1. 



Rectangle marked e will indicate the meeting of warp-thread 1 and filling 2 



tt tt 


f 


it i< 


g 


a tt 


h 


a tt 


i 


a a 


k 


tt a 


I 


tt << 


m 


a tt 


n 


tt a 





ft It 


P 


tt it 


r 



(( 



2 ' 




2. 


3 ' 


t a 


2. 


4 ' 


i a 


2. 


1 ' 


t tt 


3- 


2 ' 


1 a 


3- 


3 ' 


1 a 


3- 


4 ' 


t a 


3- 


1 ' 


1 n 


4- 


2 ' 


t a 


4- 


3 ' 


i n 


4- 


4 ' 


t a 


4- 



The classifying of the n designing paper is done by enclosing a number of small rectangles, 
horizontal and vertical, within a certain distance by a heavy line. Such enclosures are known 
in practice as "squares." 

In mentioning a certain kind of n designing paper, the warp dimension is indicated first, 
and a design paper having eight rectangles vertical, with eight horizontal, is variously read and 
indicated as 8 by 8, 8 x 8 or 8 / 8 ; a design paper having eight rectangles vertical, with ten hori- 
zontal, is read and indicated as 8 by 10, 8 x 10 or 8 / 10 . Diagrams Fig. 6 represent some styles 
of □ designing paper frequently used. The size of the square may vary in each kind of paper, 
and must be selected according to the fabric. For example, there are two different styles of 
8 x 8 □ designing paper illustrated: one forming y 2 inch heavy squares and one forming ^ inch 
heavy squares. These sizes may still be varied. The principle of these two kinds of □ designing 
paper is identical, the size preferred being left to the pleasure of the designer. Certainly it will 
be understood by any student that in preparing a design or weave with a large number of 
threads for repeat, it will be advantageous to use a design paper containing the smallest sized 
rectangles practical to use. 



Practical Use of the Heavy Square in Designing Paper. 

The heavy square serves as a unit of measurement, as well as a means of calculation, and 
shows readily and exactly the size of the weave or design. The eye becomes accustomed to 
grasping the meaning of this large square, and comprehends at a glance the situation. For 
instance : 



11 



6x6 



8x7 






8x8 



8x9 



dx/O 



■111 

ijliiiiiiiiiii 



8xJ2 



====== 



4x8 



4x J2. 



I I 1 I I I 1 I 



4x20 



4x24 







































Sx6 




















U : 


"ti - 














— i [ — . — 



6x/0 



= 



6x12 



































1 
























































1 


1 


i 


































_i 


















































































































































































































~ 






































































































, 































































































































































































9xJO 



| | | | | I I I ti [ | t - fttf -M 

[111 



JOxJO 






JOx/2 



TTT 

X------.---.:: 



8x3 



J2xJ2 




24xJ2 



— -j 

.... .L.-- ______ --- 

llllllllllfi 



JOxl4 






6x15 



_ I — — — 



dx/6 



5x16 



Fig. 6. 



12 



On 8 x8 paper 3 squares mean 3x8, or 24 rectangles each way; on 10 x 10 paper 3 
squares mean 3 x 10, or 30 rectangles each way, etc. 

In designing for regular harness work we generally use □ designing paper containing the 
same number of rectangles each way; thus even paper, as 8 x 8, 10 x 10, 12 x 12, etc., without 
taking into consideration the texture the fabric is constructed by. On the other hand the entire 
variety as shown are used, and accordingly selected from for the designing of textile fabrics 
requiring the Jacquard machine for their construction. For such fabrics we give a rule for 

Selection of Designing Paper. 

The proper character 01 the designing paper is ascertained by the number of warp and filling 
threads required per inch in the finished fabric. For example : a fabric with a texture when 
finished of 80 / 120 (80 ends warp and 120 picks per inch) will require a designing paper of corres- 
ponding proportion, or as 80 is to I20,=8 x I2 - 

Diagram Fig. 5, and its previously given explanations, clearly illustrated the object of the 
small rectangles, i. e., the places of meeting for certain warp and filling threads. Two ways for 
interlacing of warp and filling in a fabric are possible : either we raise the warp-thread, thus allowing 
the filling to go under it, or lower the warp-thread and allowing the filling to cover it. In the first 
case the warp will be visible, prominent on the face of the fabric ; in the other, the filling. 
Through this exchanging of warp and filling as visible on the face of the fabric, technically known 
as " Raisers or Sinkers," we form the interlacing of both systems of threads, known as " the 
Weave." 

Rule : Indications of any kind in a certain rectangle inside the repeat of the weave 
upon the designing paper mean " warp up " in its corresponding place in the fabric. Rectangles 
left empty inside the repeat of the weave upon the designing paper mean " filling up " in its 
corresponding position in the fabric. 

Figs. 7, 8 and 9 are designed for illustration of the preceding rule and explanations. 




MO. 





mm 






TT 



n 








A. B. A. B. A. B. 

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. 

Fig. 7 shows under A the enlargement of a warp-thread taken from a regular designing 
paper, and containing in its repeat 12 picks in rotation. A careful examination of the diagram, 
and commencing to read from the bottom, illustrates the warp-thread alternately down and up; 
also at B the reproduction of the warp-thread and necessary picks from a fabric. 



13 



Fig. 8 illustrates the design and working of a similar warp-thread with the same number of 
picks in repeat, but with the arrangement : 

One up two down, four times repeated=twelve picks. 
Fig. 9 illustrates the design and working of a similar warp-thread as used before with the 
same number of picks in repeat, but interlacing with the arrangement: 

Two up two down, three times repeated. 
The interlacing of both systems of threads, or, in other words, the different weaves are 
generally divided into 3 distinct main divisions (Foundation weaves) : 
The Plain, 
The Twills, 

The Satins ; forming the foundation of all the other sub-divisions of weaves classified as 
" derivative weaves." New weaves are also formed by the combination of weaves from the 
various sub-divisions, etc., thus forming a field impossible to cover in detail as respects each 
particular weave or special fabric ; but we will, however, by means of our future lectures, impart 
the principles for their construction, thus giving the student sufficient knowledge to master any 

and every combination required. 
W. 

Foundation Weaves. 

I. THE PLAIN OR COTTON-WEAVE. 

Fig. 10 represents a fabric constructed with the weave techni- 
cally known as " the plain"'' or " the cotton-weave." In this diagram 
two distinct sets of threads, crossing each other at right angles 
and interlacing alternately, are visible. The threads running 
longitudinally (marked W), or lengthways in the fabric, are-the 
warp-threads ; the traverse threads are the filling (indicated by 
F in diagram.) 

Fig. 11 shows the design or pattern, executed correspondingly 
to fabric sample, Fig. 10. The shaded 
squares indicating warp up ; the empty 
squares representing filling up. J; 

Fig. 12 is the section-cut of a fabric W 
woven on "plain" weave, showing one 
jr 1G . II# warp-thread light (1), the other shaded (2). 

The filling is represented in full black. 
An examination of Fig. 10 will convince the student that this weave produces a very firm 
interlacing of the two systems of threads employed, in fact it is the most frequent exchanging 
of warp and filling possible. The fabric produced with this weave will be strong, as each 
thread, by reason of the interlacing, supports the others to the utmost. 

This frequent exchanging of warp and filling in the "plain" weave will also produce a fabric 
more or less perforated. These perforations are regulated by the size of the threads used in the 
construction of a fabric, and by the twist employed in the manufacture of the yarns. 

Rule: 1st. The thicker in size the threads are, as used in the construction of the fabric, 
the larger the perforations will be. 

2d. Soft twisted threads reduce the perforations to a lower point than hard twisted threads 
of equal size and direction of twist. 

jd. The perforation will again be reduced by employing a twist for warp and filling, which, 
when both are interlaced, runs in the same direction. 




Fig. 12. 



14 



Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 



To illustrate this last rule Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are constructed. 

Fig. 13 represents a thread twisted from the right towards the left, which 
is called technically " left" twist. 

Fig. 14 shows us a thread twisted in the opposite direction, or from the 
left towards the right, which in turn is classified as " right" twist. 

Fig. 15 illustrates a fabric, woven on "plain" in which the direction of 
the twist is opposite in warp and filling when interlaced, thus larger perfora- 
tions will appear than in Fig. 16 which illustrates the same fabric, but having, 
when interlaced, the same direction of twist in both systems of threads. 

The plain weave is very extensively used in the manufacture of fabrics 
composed of all kinds of materials, as cotton, wool, worsted, silk, hair, wire, 
glass, etc. 

Fancy Effects Produced with the Plain Weave. 



The first move towards figuring a fabric constructed with the plain weave 
is made by varying the thickness of the threads in the warp or filling, or in 
both systems at the same time; for example, in "repp" cloths as used for ladies' 
dress goods, and also for decorative purposes. In these fabrics either one kind 
of warp and two kinds of filling (one pick heavy, one pick light) or two kinds of 
warp (one thread heavy to alternate with one thread light) and the before men- 
tioned two kinds of filling are used. 

These changes of heavy and light threads are also used for forming borders, 
as observed in some cambric handkerchiefs or similar fabrics. Fig. 17 is given to 
illustrate one corner of such a fabric. 

Another step towards figuring in plain weaving is made by the arrangement 





of colors. 




Fig. 17. 



15 

These effects are used to a large extent in the manufacture of ginghams, ladies' all-wool dress 
goods, as well as in the lightest qualities of fancy cassimeres. It will be easily understood by any 
student that a fancy color arrangement (dressing) of the warp will, in connection with one-color 
filling, produce corresponding stripes; therefore we will devote the attention at once towards the 
fancy color arrangement for warp and filling. 

Among the simpler effects may be found what is technically known as a "hair-line" effect, and 
is derived through an alternate arrangement of I end light, i end dark in warp and filling. Each 
filling must cover its own color. Therefore when the shed of the warp is formed by the dark set 
of threads up, the light set of threads down, the light-colored filling must be interwoven. Again, 
if the dark set of threads are down and the light set of threads up, the dark-colored filling has 
to be thrown through the shed. 

Arrangement pj g jg jii ustra tes the effect as produced by this arrange- 

War P- ment. If the interweaving of the filling, as explained in fig. 18, 

is changed to the other pick, we get the stripe effect across the 



"Weave 



Sop 

S "> 3 
!= — ITS 
B S* <0 
'TO <D p 
(0 

a 



Effect. fabric or in the direction of the filling. This effect, known as 
" imitation tricot," is illustrated in Fig. 19. By combining, 
alternately for certain spaces, the hair-line effect with the tricot 



1 




■ ■ 
dbqb 

■car 
=■=■ 

Z33Z 

: HE 

^HSZ 


-a a a- bj'b-b 

:.~ZZ Z_ 

sara 3 3=3- -a 

iKi- a a as:a-a 
5H= a a Hrssa 
-a a a a- asa 
- a a a a a - a 
a a a a- a a 

isV a a aaa 



Diagram for explain- 
ing figs. 18, 19, 20, 21, effect, ' checkerboard" effects are obtained. It will be readily p Tr T o 

22 °3and24 

seen, that the regular arrangement of repeating i light, I dark, 
will produce either one of the before-mentioned styles. Therefore, by allowing, in a distance 
■-bz'zzzz^zzzzz zz of a certain number of ends (according- to the size of bzbzzzzzzzzzz-zzzzzzzz 

DBZBaBflB ;B -:3iiB|B X ° ZBZBB' 3 3^3= 3 B B E 

the effect), 2 ends from one color to be used, we will "b 1 - 13 
change from one effect to the other. 

Fig. 20 illustrates one of the many styles possible 
to be derived. There are 9 ends of warp and filling 
for each effect, therefore 18 ends for the repeat. 
Fig. 19. Figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24 illustrate a few more of the 

many different effects which may be obtained. The °1_ : " " H " a a a.ai,,. 
principle observed in exchanging the two main or Fig. 20. 

foundation effects (hair-line and tricot) is left undisturbed. 

In Fig. 21 the arrangement of warp and filling is 2 ends light, 1 end dark, forming the 
*'broken-up" effect. 

Fig. 22 is constructed of 2 ends light, 2 ends dark, in the repeat of its color arrangement, 
and forms a " star" effect. 

BDBabzzpnrznroaa ■ ■ "~~n 

CB BBGBI ' BE BE I B B BE BE BE BB 

_ nEB BE BE I B B BE BE BE 'BB 



_ZBZB~z: 


ZZZZ 


e i 






ZEE" 










" 




- : i 


BE 




BBBBBB 




LBBL 




: : ~. - 4 


cbb: 


SC2HHHS 


3B33BB 


[ 


- ^ 


mmmtma 




SS3S3H 


BBBBBB 


a-.. 




- - ■ 1 








asm: 


=1 = ■ " 


i 


CBB. 


1 


BBB333 





— " ^ X " 


B 


B " 


33 






'-"-' 




:::: 


3B3B33BE 


1 -■■■■ 




1 be 






- 




1 :■::■: 






1 m- 




1 tfn 


B 1 a a a 


1 33 


a b b 3 


1 SN= 


3' B 3: 3 


1 BB 


3 3 3 3 


UHI 

rnr 


* £ >< ^ 


1 ■ 


3 3 3 3 


LBB 


3 3 3 3 


L - 


3 3 3 3 


Z^ 






I 








■LlBU_ 






J 
1 


r B B '3 
BZB 


r' 


3 >' 


. B B 






1 


MbbbbV bbbbbbTJ 


2 


2 


I BB BBB 


H 


r y/j n 


1 


„., i\ 


r , r , r . 


a aa 


1 

1 
B 


3 




1 


"" 


" 


EBB 3 


1 
1 
1 


a 

'.'<•' ' IB 


ebb 


^ r*r< 


1 
B 

i 



_DB , 

CM, I . ! 3 1 II. 
CBB BBBI IE 
[ BB IBBBi 
! :■ IBi 11 'i 

! ' i '3 

I BE EBB IE 
BE 333 
B 
B 

l 33 bee :■: 

L B3 EBB 



1 BB 3BBE3 B33BB 

e b a a 

I BB I333BB BEBBB 

IB ' 3 B B 

[ BB BEBBB B3BSB 

B B E B 

BB B3B33 BEBBB 

e a iB^MMa 

B3 EB3BB BBBBB 

■ 13 a a ; .. ::j 



Fig. 2r. Fig. 22. F" 

Fig. 23 is constructed as follows: 

a r I cn d light, 

Arrangement of warp, ° 

2 ends dark, 

3 ends in the repeat. 
Arrangement of the filling: I pick light, 

to alternate with I pick dark, 

2 picks in the repeat. 



16 



■DHnnoDnnnnnDanD 

DBGBBBBfS 3V IB33B 
■DBDBBBI II : HH 1 1BBB 

_DBDBDDDuGDDDnaDD_ 

QBacMaHaaaaanaaB 

OBBDiiBii-IHaflFMOTn 

aa waaa: saanaaa 

DBBuHaaai laaaaaaa 
DBBaaaBaEsaBii^aBB 
DBBCBaaaHaaanaaa 

uBa" -aa3 : aaa baa 

DBS. BBBI II IBBBBBBB 



Fig. 24. 



Fig. 24 is constructed as follows : 

Arrangement of the warp, ' ° ' 

2 ends dark, 

4 ends in the repeat. 
Arrangement of the filling : 1 pick light, 
to alternate with 1 pick dark, 



2 picks in the repeat. 

Similar effects upon the plain weave, as illustrated in Figs. 18 to 24 inclusive, can also be 
arranged for 3 to 4, or more colors in warp or filling, or for both systems combined, for producing 
one effect. 

II. TWILLS. 

In twill weaves (or tweel from the French tuaille) the warp and filling threads do not inter- 
lace alternately as in the plain weave, but only the third, fourth, fifth, etc., thread is used. 
The peculiarity of the twill weaves consists in having every successive pick interlace correspond- 
ingly with its successive warp-thread, thus ; If the first pick ties in the first warp-thread, the 
second pick must interlace in the second warp-thread, the third pick must interlace in the third 
warp-thread, etc. Continuing to design in this manner until all the harness required to be 
used are taken up will give us the " repeat!' This manner of interlacing warp and filling will 
produce a distinct pattern upon the cloth, i. e., lines running in a diagonal direction across it. 

Comparing the twill weaves with the plain weave in respect to thickness of the cloth to be 
produced, will show that the twill weaves permit of the introduction of more material into the 
fabric, thus making it closer in its structure than the plain weave. The reason for it is found in 
the fact that in twill weaves the warp and filling interlace only at intervals of two, three or more 
threads, thus permitting the warp and the filling to lie closer together. 

We mentioned before that the twill weaves form diagonal lines on the cloth. These lines 
can be arranged to run from the left to the right or from the right towards the left. It will be 
the clearest visible to the eye in the fabric by using the twill in the weave the same direction of 
twist the warp-thread has. 

Twills commence with the 3-harness, and can after this be made on any number of harness. 

Various methods are in practical use in classifying common twills. The most proper course 
will be to divide the general system into two divisions : 

A. Uneven-sided twills, or twill weaves in which more or less warp-up indications appear on 
the design, compared with filling-up indications, or the amount of indications balance but the 
general arrangement is different in one compared with the other. For example : 2 3 2 x = |, but 
differently arranged for each side. (For indicating this division of twills the letter u is used 
throughout the chapter.) 

B. Even-sided twills, or twill weaves in which the amount and arrangement of warp up and 
filling up is completely balanced. (For indicating this division of twills the letter e is used 
throughout the chapter.) 



MMDIHO 
arum- * 

-■■:::■■::! 
■□■■□■ 

1DBBDH 
1 3 

Fig. 25. 



3-harness twill. 



u. 



Warp for face. 



□□■□□■ 

□■□□MD 

■□□■□□ 

3nrJB.rjnM 
DMnnan 
lMnaMnn 
1 3 

Fig. 26. 



3-harness twill. 



~2 U - 

Filling for face. 



Commencing the designing of twills on 3-harness, we find one twill possible to be made 
upon it, which is the u twill: 1 down 2 up or 1 up 2 down; also technically represented with 
warp face j -, filling face - -, and weaves shown in Fig. 25 and Fig. 26. 



17 



Fig. 27 illustrates the plan of the fabric obtained with weave Fig. 26. 

Fig. 28 represents the longitudinal section cut of fabric shown in Fig. 27. Numbers 
as used on weave, fabric and section cut are selected correspondingly. A in section cut indicates, 
warp-thread No. I in plan. 





Fig. 28. 



4-Hamess Twills. — Examining four, we find 2 kinds of twills possible to be obtained: 1 down 
3 up (u), or 1 up 3 down (u), and 2 up 2 down (e), this being the first even-sided twill obtained. 



iiinina 

■ ■:■■■:■ 
■auiaii 

Diiinm 

4IIIDHIQ 
■■□■■■DM 

■ -.■■■:.:■■ 

■II IB! 

1 4 

Fig. 29. 

4-harness twill. 

_3 
1 

Warp for face. 



u. 



otTwanaM 

nnannnMn 
CMnnnann 
■nnnmnnn 

4nnnMnnnm 
nrMnnm 
□■□□□Mnn 

mnnnBnnn 
1 4 

Fig. 29a. 

4-harness twill. 

I 

— u. 



Filling for face. 



■■an«Mnn 
■□□■■□a* 

4an«MnnM« 

1 4 
Fig. 30. 

4-harness twill. 

2 

— c. 
2 

Warp and filling equal. 



© cgyg) (§/@ ®\g) ©. 

Fig. 32. 

Fig. 31 illustrates the fabric obtained with weave Fig. 30. 
Fig. 32 represents the longitudinal section cut of fabric shown in Fig. 31. A = warp-thread 




No. 1. 



^-Harness Twills. — In five-harness we find three different kinds of twills, as follows : 
Warp Face. Filling Face. 

1 down 4 up («), or 1 up 4 down (a). 

3 up 2 down («), " 3 tlown 2 U P (*)■ 

I down 1 up, 1 down 2 up (a), " I up I down, 1 up 2 down («). 



18 



■■■■□■■Hirn 
■■■□■Haana 

iniiiinm 

:!■■■■□■■■■ 

sminiiBin 

■iiDHiani 

ci iiiaijii 

BUBBBB'JBBB 
1DIHIDIUB 
1 5 

Fig. 33. 



5 -harness twill. 

4 



u. 



anncannnna 
nnnanndnan 
□nannnnann 
□annnaannn 
annnnannnn 
snnrj aaa nnDa 
□□□■□□□□■a 
□□■□□□□■an 
□■□□□□■□□a 
lamnnamnn 
1 5 



Fig. 34. 



5 -harness twill. 

1 
— u. 

4 



HannaBanna 
annaaannaa 
□□aaannaaa 
naBannaaan 

■■■DDMBMDn 
5BBLinBBBnnB 

annaaannaa 
nnaaannaaa 

DMMHDnHVBn 

1 5 
Fig. 35. 



5 -harness twill. 

3 



it. 



nnaannnaan 
□aannnaana 

aannnaannn 

annnaannna 

nnnaannnaa 

snnaannnaan 

naannnaann 
aannnaannn 
innnnnnni 
innnaannnaa 
1 5 

Fig. 36. 



5 -harness twill. 
2 

— 21. 

3 



anaananaan 
n«:;ir;iiji 

«i::i3iijin 
ananaanana 

□HnBBQHDBM 

,'iiQBi:.:iniin 
nii::i:::ii'^i 
aananaanan 
Bnanaa^ana 

1DIDIE9DII 

1 5 

Fig. 37. 



5 -harness twill. 
I 2 
I I 



nannananna 
■□□anannan 

nnanannana 
□anannaaan 

anannanann 

snanrananna 

annanannan 

nnanannana 

nanannanan 

lanannanann 

1 5 

Fig. 38. 



5-harness twill. 
I I 



I 2 



u. 



6-Harness Twills. — On six-harness five different twills are found : 



Filling Face. 

1 up 5 down (u), 

2 up 4 down (u), 

I up 1 down, 1 up 3 down (u), 



or 



Warp Face. 

1 down 5 up (u). 

2 down 4 up («). 

1 down 1 up, 1 down 3 up (u). 



Hnnnnannnnna 
nnnannnnnan 
nnnannnnnann 
nnannnnnannn 
nannnnnannnn 
■□□□□□■□□□□□ 
ennnncMrjcoxa 
nnnnannnnnan 
nnnannnnnann 
nnannnnnannn 
nannnnnannnn 
janannaannnnn 

1 6 



Fig. 39. 



Warp and Filling equal. 

3 up 3 down (e). 

2 up 1 down, 1 up 2 down (e). 



6-harness twill. 
I 



5 



2C. 



aiiaajiaiH^ 

SHE Bllll D 

BBB! HBHHBnBM 

bb ^bbbbbhbbb 

i: IIBII^BBEB 
□IIIIIOIIIII 

eaaaaanaBaaan 
BBaanaaaBBDa 
■■■ ■■■■■ ■■ 

BfliiiflaBflflnBflfl 

BnaBBBanaaBB 

lnaaaaanaaaaa 

1 ' 6 



Fig. 40. 



6-harness twill. 

1 



u. 



annnnaannnna 
nnnnaannnnaa 
nnnaannnnaan 
nnaannnnaann 
naannnnaannn 
aannnnaannnn 

■eannnnBannnna 
nnnnaannnnaa 
nnnaannnnaan 
nnaannnnaann 
naannnnaannn 

■laaannnaaannn 

1 6 



Fig. 41. 



6-harness twill. 
2 



4 



u. 



naaaannaaaan 

OBBB III! 

BBBaDBBBanna 
aaanaaaannaa 
annaaaannaaa 
r^iBBBnniiii 
6-jHBHannaBBB-j 

Saaannaaaann 
aannaaaanna 
annaaaannaa 

BLrBBBB^BBB 

lnnaaaannaBaa 

1 6 

Fig. 42. 



6-harness twill. 
_4 

2 



u. 



nannnanannna 
annnanannnan 
nnnanannnana 
nnanannnanan 
nanannnanann 
anannnanannn 

■enannnanannna 

annnanannnan 

nnnanannnana 

lnanannnanan 

nanannnanann 

mnannnanannn 

1 6 

Fig. 43. 



6-harness twill. 
1 1 



1 3 



u. 



anaaananaaan 
DBBBaanaBana 
aaananaaanan 

IB BBBB fl B 
IB BIB I II 
LIJIIB B III 

CB^BBBUBLBBBJ 

naaananaBBna 



inBCiiBJi :■■■ 

1 6 

Fig. 44 



6-harness twill. 
1 3 



1 



u. 



19 



MnacMMMnnnM 
*□□□■■■□□□■■ 

□niBMnnnHMin 
□■■■□□□■■mpo 
■■Mnan«MMnnn 
6MMnnnMM«nnnM 
■nnnMBBnnnM* 
nnnBMBnnnBBB 
□□■■■□□□■■■n 
nMMBnnnMBBDn 

1 6 



6-harness twill. 
3 



■nnwrcncomn 

nnMCMnnBKM 
DBBnMnnMMnBn 
■■DMnnaanMnn 

■□□■■nanoMn 
H'zuu::wz::um- a 
rmmnmnDmmama 

^■□■□□■■□■□n 

1 6 



6-harness twilL 

2 I 

-T- 2 C ' 



Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 



y-Harness Twills. — On 7-harness eight different kinds of twills are found, all uneven-sided 1 . 



7-harness twill. 
1 



Filling Face. 

1 up 6 down 

2 up 5 down 

3 up 4 down 

1 up 1 down 1 up 4 down 

2 up 1 down 1 up 3 down 
2 up 2 down 1 up 2 down 
1 up 3 down 1 up 2 down 

1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down I up 2 down 

Filling for Face. 

□□□□□□■□□□□□□a 
□□□□□■□□□□nn«n 

□□□□■□□□□□□■□□ 
nnnMnnnnnnMcnn 
□□■□□□□□□■□□□□ 
□■□□□□□□■nnnnn 
■□□□□□DBDnnnnn 
TnnnnncBnnnnDna 
nnannannnncoBn 
□□LnBnnnnncBnn 

□□£■□□□□□□■□□□ 

□□■□□□□□DMncnn 
□■□□□nncBEinnnn 
iannnnacHnnnnnn 
1 7 

Fig. 47. 

nnnancHannnnnw 
nnnnnBBnnnaaMB 
nnnn«BDnnnnBMLi 
nnnM«nnnnn«BDn 

□■■nnannMnnnn 

TMnnnnnBBnnnncB 
nnnnnMBnnnnizB0 
nnanminnnnnjMn 

cnnMMnnnncBBnn 
nn«Mnnnnn«nnnn 
CBMnnnnnBHnnnn 

1 7 

Fig. 49. 

■HnnnnMBnnnn* 

DnnciHannam 

nnMBBanncBBMCn 

□■■■nnnnmBMnno 

■■■nnnuBMBannn 

7BBnannB«MnnnnB 

■□□□£■■■□□□□■■ 

□□□□■■■nnnn«BB 
nuummmuzr.VMmvA 
iSnMMBnnnnMBHnn 
□■■■□nnnBBMncn 

1 7 

Fig. 51. 

B ■□□□□■□■□□□££! 
□□□□■□■nr.nriM: I 

unuvMVMurnnmzn 

urjmzmnunr.wrM. n 

■nBnnpDMnHnnnr 

7DBnnnB«n«nnnn» 

■□□□□■□mcii innwn 

□nnrjBn«nnnnBnH 

□□□■□■□□nnanMn 

ra«n«nnnnBnBci 

n«DBnnnPBnBann 

m'zunnT-u::nz::z::ii 

1 7 



or 



Warp Face. 

1 down 6 up, 

2 down 5 up, 

3 down 4 up, 

1 down 1 up 1 down 4 up, 

2 down 1 up 1 down 3 up, 
2 down 2 up 1 down 2 up, 
1 down 3 up 1 down 2 up, 

1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 2 up. 



7-harness twill. 
2 



7-harness twill. 

3 

4 



7-harness twill. 
1 1 
1 4 






Warp Face. 

■ ■■■■■: ■■■■■■ 

■ ■■!■:■■■■■■.:■ 
iiii:iiiiii:hb 

■ ■■-■■■■■■::■■■ 
■■■■■■■■ ■■■ 

IDIIUIIDUII 

■■■■■■ ■■■■■ 

:■■■■■■!:■■■■■■: I 

■■■■a ■■■■■■ . ■ 

■ IIIL III! 

■ ■■'_■■■■■■-■■■ 

■ ■:.■■■■■■..■■■■ 

■ : miii ■■■■■ 

■■■■■■ ■■■■■□ 
1 7 

Fig. 48. 

■1111 iiiei 

■■■■■□□■■■■■nn 

■■■■□□■■■■■□n« 

5n: 1 .■■■■■: . n* 
■ : 1 ■■■■■ . ■ ■■ 

■^■■■■■DLiHII 

;niH»cniHiin . 

S ■■■■□□«■■■£□ 
■■■nnuHiana 

■ ■■DnillHDCII 

■ ■DDIIIIIDDMa 

■nniini: niiai 

Fig. 50. 

■ ■■■: :n: :bbmb::qu 
■■■sdmhi: :nn« 

■■; :□□■■■■□-:□■■ 

■□□□■■MBUUnBM 

lCDiHiannim 
:;;::■■■■: ;u; ■■■■ 
: ■■■■:;:::;■■■■ :: 
■■■■on: ■■■m::;: 

■ ■■□cnBMBB'j! icm 

urn ]\ MMUUL'nLMm 

a :i :: :■■■■: :: :: :■■■ 
ipdpbmbhl :ul;m«« 

1 7 

Fig. 52. 

nnMBBB: :■: !«"«n: ! 

- ■■■■: ;■ ■■■■ ■ 

■ ■■■LMCUHCHn 

■■■' :■: imniDi 
■■□■dhhubch 

■ !■! ]■■■■! ■ '■■■ 

:;■::■■■■;:■:■■■■ 
!■□■■■■□■□■■■!□ 

: ■■■□ ■ ■■■■' ■ 

■ ■■■LIBI :BaMH;j'Wl 

■■■' ■ ■ ■■■' ■' ■ 
■■ ■ ■■■■ ■ ■■ 

Bm ■■■■ ■ ■■■ 
■!_!■■■■□■: :■■■ ci 



7-harness twilL 
6 



7-harne£3 twill.. 

5 



7-harness twill. 
4 



7-harness twill. 
1 4 



1 1 



Fig. 53. 



Fig. 54. 



20 



anannnaanannna 
□■□□□■■□■□□□■■ 
annnaanannnaan 
nnnaanannnaana 
nnaanannnaanan 
naanannnaanann 
■■□■□□□■■nMnnn 
7anBnnnBBnannnB 
nannnaanannnaa 
annnaaaaanaaaa 
nnnaanannnaana 
nnaanannnaanan 
naanannnaanann 
laanannnaananun 

1 7 



7-harness twill. 

2 I 



i 3 



Fig. 55. 



QinMiiDDininn 
■□■■■□□■□■■■□□ 
□■■■□□■□■■■□□a 
aaannanaaannan 
■■□□■□■■■a hdi 
annanaaannanaa 
nnanaaannanaaa 

^■□■■■I.jr!B'.JBB»-l 

anaaannanaaann 
naaannanaaanna 
aaannanaaannan 
aannBHaaannana 
■□I IB] :i«Bn::«:i«B 
innanaaannanr" 

1 7 

Fig. 56. 



7-harness twill. 

1 3 



■nnannaannanna 
qnannaannannBa 
nannaannannaan 
annaannannaann 
nnaannannaanna 
naannannaannan 
aannannaannann 

7annannBBnnannB 
nnannaannannaa 
nannaannannaan 
annaannannaann 
nnaannannaanna 
naannannaannan 

-laannannaannann 
1 7 

Fig. 57. 



7-harness twill. 
2 I 



2 2 



naanaannaanaatt 
aanaannaanaann 
anaannaanaanna 
naannaanaannaa 
aannaanaannaan 
annaanaannaana 
nnaanaannaanaa 
Tnaanaannaanaan 
aanaannaanaann 
anaannaanaanna 
naannaanaannaa 
aannaanaannaan 
annaanaannaana 
mnaanaannaanaa 
1 7 

Fig. 58. 



7-harness twill. 
2 2 



I 



nnnannannnanna 
nnannannnannan 
nannannnannann 
annannnannannn 
nnannnannannna 
nannnannannnan 
annnannannnann 

rnnnannannnanna 
nnannannnannan 
nannannnannann 
annannnannannn 
nnannnannannna 
nannnannannnan 

lannnannannnann 
1 7 

Fig. 59. 



7-harness twill. 
I I 
3 2 



aaanaanaaanaan 
BanBanaaBnaana 
BnaanaBanBanaa 

nflBnBBBDBBnBBB 

■ ■ mil aiij 
a ibb bb an :■ 

naflanflanaafl bb 
TBaanBanaaanBan 

IB BBIiBBB BB B 

anaanaaanaanaa 
naBnaBBnaanaaa 
aanaBBnaanaBBn 

B BIB BB BBS B 

inaaanaanaaanaa 
1 7 

Fig. 60. 



7-harness twill. 

3 2 



nnnannananannn 
anannananannan 
nannananannana 
annananannanan 
nnananannanana 
nananannananan 
ananannananann 
Tnanannanananna 
anannananannan 
nannananannana 
annananannanan 
nnananannanana 
nananannananan 
lananannananann 
1 7 

Fig. 61. 



7-harness twill. 
I I I 
112 



ananaanananaan 
nanaanananaana 
anaanananaanan 
naanananaanana 
aanananaananan 
anananaananana 
nananaanananaa 
7ananaBnananBBn 
nanaanananaana 
anaanananaanan 
naanananaanana 
aanananaananan 
anananaananana 
mananaanananaa 
1 7 

Fig. 62. 



7-harness twill. 
I I 2 
I I I 



For 8 -harness, we find the following twills. 



Filling Face. 

■nnnnnnnannnnnnna 
nnnnnnannnnnnnan 
nnnnnannnnnnnann 
nnnnannnunnnannn 
nnnannnnnnnannnn 
nnannnnnnnannnnn 
nannnnnnnannnnnn 
annnnnnnannnnnnn 
8nnnnnnnannnnnnna 
nnnnnnannnnnnnan 
nnnnnannnnnnnann 
nnnnannnnnnnannn 
: nnnannnnnnnannnn 
: nnannnnnnnannnnn 
nannnnnnnannnnnn 
lannnnnnnannnnnnn 

1 8 

Fig. 63. 



7 



71. 



Warp Face. 
U.KSnSSSS...SS 

BI1II HBHIIII II 
BB1B BBIBBBBBBB 

BIB IBBBBBBBIlflBflfl 
II IIBDIII lllll 

a; :■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■ 
ubbbbbib: ibbibbbb 

IBBIBBI BIBBBBBU 
BBBBBB IBBBBBBBCfl 
BEBBB BBflBBflBrBB 

BflBfl; iflBBBB-JBLlBBB 

BIB B B BBBB 

BB] BBUBBBBB 

B: BBIBBBBDflflBBBB 
' BIBBBBB BBBBBBB 
1 8 

Fig. 64. 
7u. 

I 



Filling Face. 

■nnnnnnaannnnnna 
nnnnnnaannnnnnaa 
nnnnnaannnnnnaan 
nnnnaannnnnnaann 
nnnaannnnnnaannn 
nnaannnnnnaannnn 
naannnnnnaannnnn 
aannnnnnaannnnnn 
sannnnnnaannnnnna 
nnnnnnaannnnnnaa 
nnnnnaannnnnnaan 
nnnnaannnnnnaann 
nnnaannnnnnaannn 
nnaannnnnnaannnn 
naannnnnnaannnnn 
laannnnnnaannnnnn 

1 8 



Fig. 65. 



u. 



War/> Face. 

□BBBBBannaBBBBan 
BflBBBflnnaflBBBflnn 
aBflBflnnaBaaaanna 
aaaam ■■■■■■:■■ 
Bfli:'iiBiflfl.;:fl(B 
BIj Bill 

annaflflBBflnnaflBfla 

nnBBBBBBnnBBBBBB 

81 BBBBBB ■■■■■■_ 

BBBBII II BBBBIB in 

flBBBB! ■■■■■■ B 

aBBannaBBBaannaa 

BBI; IIIIBI III 
■ BDDIIBBIB.XBIBB 

annaBBBaannaBBBB 

I BBBBBBu 

1 8 

Fig. 66. 

6 
u. 



21 



■■□□nnnMM*nnnnng 
■nnnnnMMMnnnnnMM 

nnnnMMMnnnnngBMn 

GGGBBIGGGGGIIB^ 

nniMicnnnaiMinnn 

□bbbgogggmhi 

BBBGGGanBBBGGGaa 

sbbgggggbbbgggggb 
bgggggbbbgggggbb 
□□GGGBBBGaaGGBBB 
nann«MM=nnnnBB«n 
□ggbbbgggggbbbgg 
ggbbbgggggbbb: :gg 
GBBBaaGGGBBBGGGG 

iMMMntjannMMMnannn 

1 8 

Fig. 67. 



5 



u. 



□BGBGaaBGBGBGGaB 
bgbgggbgbgbgggbg 
□bgggbgbgbggcbgb 
BGGGBGBGBGGGBGBa 
naGBGBaBaaaBaBGB 
nGBGBGBaaaBGBGBG 
aBGBGBGGGBGBGBaa 

■•sGBGBGaaBGBGBGaGB 
bgbgggbgbgbgggbg 
gbgggbgbgbgggbgb 
BGGGBGBaBGGaBaBa 
□nninMnannnBDMnB 
naBGBGBGaGBGBGBG 
gbgbgbgggbgbgbgo 

iBGBGBanaBGBGBann 

1 8 

Fig. 71. 



nntMMMBMnnnMwmnrn 
niHiinnniHiiaa 
■bbbbgggbbbbbggg 
BBBBaaaBBBBBOGGB 

BBBGaGBBBBBGGGBB 

H^nuHiiinanm 

laanNHiDnnim 

cggbbbbbgggbbbbb 

sggbbbbbgggbbbbbg 

GBBBBBGGGBBBBBGa 

■■■□□naiMiMnnnMH 

bbgggbbbbbggcbbb 

BGGGBBBBBaaaBBBB 

igggbbbbbgggbbbbb 



1 



Fig. 68. 



u. 



IB III I I II1I 

□BGBBBGB 1111-1 
bgbbbgbgbgbbbgbg 
nmainiDiiioiDa 
■■■ !■□■ :iii:i :i~ 
■ ■:.:■■ high :b-.b 

I ■:■ ibi 1 1 11 

□■□■□■MBCMDMCMM 

sizinMiniuiniiin 
gigbbbgbgbgbbbgb 
bgbbbgbgbi :iii::ig 
giii: bgbgbbigbgb 

BBBaBGBGBBBGBGBG 

II ■ 1 111 11:1 
■::i.:i jib ■::■..:■■ 

igbgbgbbbgbgbgbbb 

1 8 



Fig. 72. 
I I 1 



I I 



71. 



I I 



I 



7C. 



DMnnnnnininnnnnH 
BGGGGGiGBGGGGGBn 
nnnnninizinnnDinM 
nann«n«annnn«nBn 

□qgbgbgggggbgbgg 
nnBainnnnninannn 
niniz-nnninnannn 
■niannznininrnnn 
snBGGGGGBGBGGGGGB 
BGaaGGBGBGGGGGBn 
gggggbgbgggggbgb 
□□□□BGBGGGGGBGBn 
□□□BGBannGGBGBGn 
□□BGBaanGGBGBGGG 
□bgbgggggbgbgggg 
iBGBGGGGBlGBGGann 

1 8 

Fig. 69. 



71. 



Hni~nnniMn*nnn~H 

DMDnnaiTWUULlUMM 

BGGGGBBGBGGQGBBn 
nnnnHMninnnn«Mn« 
nnnBuniannniiGi" 

nDMjEMDDElDMDBinn 

nuninnnnBiniinnn 
■■nunnnnBiininnan 
siainnnniinnnnnnm 
niGnnniininnnniB 
bggggbbgbggggbbg 
□nnaBininnnniinii 
nnaiMninnnniinin 
nniMninnnniininG 
nuainnnniBininnn 
iMMGinnnniBni nnnn 



Fig. 73- 



71. 



bgbbbbbgbgbbbbbg 
ciiibbgbgiiiiigi 
bibbbgbgbbbbbgbg 
BBBiaiamiiGiai 
bbbgbgbbbbbgbi :ic 

IIDIDflllBflDBDflfll 

bgbgbbiiigigiiii 
gbgbbibbgbgbbiib 

JJBIflflDBDBBBBBj 

CHiiinn :■■■■■::■ 
biiiiibziiiii j: 

llli:i: BBBBB I J 

■ ■■gigiiiii: gnu 
bbgbgbbbbbgbgbbb 

IB BBBBB fl BBBB 

iqbgbbbbbgbgbbbbb 



1 



Fig. 70. 

_J 5 

1 1 



71. 



~fl BBBBII USB: 

BGBBBBGGBGBBBBGG 

GHiinoanHHnii 
bbbggbgbbbbggbgi 

IB ILJIBB J Jl 

bggbgbbbbggbgbbb 

IB JBfllGIfl BBBB 

sGBGBBBBQaBGBBBBa 

BGBBBBGGBGBBBB: G 
JEBfl: J JBBB B 

■BBBnnBnBBB«nn«n 
bbbggbgbbbbggbgb 

Ml till I II 

I' HI IIHinUK Bll 

ir..:i.iiiB:::j..JHB 



Fig. 74. 



71. 



tM UUMUUB D MUy nDM 

BGGBGGBGIGGIGGIG 

nninnBniGGBGGinM 

□BGGIGIGGBaGBGBCI 

MnaTTnrTnrtT Tnn 

nGBGBaaBGGBaBGGB 

GBGBGGBGGBGIGGIG 

BGBGGBaaBGBaaBGa 
sgbggbggbgbggbggb 

ggbggbgbggbggbgb 
□bggbgbggbggbgbg 
bggbgbggbggbgbgg 
nnBziGnBGGBninnm 

cbgbggbggbgbggbg 
ibgbggbggbgbggbgg 



1 



Fig. 75. 



I I 



I 



u. 



a-.BB jigigbbgbig 
ciigibgbgbbgbbgb 

II Bl B BB BBIBI 

bgbbgbgbbgbbgbgb 
:jB:jMB.jfl:j:flfl 

II D II II Ml 
B J Jfl JB B BBB 
J OB IB J BB BB 

siaiiDHininHDiin 
ib bb i ib bub 

■bgbbgbgbbgbbgbg 
iaiininHDHD^ni 
niininiiniinirjiB. 
■■niniiniininiia 
■gbgbbgbbgbgbbgb 
1gbgbbgbbgbgbbgbb 



Fig. 76. 



I I 



71. 



□nBBnBBaanBBGBBa 
□■■□■:■:□□□■■□■■□□ 
■Mnnmnnaiiniinnn 
■□■■□nniiniinnni 
□bbgqgbbgbbgggbb 
■■□nniiniinaniBin 
innnHiniMnnniini 
□aniiniinnaiinuM 
snniiniianniinniin 
nunBinnniiniinn 
■inimnnnnniinan 
bgbbgggbbgbbgggb 
. bb hb ib bb 
■MDannniinDuian 
bgggbbgbbggcbbgb 
inGGBBGBBcaaBBGBB 



1 



Fig. 77. 



71. 



■■□□■□□MBiBinDMnnM 

■□niznininninnii 
nninniiinninGiin 
cbggbbbggbggbbbg 
bggbbbggbggbbbgg 
nninnninniMinni 
niiianianiiinniz 
■■■□□■□nBM«nn«nia 
8M^-jianiiinniKi 
bggbggbbbggbggbb 
□gbggbbbggb: [□■■■ 
gbggbbbggbggbbbg 
■nnnHnninnBiiinn 
ggbiiggiggiii ■ 

■ BB ;■ BBB B ] 

liBMnninnuMMnnBtnn 

1 8 



Fig. 7S. 



3 



71. 



ggbggggbggbggggb 
DMaaan MnnMannaBin 

BGGGGBnnBGCGGBGG 
QGGGBGnBnGGGBGGB 

gggbggbggggbggbg 
cgbggbggcgbggbgg 
gbggbggggbggbggg 
bggbggggbggbgggg 
-8ggbggggbggbggggb 
gbggggbggbggggig 
bggggbggbggggbgg 
□gggbggbgggdbggb 
nnnianinnnnincin 
□ninninnnGinGinn 

GBGGBGGGGBGGBGGG 
1BGGBGGGGBGGBGGGCI 
1 8 



Fig. 79. 



I llll BB BIIIGB 
: BBBB BB Bill 10 

■bib bb bbbb bb 

bbbgbbgbbibgbbgb 
bbgibgbbiigiigii 
i bb bbbb bb bbb 
giigiiiigiigbiib 

■I ■■■• II IIDI 

bgiiiigbbgbiiigi 

; llll OB JBBB' BB 
■■■■GIIGIIIIGIIG 

■■■niiaaiiiniiGM 
■1 1 ■■ 

I II BBBB BB BBB 
i; .'BB ..BBBB .BB BBBB 



Fig. 80. 



71. 



I I 



71. 



■□□ninnncGGiGGM 
□naBGGiiGGGiaaiB 

□GBGGMiaaGIGGlin 

uBaaiiGGaiaaiBna 

BGGBBGGGBGGBBGI 
nQBBGGGBGGBBGGnB 
nBBGGGBGGBBGGGBa 
BBGGGBGGBBaaGBan 

8BaaaBaaBBaccBanB 
aaaBaaBBGGGBGOBB 

GGBaGBBGCGBCGBBG 
GBaGBBaaGBGCBBGn 

BGGBBaaaBaaBBaaa 
□GBBaaGBaaBBaaaB 
GBBaaGBaaBBGanBn 

lBBGGGBaaBBaGGBan 
1 8 

Fig. 81. 



I 



it. 



BBBBBBBBBB 

BflflGBBGGBIIGBflGG 
BBGBBGGBBBGBBGGB 
BBBBBBBBBB 
GBBGGBBBGBBGGBBB 
BflGGBBflGBBGGBflflG 
■GGltlGIICCIIIGI 
GGIIIGIIGGIIiaBB 

BBBBBHBBBB 
BBB BB BBB BB 

BBBBBBBBBB 

■GIIGGIIIGIIGGBI 
GIIGGIIIGIIGGIIB 

BB BBB BBBBB 

■GGIIIGIIGGIIIGH 

lGGBiiaiiaaiiiGii 

1 8 

Fig. 82. 



//. 



1 



■BIGGGGIBIBIGGGGB 

■ ■: : JGGBBIMGGGCBM 

■ GGGGIIIBGnGGBIIB 

ggggiiii:.:: ■■■■ 

□ggbibmgg: vammmma 

□GIIIIGnGGIIIIGG 

GiiiiGaaaiMBa; 

■■■■GGGGIIIBnGGn 
SBBBaaGGBBBBnGGGB 
BBGGGGBBBBG: 1GBB 
BGGGGBIBBGnGGBBB 
DGgGIIIB IGBBBB 
nnGBBBBGGOnBBBBG 
GGBBBBG' IGBBBBGI 

□■BBBgmnBBBBGQn 

JBBBBGGCIGBBBBGGan 
1 8 

Fig. 83. 



bbgbgggbbbgbgggb 
bdbgggbbbgbg: jgbb 

DBG! iaBBBGBGGGBBB 
B:r JGBBBGBGGGBBBG 
GGGBBBGBGGGBBBGB 

ggbbbgbg: bbb b 

GBBBGBGGGBBB: ;b: " 

BBBnBnnaBBBGBnan 

8BBGBG! IGBBBGBG: ' I 
B b IDflflflGBGI bb 

GinnnBMGBnt r '■■■ 

■ □' ' .BBB B ! ' :■■■ 1 

r JiiiGBnt i'giiigi 
ggiiigmg! 1: :iiania 
□■■■gig: igbbbgbg: 
hbbgIgg: mihghggo 
1 



BGBnBnaBBGBGBnGB 
: B B IB B J ■■ 

BGBGGBBGBGBGaBBn 
□BGGBBGBGBnGBBGB 

■ ■■ .■' ■ . ■■ ■: : 

iGBBGBGBHGBBGBGB 

□BBnBGBGnBBnBGBG 

BIGBGBGGBBaBGBGI 

81 :BGBGGBBnBGBGGB 

□BGBGGBBGBGinGBB 

b: ;■::: bb i b - ■■ i 

QBaGBBQBGBQG BB GB 

BGGBBGBGBGGBBaBG 

Bgbbgbgbggbb5bgb 
BBGB; IBGGBBBGBnBG 
1BBGBDBGGBBGBGBGG 
1 



Fig. 84. 



Fig. 85. 



GBBGBGGBGBBGBGGB 
aiGBGGBGIBaBGGBn 
■□BGGBnBBDBGGBGB 
□BGGBGBB.ZiBnCBGBB 
B B BBGBGGBGBBG 
B BB B B BB B 
□BGBBGBGGBGBBGBG 

■□■■□■□□■□■■□■ai 

8aBBGBGGBGBBaBGGB 
BBGBGGBGBBGBGGBrj 
I :BGGBGBBaBDGBGB 
□BGGBGBBGBaGBGBB 
BGGBGBBGBDaBGBBG 
:nBnBBGBGGBGBBGB 

I :bgbbgbggb: JiBGBn 
ii ■■::■ ■ ■■ ■ .: 

1 8 

Fig 86. 



r. 



22 

Figs. 83 to 86 inclusive are the even-sided twills oi> 8-harness. 

The same method observed in designing every common twill possible from 3 to 8 warp- 
threads in repeat, as shown, is continued for twills of any higher number of harness repeat. 
The more harness we can use, the larger the variety of twills which may be obtained. 



Combinations of two or more Colors for Producing different Effects upon Fabrics 

interlaced on the "Twill" System. 



In this system of weaves an endless variety of effects are produced by the different arrange- 
ments of colors. The same are extensively used in the manufacture of ladies' dress goods, fancy 
cassimeres, fancy worsteds and similar textile fabrics. 





Arrangement 


Weave 


of 




Warp. 


> 








to f 




5' <■* us 


Effect. 








(D 








c+ 





In Fig. 87 is illustrated the 3-harness twill 
applied to 2 ends light 
1 end dark 



■□■mnnnnnnnnno 

OlBBBnHBBnBPMaSM 

■■nnnnnnnannntxL 

Mi. .G-ji ;3i MBM iHrtr-i 

rr. & :: is ( ibm ibk-m 

cm a ■: .a: i iHBt ,asM 

cncawMaPwaHnaBB 

a :: a ;: a 

: " : a : : a- ii -b'-mbbb 

[ a BMHBWMBiiHaMM 
Ci-i 3" ' ;3'Mi '3U' BM -1 
CM jB> s JBM iBM iBBM 

ca. I3MM3M' iaei' a?j 
□Bcaeaaaaasibi3MEi 



I 



Fig. 87. 



3 ends in the repeat for the color arrangement of 
warp and filling. The interlacing of the different color threads 
is arranged so that each color, in filling, covers its own color 
in the warp; hence the dark filling must be interwoven in the 

shed, which has all the dark warp-threads in the lower part, and all the light warp-threads raised 

The effect represents what is technically known as " hair line." 

Weave Fig. 88, illustrating the 4-leaf twill - — 



■ ' r : 

I B3-3 3' . li :3 . i- 1 



can 



1 



_i ■■■ 

C - 3: 

D^=3 r a 1- v - 1 : 
i ■ a 
caa a 
c ■ ■ a 
cm a 
c . a 
caa a. • 

OHBGBBB' 
OHBDEBBI 

cwn._,BH«: 
caa_aji_. 



1 



, 

;'■ r 

i.-l 

M 

M 

M 

IB 

3 : , I 

■ ; i3i ia=i 

. 3' . ■ I 

3 M I 

. ■ 3 I 

jUca.- J 



3 



also be used for producing a " hair-line " effect by using for 
the color arrangement of the warp and filling 

3 ends light, 

I end dark. 



■■□cnnnnnnnnnnnn 

■ccmaaMMaa MiBam 

c ■■■3a; -iei <bbm 

.DBBacnnnccaDnDDn_ 

rMmc!B3mmBammasmm 

CmMMBi :■ MB :' ; :B > 1 

caacBBi ■ aa »■ ;sgbh 
DHHaaaM b b b m a a Bfc a 

mm aa i -:aa = aa-- , i 

[".1 3 I' :3 ; i iMBI irAi-:KI 1MM 
CBBOSBBBBaMEBiirH 
OBBCaa :BBB iBBBBB 
DBBQHHBBHSBBHHBB 
GWMljBI ! ! MB' JHhiBBBB 
DBBDB3i i =1333 M3BBHB 
OHHOQHHHHHBHHQ1B 



Fig. 



Fig. 89. 



■■■DnnoDoaacncann 

I ■■ Bi !3i IB 1 IBM3 1 lam 
CCBB3H3MBf;3iir 

_bc.:.b.:o 1 .:._, .1 

l 33 3, !333i 133 

GSM Ji IBM- MB. :■ 

CBB BBB: 13BB1 1, 

ClBf 1 Br 1 4. 131 



caa 



i3Bai aaa iaa 



■3 a a 



IBI 



CBB 

OHM 

E3E3 

i)3i Ma ■ i . iai i 

aa 333' iaa3 : :i3aa>.3 

3 a a > 



:cc_ 

133 



■■■ncnnnnnnnnnnn 

iBDDBHHBs-naBYMBH 
oni" -- 



(JMBBBBBI 
_ DBBBDDCI 

DaaanBBi 
dbbbdhhi 
tbhbdgbi 

CM! 1M.3 li li 



4 ends in the repeat. 
The dark filling has again to cover its own color in the 

warp to produce the required effect. This weave, ( J -), can also be used in an arrangement ot 

2 ends light, 2 ends dark, in the warp and filling, for producing a " line " equally as heavy as the 
ground in the direction of the warp for effect. 

Fig. 89 illustrates the effect of 
2 ends dark, 
2 ends light, 

4 ends in repeat of color arrangement 
for warp and filling, upon a fabric having the 4-harness 
even-sided twill for weave. The placing of the colors as 
represented in the latter effect, will prevent the filling from 
showing more prominently, than the warp. The principle observed is, to place one of the light 
picks in the shed formed by light color down dark color up ; the other light pick is to be inter- 
woven when half of the light and half of the dark warp-threads are up, and the remaining one- 
half of each are down. 

Fig. 90 illustrates a " zig zag " arrangement for effect, as produced upon a fabric interwoven 
upon the 4-harness even-sided twill with a color arrangement of 

I end light, 

1 end dark, 

2 ends in repeat for the warp and filling. 



1 



BBS 
oeflBB 

inco 

Br 1BBB 

a: naa 

■ . ;MH3 

' I. X'4> I 

33B 3.3 " 1BBBMM3B 

i ,333 aa aaaa= aaa 

CjMMHuBBM: iBBi MPJ3 
DBWBOBi !' 1 ! >'B ■ MtHB 
DBMBDBBBBBBBBBBB 

.aaa B3M ibbb; ii -:aa 

CBBaDBBBBBBBHBBa 



Fig. 90. 



Fig. 91. 



23 



Fig. 91 represents a " spot effect " obtained upon a fabric interlacing with the 5 -harness 
twill. Color arrangement for warp and filling to be 2 ends dark, 3 ends light. 

Fig. 92 illustrates a " zig zag " arrangement for 
effect, as produced upon a fabric interwoven with the 
6-harness even-sided twill and a color arrange- 



■■■DC 


tccgcctccc cccn 


■■ 


■ . _ . 


■ ■ 


■ 3 : - ~. 3 ~ ~ 3 - . - 3 f " -- 3 ~- — 3 


ODCBB 


■f^^S^^H^sSSP--3iH f --3ir-!- : 3 


mill 


i 


i ■■■ 


~] 


L tOtO 


^=3333^~3333: 3333 


:_.. " 


3 . 3 -■' -.-. 3 


L. 


_ .■ '3' ■ 3 :3 


c.:~33_ 




c -'. ■ 


- ■ 3 ' ' 3 '" " 3 '" t — '-_' 




!or=3 ' 3 -3' ---^.-3 


[ 33 - 






-'■ -■■ Zj} '.S' - ^"— r^r^Ei-H 


[ ==' — 


3 3* -H^HH 


rizsa: : 


333 3333 3333-^3 


1 


- 3 - 3"3 ":-iB 


. 


: r Has=Hp=:-a . -3 : . ' 


C_33_ 


3333 3333 ' 13333 




3 ■ 3 ;■;.- :_-3 


__ . 


L/ 33 333 "' 3333 3333 -3 


[ to .3 . 3 :•-.::) 


[__F,= _ 


_iS^3s§^^^3^^^^^3f3b<J 



Fig. 92. 



ment of 2 ends light, 
I end dark, 

3 ends in repeat for the warp and filling. 
Figs. 93, 94 and 95 illustrate similar effects pro- 
duced on a warp and filling arrangement of 

I end light, 
I end dark, 



-,-UcLlLL^ 




2 


mmam 


□eocene 


ncnnaa 


■UBL 


■ 33n«S i: sE .: 


■ ■ 


■3=3i 


:3- 


^3^3=3 


b ■■ 


3— B ? 


?2~ 


IH^HSS 


■ B 


■ 




: . 3D 


= :- £=- = 


3=- 




-3 ^3f=3 


_B33 




3 = 3 = 3 






«bM 


^ = B--.Z 


H 


2 3 ^-- : - Sj 


L3BB 


333 


2 


3 -333 




=lf^3r 


= 3 




[ BB3 


3- = ~3^ 


3 


33333 




3 -3 


;•; 


- "--5=3 








0333*3 








F-V^--f- 


3 -3 




3=3 


333 


3 31! 


j3C 


03 ^3=3 


QMS 


^3' --I 




B_3S3 



Fig. 93. 



■■□■CBnccrnrcrnrr~mccnn 
bcb~b "■ :~ nDnccnnanDnn 

CBCBCBBSB3=Bf?3f-3B3=BBHHH 
■CBCBB IHBHBEBHi HBHBHBHBH 

CBLBBr.B3»BB3Pn-BsHB3W3B3 
■□■■CBCCCGCCDCCDCCCZGCCn 
CMCBCBCCCCCCZZCZC 
CCBBBCCHBBi i IEBHBHBEM 

I LJkJU'. L.UUUULlLJli- U U ki "UUki 

CCHPBC~PiiEi:s4KB rf 3fiE-B £ -'NBB 
l 333- L- 33333= 3-3= 3 33333 

CCSEB"!bB; 3\ 3 3-3333333 

ZZ33BZZBP3 3 =3 -333333383 

CCBBBii::3l=3F5B- 3--- ----- ~ " 

C'ZP«sZ"Es& H-"""""-'" 
L-.333_.-3f 3 -3333333 -3' 3P-3 

§E|||E = p333333j:|r||| twill 

C'_ 333_ _3333333~ 3 : 3: 3^333 
L_sl: :J: _-::_:3.. 3: 3-.3ZL_,Z 



2 ends in the repeat. 



Fig. 93 illustrates the fabric produced with 
the 5 -harness 2 1 1 x twill. 

Fig. 94 calls for the 7-harness - 
II twill, and Fig. 95 for the 9-harness — 



BBOBGBCBunnnnnHrccGnQCCD 

B -B^BCBLBlL 

CBCBCB ■■ " 

■CBCBZBB" 3 =3 3 3 3 3 :3S3 

LB B BB BB' 3 3 3 3 3 3«3 

BCB'LBB B 3 :3^B :3;-3--3rt3s3 

■ ■■ ■ ■ - - 
B_BB B_.BZZZZCCC__ZZ 

bb^b^b b^ y„~^_~zr~~ „r*^° 

_Z " k "'" 3 3 3 3 3- "" "pp 
Z . 333 3 3 3=3- 3BB3333 



1 

1 1 



CZ 

CZZ 333 

c - -^ 

GCCBEEC 
GZZB1IB_ 
CT 333 

c.z "Ms.--, 

DZZEH3 



Fig. 94. 



__ _.- _.' 333333333 

3 ;3 3 ■ • - - S iP3 

3 ; B-:3BB33BBB3S3 

. _3 Hi "•-• ■ HBH 

_ 3 B333B33BB 3ri3 

73=':- 3 3 : 3 

3BBB3BB3B. 3. BSE- 

Nj;-^,— E' E^3B3 

._GljWL'"""' J 3 K 3- 3 :3 
DDHHECCGBBBBBSBHBisBBHeH 

Fig. 95. 



In diagrams Figs. 96, 97, 98 and 99, four specimen effects of three-color arrangements in 
warp and filling are given. Such combinations find extensive use in the manufacture of fancy 
cassimeres and fancy worsted suitings. 



BPS5PP£EPPPPDPP D ~ nnn nnnncccin 
L--BB. bb TTinnrrn 1 

jBBl Ml BF 1 :BHI'if;BElF3BESiF--5BEi 
■■CCBB7_ ...>-■ EEB ; -SSB - ESB EBB 
BCrBB^ - B- '>SSI EEB ' SEB- ' .EEB 
CHBB-__ BBP- ! -_-SEB. EEB -? EEB: ?:EEB 

iSl^iBl=^PPP_^IPPc~-.-.-:-ncDCD 
bb .bb _ _ rna 

_'-' f <■ t ; ' "EB ES t ---'-----E'-- _ ' B 

1 - TT _; ^'' &B- '■--% : "-; r-'m --fEB 
C SEEE B' EBB ' EBB :BBEBEBBEB 
[7-BEEB - EEB EEEBEEEEEE-- EEB 

r _ ■■■■ i BBEBBBESBB EBB' - BflB 
L._. ; " - ._' : BE' '-& B - fjbB 

P^L,,^,^- 1 B' - : B ill.: BBH 

CEEaa J : EEB: ESEBEEESBB, EBB 
LQE^EB _: EEEBBBEEEB : EEEf- --EBB 



C 

OI_. . 

CHf=; : ■ si 

CCBEEB ■ EEEBEESEE 

r.EEBB EEBBEB' BEE 

BBBB ' Bi EBB' ' III 

r i 1 ' ' V > B : 'BB 

"i"..' -BB SB - 

EEEB EEBEBS: EBB' N ®EB' .BBBB 

I E BEE EEB BBBBEBBBB 

Q_i»BBB"__i .'. BBBI BBBBBBBBBB^EDB 



BI 

- BE: I 

SB/mm 

: EEB 
BBBB 
BBBB 
' 'fflt M 



Fig. 96 illustrates the effect derived from the even-sided 

4-harness twill, by the following arrangement of warp and filling: 

2 ends light, 1 color No. 1. 

2 ends medium, > or, " No. '2. 

1 end dark, J " No. 3. 

5 ends repeat in color arrangement; thus, 5 X 4 =20 
threads, repeat of effect. 



Fig. 96. 



Fig. 97 illustrates the effect derived from the same 
weave as used in the foregoing example, with the follow- 
ing arrangement for warp and filling : 



b-'bb b -nnaannonnnnr -^nnnnm 

nDBBCDBBOT 

bb bb eehsbbbbbbesb: i eeeebbbbeeeh3 

■ b bb ■:•■:•►:■■:■■■■■•:..:.»;••;. eebbbbbbb- -- 

B BB ■ s 1: ii BBBBBBBBBEBBi II II II IBBBBBBr~~ 

BB BB 1 i: II II IBBBEBBBBEEEE - EEBBBBI 



or, 



4 ends light, 
4 ends medium, 
4 ends dark, { 

4 ends medium, J 

16 ends repeat in color arrangement, and as 16 
is a multiple of 4 (repeat of weave), 16 threads are also 
the repeat of the effect in addition to color arrangement. 



color No. I. 
" No. 2. 
" No. 3. 
" No. 2. 




IBI II IBI II II K'lBI Ii IBBI II BBI II IB 

Ii : EEi 11 I! II II If ;BBi .1 BBI II IBB 

SB, II II II ii II iffiffll II ■■ || .BBI I 

BE' II li-|i II Ii :BB. II BBI ii 'BBI II I 

'BBBB BB' BEBBI" - " 



i II il IB' Ii 'BBI 'I'll 
I II II II I! iBBf Ii BI 

ii ii ii n ibbi i mm- 

. II I' II 1BB1 • BB' 

• BB BBEBBBBI 
BBI EBBBBBBBBBBBBE ' BBBR 
B BBBBBBBBEBBBBB ' BBBBK 

BBBBBBBBBBBBBB ' BEBBBffli.__ 

■■ ■■ ■■■■ ■■ ma ■■ ■■■■ aa . 

■■ BBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBB 

■ ■■ ■■■■■■■■ ■■ ■■■■■a ■ 

■■':<>:'llllilii'i:«l ll>:o:<iiini.: .:-■■ 

>:<>:- BBBBBBBBBBBB BB- 'BBBBBBBBBBBB 

BB : ^B^B^-BBBBBBEJBB li-iBBBBBBBBBBBB 

B ' BBBBBBBBBBBBBB IT<BBBBBBBBBBBffl 

•:• >:• B B B B B B B B B B B B ' BB B B B B ■ ■ •'. ■ B B B B W 

B BB BB ■ IB ' iffl - BB " BB: ,l IB 

BB ■■ ' ■■ ■ ,bh 

BB ■■ BB ' II I' >>^>1> i 'BB- ' BBI I 

BB BB . BB' IT IBB ' BB BBl.ll 

BB BBBBBBBBBBBB ' BB BBBBBBBBBBBB 

BB BBBBBBBBBBBBBB ' 'BBBBBBBBBBBB 

>:< BBBBBBBBBBBBBB' n 'BBBBBBBBBBBBB 

' B B B B B B B B B B B B B B I ' B B B B B B B B B B B B B B 

■■ BBBBBBBBBBBB ■■ BBBBBBBBBBBB 

■■ BBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBB 

■ BBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBB 
BBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBB 

•:•■:• BBBBBBBBBBBB' 'BB. BBBBBBBBBBBB 

BB BBBBBBBBBBBBBB ' BBBBBBBBBBBB 

B B B BBBBBBBBBBBB B B B B B B B B B B B B B 

BBBBBBBBfBHfBBBB „ 'BBBBBBBBBBBBBB 



Fro. 97- 



24 



BBoaoBnaoooaaaDoaa 
BaooBBaaaoGnoaooaa 

bbb ibb wm IBB SB 

DQIIIOflll 1BBGBBNBB 

gbbbggggi ; s i . 
bbb :n:_;. if t- i - ' . :. j. j 
dow i jji ibm: mb: ib. i: l«b 
ggbbgg ibssbb: ibebbb 
lj ■■ i: ■■■ ibbbbb mm 

1 ! J-'!'.!-!! B iffl'v I ■ IS I 

L. JEB ' :BEB' -IESESB -!BB 
I ■■' _. iBBBBB ;SBBBB 
1 :«!■:■: B ;B '■ ! »-JB 

L BE ... _ : iESBBB- iSBBHi 
OGBBGaBBBHBBBBBaBB 
( Pv !',"._.; H» ! E" I: IslB-iB^ 
L EBEG JBSBMEBBBBaBB 
O ■■ ^SBHBB SIIU 



Fig. 98 



Diagram Fig. 98 illustrates the effect derived from the 3 6-harness 

even-sided twill, by the following color arrangement : 

I end light, ^ color No. 1. 

I end medium, > or, " No. 2. 
I end dark, j " No. 3. 

3 ends repeat in color arrangement, the same repeating 
twice in one repeat of the weave, also, one repeat of effect in fabric. 



BBOooBoarnGGD-GGOG .■ CGGGononDDGDOoinDDacnoGnDaDO 

■ , i "IBBh: i" iBBBB' i r- ISEEB : : : iBEEB- ; :■ ISBEB :H iESBB l nEBBB 
DDDHIsii MBBBB" l'-WiSa|-1:-J'-!BBBmmHBHlBBHBBBMfliBaffll 

DDBB»QGaaaGGLJoanr;ziG!j7iGannnnaaaaDDnanQ3Z3ii."ziiaaaa 
GHBHaaGaaGaGaaaaaaacGGaGGGGGGaGGaaaGGGGGGGGGaaGG 
■■■aDQDOoGaaaQDDaoQGDnGCGDOGiooaaGGOGDDOGooaaaoa 
DHFaaanBaaaeifflBagmfflfflBiRMBBafl- 1 MBBBaapiiiBPMijHaaaewiB 
ammanammmmmmm 1 b-imbbb iaanBBaa=M:is-i-i :-i?n-i v sin i* 1 -.: mm 
oaa^ 'law: iasB:-i-s> !■ see- i laHnanns ; ,:: - a ,-■> •-- -sb --• bbb 

□BSnG3BE"-1BBBEB i aMSSBEB5VHBSBB. : -S."-i;SBSEBaSHBBBBBBEEBBB 

;"BB B ■ '■ BBSS M iEBSBG: IBEBBBElBBBEBBBBBEESBBBi!" 

CBBG = MBEBB-HBSBBBBBBEBBBBBBSBBEEB iBBSBB"i= 
□BBanaanBBBBBMBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBHBBBBBnqBBflflaaB__ 

caaaaGHaaaBBBi la.iBBBn^noBBaanfjBBaFr-isGia :iriimsi 
Ci 1-1: -.a. iasfflBaaa-iBs i ; "" me : i"i • ■-< ■ = a - <- i--.bb naaaBB 
[",. ir 1 -i i ifflaaaaar'sa: i :i ; ijti ■ <;>i i bi-t-i :=sbeb-i ;sBBsa 

[ BE E ! EEBB I = HBai-;* :BBSBB-JBBBBBBSBBBBSBBEHBEBB 

nBBDOLIBPiflBBBBBBfflBBBBMfflBBBBBBBBBBBBBBaBBBBBHBBBBB 
LESijDDBaBBBBBWBBBBEBBBEBBBBBBilBBSBBEWBEEBaeaBBBB 
aBBQnaaBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB3BBBBBMBBBBBa--! : =BBBB--aflBBBBB 

DflHan -1 : iBSB'i-i* >bs- i-sa. , iB-;ai:-,ria:i«--in i -isi--:gB--i^«i^BBB 

(JHMQG ' ' i IBB '.: J 11 lB-fl" : U i- i 1: I- I. ■ ,r|- 1. inBB 3- 1 WBHB i -1--IESBB 
C"' :■ ' " -< ! " IE ■ 1 : '-■ i ! -!- B.i :• is": :BB : : I- ! : :BEB -J- : :BEEM '*IBBgi 

SB .',"]■ 'BBBB : -jBBBEB-JBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB iBBBBBaaBBBB 
L SB. D! XI" ^BBEBBGEEEEBBBBBBBBEBBHBBEBBE-l&IBBffiBHaSEBBB 
LBB_'_ , JiNBBBSBBSBBBBBBBB ^BBBBS'1- ^BBEBa- I !BBSB"-MEBEBB 
I BB . BBBBSBBBB BBIII I : SBBD ! ! BDBBQ- IBBBBB -1BBBSBB 
{_■- " » ■' : H' ' IBB 11 -! IM--IH*)- l-IMH-iaa <■■ M ! '«BB'1.-I 13BBB -■ MBBSH 
■i'S ;■] : :.j'-'i i-i -. ■ SB '--" ■ BSl=i I IBES?" -' I'JBSaa 
C 1 C .;_".- i i-tl Nl-M. i. WBB-i: i-is'BBB M :<SEB #5 !HHr*HHdMB*sM 
DBBLLj' Hi-IBfflBBBaBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBfJBBBBBsiilBBBBaaa-iaHB 
CBBC'-',U' i 3EEESSHSBBaBS5L::'>:' EESBB ' SBBBaH iBBBB !j 'sBBBBB 
GBBL! "DBBBBBBBBBaBBBBB!- ir'BBBB '.:: 'BSBBs: fSSSSB BSBBBB 

■ ■ DBBaBBBBBH' iSBBB" " ■■■■ liBIIBI- IBBBBBBBBBBBBB 

d h m i : -B b S';-'; \v- >.=-•> ibm'm-. er" -ibsb':-' .ebb- '^-33*13 
DwwnnD^Hi i' i ] "-B iq> r isibb- i ' if -bbb vh- ibbb- if: • 'bb i- : : -i a^iq 

□WCLLSNM- i IBB ifl'-l IBEB'I' iflBBBH" Wi=IBB" IMN-1--B-I JM- M":--HBli 
DBBDI j-eiBBBBaBBBBBBBBBBaSSSBaaBBBEBaiJEfEBBB^SBBBBB 

DBBLF :CBBBBBBBBB'"-"1BBBBB. I IBBBB^^^IBBBB^l '1BBBBB IBBBBBB 
IBSj SB -r.BBBBEM IBBSB EEEB ■- i -iBSBBBrtBEBBBBBBBBBHH 

'_■■_ ■ BBBB ' BBBB BBBBB BBBBBBBBBBEBBBBaBBBB 

!' ! iUULHfl I i-lB W I li-ffil' ; 4 !EBB : H-IBBB H BE I ■ :S:-!Baj id 

DaaDDDiMaaaBBaa- : ibbb=" t:bbb : -] waEBtse i sa -:--;a;idaaB 
Daaaaua^iaBBB^a-iaHB-i = i raaaaj :=3MSBaaaaa««iiBSBaiMBB 

GBBDGaBBBBBBBBBMBBBBBailBBBBMPlflBBBBaEIBBBBi 
UBS' JISBtlBBBBBH'-IBBBBG-BBBBBIBBBBaBBBBBBBI 
DBB'"1 "C,E --1 iBBB^GJBBBBHaBBBEB'jEEBBBr 
aBBDDGa«BBi" 



Fig. 99 illustrates the same weave as used in 
Fig. 98, arranged for 

3 ends light, ^ color No. I. 

3 ends medium, V or, " No. 2. 
1 end dark. ) " No. 3. 

7 ends repeat in color arrangement, and as 
this 7 is no multiple of the 6 (repeat of weave) or 
vice versa, 7 X 6 =42 threads in warp and filling 
are required for one repeat of the effect. 

In diagram Fig. 100, a specimen example is 
given of 3 colors arranged in warp and filling upon 

the y 4-harness twill for producing a hair-line 

effect, as used in the manufacture of woolen and 
worsted trouserings, etc. 

Arrangement of warp and filling : 
2 ends light, | 
1 end medium, V or, 
1 end dark, j 

4 ends in repeat. 

In placing the filling in this present sample as well as similar effects, each individual color 
in filling must cover the same color in the warp, according to rules given for producing effects with 
two colors. 

It will be seen by the student that these effects, until now produced with two or three 
colors in each example, can readily be extended to effects with four or more colors in warp, or in 
filling, or in both systems combined at the same time. 

The effects shown in Figs. 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96,97, 98 and 99 are designed on the basis 
of equality of texture in warp and filling, as also of similar thickness of thread for both systems ; 
therefore, any changes in one or the other will have a corresponding influence on the effect. 



bbb . • "" ' 'Gaananaao 

BB B IBB' >:<■ IBB ! IBB 
BDBBBHBB •:<! >3I Bl 

ubbbqi mi _ : d dog j :aanaa 

GBBG- 'SB ,!ffl|HMBI r^BB 
OBBDMi-BI-WSPIMBl ! IBB 
OBrtGH! IBBHflBB^I' IBB MSB 
■I :*B 1381a BB i IBB 
DBBGt v'l vl Bl . Bl 
■DBBOHi-IBB:1BBB6-i:-!BB MBB 
DBHGrt' ; BB : JPBBa:IBBaciBB 
OBHGej: JBBdiaBBiiiUBBJEJBB 



bbsbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb 
Fig. 99. 


color 


No. 


1. 




a 


No. 


2. 




(i 


No. 


3- 





Fig. 100. 




Satin Weaves. 



Satin weaves, also technically called satins, are without the prominent lines which are 
identical with the regular twills ; consequently satins are characterized by a smooth face. In twill 
weaves the points of intersection follow consecutively, but in satin weaves this is not the case ; they 
being arranged to interlace at intervals of one, two, three, four or more threads. The principles 
for the construction of satins are to arrange as much as possible distributed stitching, and to have 
it done at the same time, as regular as possible. The more scattered we can arrange the inter- 
lacing of the warp and filling the less these points of intersection will be visible in the fabric. 
The lowest satin that can be produced is found in the five-harness satin ; after this the same can be 
made " regular " on any number of harness, with the exception of six. The four-leaf broken- 
nnannnMn twill is also sometimes classified as a " satin," but against the rules of construction 
S?HB2*Bn f° r these weaves, as on two successive picks the interwoven threads are next to each 
other (see Fig. ioi). The points of intersection of the numerous satins are found by 



□nnBznzM 
iMnocMnnn the following rule : — 
Fig. ioi 



Divide the number of harness for the satin into two parts, which must 
neither be equal nor the one a multiple of the other ; again it must not be possible to divide 
both parts by a third number. After finding this number (which is technically known as 
" counter "), add it, commencing to count from one until all threads or harness are taken up. 
For example : Find satin weave for five-harness (5 equals 2 plus 3) ; commencing to count with 
one and adding always two points we find : 

1 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7 or 2 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 6 or 1 giving the points for intersection 
in the weave as 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, which means : 

The first pick intersects with the 1st warp-thread (1st harness up). 

" second " 
a third « 

" fourth " 
" fifth 

This construction is illustrated by 

Fig. 102, in its principle (arrow S indicating the rotation 
counting off of warp-threads for each successive pick). 

Fig. 103 illustrates the same, applied to the regular designing-paper, being filling up or 
a b 



3d 




(3d 


t( 


)■ 


5th 


tt 


( 5 th 


a 


)• 


2d 


<< 


(2d 


a 


)■ 


4th 


<( 


(4th 


it 


)• 



of picks, 



arrow O indicating the 



5th pick. 



4th 



<of 3d 



2d 



1st 





I 


2 


4 




2 


2 






1 






1 


2 


5 


I 


2 


3 






I 






r 


2 



filling for face. 



□nnMnnnnMn 
□■□□□□■□□□ 
□□□□■□□□□■ 
□□■□□□□■□□ 
Mnnnnannnn 
5nnciMrjnnnMn 
□ ■nil' " '■Bo a 
□□□□■□□□□■ 

iBannnannon 
1 5 

Fig. 103. 



Fig. 104 illustrates the same changed to warp 
up or warp face, by simply exchanging "sinkers" 
(down) to " raisers" (up). 



$8 



o 

Fig. 102. 



■■■ ■■■■ ■ 

■DHHDBH 
■■■■ ■■■■ 
■■ ■■■■ ■■ 
nMHMOHH 
■■■ ■■■■ ■ 

■ DHHBDBH 

■■■■□■■■■a 

■ ■DHBBnU 

■■■■■■■■ 

1 5 

Fig. 104. 



(25) 



26 

Fig. 105 illustrates (enlarged) a fabric interlaced 
in the 5 -harness satin, constructed as explained 
before. 

The 5 -harness satin, as well as other satins 
produced with any number of harness, can also 
be obtained by constructing the design lengthwise ; 
in this case (taking the 5 -harness for example) we 
find 

The first warp-thread must stitch in the 1st filling, 
" second " " " " 3d " * 

" third " " " " 5th " 

" fourth " " " " 2d " 

" fifth " " " " 4th " 

This construction of the 5-harness satin is illus- 
trated by 

Fig. 106, in its principle (arrow S indicating 
the rotation 'of warp-threads, arrow O indicating the counting off of warp-threads for each 
successive pick). 

Fig. 107, the same, applied to the regular designing paper. 
Fig. 108 is the same satin warp up or warp for face. 




5th pick. 



4th 



Ol3d " 



2d " 



1st 






- -o 




J2 


s: 
10 










5 








Fig. 106. 









Filling for face. 

□□■□□□□■□□ 
nnnnMnnnnn 
□■□□□□■□□n 
nnnMnnnnMn 
■□□nnannnn 

□■L i Li U DMarjfl 

□□□■nnnnan 
lMnnnnMannn 
1 5 

Fig. 107. 



■■DMIMIDIM 

■■■■ ■■■■:j 
b ■■■■ ■■■ 

■MDBHMBni 

■■■■ ■■■■ 

.-.■■;-;■■■■:■■ 
■ ■■■.■■■■: I 
■::■■■■.:■■■ 
■■■■■■■ ■ 

inMIHHDHMBM 
1 5 

Fig. 108. 



A careful examination of Figs. 103 and 107 will show, as the only difference, the "satin 
twill " (which later on will be more particularly described), but taken in a general technical point of 
view, for constructing weaves both are identical. The first-mentioned rule, counting off the picks 
in rotation and the harness (or warp-threads), according to the "counter" obtained, is in general 
use. 

Design shown in Fig. 107 would also have been obtained by the first rule in using the other 
part the 5 is composed of, namely, the 3 for counting off, thus 

1+ 3=4 + 3 = 7 = 2+3 = &+ 3 = 8 = 3+3 = 6= i, 
or the stitch as 1, 4, 2, 5, 3. 



27 



For 6-harness (6 warp-threads for repeat), as already mentioned, no regular satin is 



found, as 6 can only be divided in 2 plus 4 or 3 plus 3, 
which numbers are against the rules for constructing satin 
weaves. Being sometimes compelled to use a satin on 6- 
harness we must use the next best to a perfect satin as 
found in 1 — 3 — 5 — 2 — 6 — 4, illustrated in Fig. 109, 
filling for face; Fig. no, warp for face. 



For y-harness two regular (perfect) satins are found 
by dividing 7 into 2 plus 5 and 3 plus 4. 



□□□■□□□□□■rn 

□□□□□■nnnoiM 

□■□□□□□■□□□□ 

□□□□■nnnanMn 

□□■□□□□□■□na 

■□□□□□■□□□□□ 

6nnnMnnanni«3n 

□□□□□■annua* 

□■□□□□□■□□□a 

□□□□*□□□□□■□ 

HnmnncnnMnnn 

mrtnnnn Mnnnnn 

1 6 

Fig. 109. 



Sll 11BII II 

■■■■■□■■■■■□ 
I IlllljllII 

■ ■■■..■■■■■::■ 

■ ■::■■■■■:::■■■ 
::■■■■■:..■■■■■ 

"■■■=■■■■■::■■ 
■■■■■□■■■■■□ 

■ ■■■■■■■■■ 

■ ■■■: ■■■■■::■ 

■ ■::■■■■■::■■■ 

!□■■■■■□■■■■■ 
1 6 

Fig. iio. 



UUUUUMUUUUUUMU 

□□□■□□□□□□■□□a 
n«njnnnn«nnnnn 

Counting off for the first kind we get by using the 2 fffiSn5n™2n3 

.. ., e w «, □□■□□□□□□■□□□□ 

for counter: l + 2=3 + 2=5 + 2 = 7+2 = 9 = 2 + ^BBBBSBSBBBBSB 

2 = 4 + 2 = 6 + 2 = 8 =1, or 1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, and illus- ggggjggggSgBg 

trated in Fig. 1 1 1 , filling for face ; Fig. 112, warp for face. fjBrSBfflBBSBf5 3SSS5SS' 
00 t> » r □□■□□□□□□■□□□□ IIDii 

^□□□□□□■□□nnnn !□■■■* 

17 1 



SI ■■■_-■ ■■■■■■ 

■ mi.. ■■■■■■ ;■■■ 

■ ■ 11111 

■■■■■■ ■■■■■■ 

■ ■■■: ■■■■■■■■ 

■ ■;.:■■!■ ■■■■■» 
<■■■■■■■■■■■* 

■■■■■□■■■■■■□a 

■ ■■::;■■■■■■..:■■■ 
■□■■■■■■□■■■■a 
■■■■■■..«■■■■■.: 

" " ""□■■ 



Fig hi. 

yuuuMuuixininMan 

□■nnannnannnnn 

T41 .... .. _ . , □□□□naannnnnBa 

In the construction of the other satin for 7-harness and nngpnnnnnMnnnn 

using the 3 for counting off we get 1 + 3 = 4 4- 3 = 7 + SnnnnnnSnBSnnB 
3 = 10 =3+ 3 = 6 + 3=9=2 + 3 = 5+3 = 8 = 1, □■□□□□□□■□□□□□ 
or 1, 4, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, illustrated in Fig. 113, filling up; □gggnngnOTHnna 

Ficr IT/I ,ram im □□□■□□□□□□■□□□ 

rig. 114.. warp up. iMncnnmaaonnna 

1 7 



Fig. 112. 



ig. 114, warp up. 

Fig. 113. 

For 8 -harness we find only one perfect satin nnSBnnnnnHSnnnnn 

as the 8 can only be divided into 3 plus 5. The count- □mn.nmnBnniOT 

rr r . , . , : ,. .... □■□□nnnnnHnnnnrc 

ing off for the design, always adding 3, will be as gggggggggggSggg^ 

U A m e\ e e □□■□□□□□naanHnyc 

3=4+ v= 7+ 3=10= 2+ 3= 5+ 3= 8+ 3=n □□□□□□□■□□□□□□□■ 

j *tj 'tj " TJ ~ 3 J □□□:»□□□□□□□■□□:: 

— 34-2 — fi 1 i — q — 1 oriA72c8?6 illustrated □■□□□□□□□■□□□□□!:: 

— o+j — w+j — y — l t U1 l > 4> /» *j 5» °» J. u > niubLid.Lcu □□□□□□■^□□□□□□mc 

in T?l'rr Tie fill In rr frwr fa^f* • TTirr TTf^ „nm f^f fo^o. !□□■□□□□□□□■□□□□ ■■■^■■■■■■1 '■■■ 

in rig. 115, niiing tor lace, rig. no, warp tor tace. ^□□□□□□□■□rxuxian ^'■■■■■■■^■■■■■ii 



■III IIIIEl II 

■ ■■■■■■. ■■■■■ 

■ ■■■■: ■■■■■■■ 
■■■■■■■■■■■■ 

■■■■■■□■■■■■■□ 

■ ■■:■■■■■■■■■ 

I ■ ■!!■■■ ■■■■■! 

■ ■■■■-.:■■■■■■.-■» 

■ ■■■■■■ ■■■■■ 

■■■■■□■■■■■■DM 

■■■■■■■■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■■■■.■■■■■■. 

■ ■■ ■■■■■■■■■ 
!:::■■■■■■ ■■■■■■ 

1 ' i |j : 

Fig. 114. 

■;";■.■■■■■■■■■ 

■■■■■■■"■■■!!■" 

IIIIDNHIIIDIII 

■□■■■■■■■□■■■■■■ 

■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 

■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■! 

■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ ■■ 

■ ■...■■■■■■a ■■■■■ 
■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 
■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■ 
anaiaiiiiDiHiii 

S!5"55 ■■■■■■■■ 

■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■ 



Fig. 115. 



Fig. 116. 



snnnnnnnMn 
□□□□□— 
unman 

npnnnn 

□□□□■□□n 

iSi inl li ii frf 




Upon p-harness, we can design two different satin weaves, for the number 9, 
in accordance with the rules, can be divided into 2 plus 7 and 4 plus 5. 

Commencing to count off with 2 for producing the first kind of satin we 
get: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 2, 4, 6, 8, which is illustrated in filling for face in Fig. 117. If 
requiring warp for face read this as well as any of the following designs, illustrated 
in succession up to 1 6-harness, □ for raisers (up), x for sinkers (down). □■□□nnnE 

Commencing to count off for the second kind of satin weaves on 9-harness, \ jg| { ; jggS 
using the 4 for counter, we get: 1, 5, 9, 4, 8, 3, 7, 2, 6, which is illustrated in B ' 

It— I 



Fig. 



117. 



Fi°" 



118. 



□□□□■nnrjL 
^□□□□□□□n 
1 9 

Fig. 118. 



For 10-harness one regular satin is derived by dividing 10 into 3 plus 7. 
Counting off with 3 gives 1,4, 7, 10, 3, 6, 9, 2, 5, 8, as points for intersecting. 
The design for it is illustrated in Fig. 1 19. 



lo^nnannnarjE 

■ 

"ID 

zranBrji 

■•':■:] 

i - ' 

1 
Fig. 119. 




28 



For ii-harness four different perfect satins can be designed, by dividing the 



nnnannnnannn 
nppapnunnnn 

3QmBDMannn . ■ „ i 101 1 ^ 

3DBnnnnannn 1 1 in 2 plus o, \ plus 8, 4 plus 7, c plus 6. 

iSnnnnnnnnn The " counter most frequently used for the 1 1 harness is 4, giving the 

ffiffinnSBn points for intersecting as follows : 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 10, 3, 7, 11, 4, 8. 

1 • ll I he design for it is illustrated in Fig. 120. 

Fig. x2o. 



i2nnnnnMnnnann 
□□□□□□□□□□md 
□□□■□□□nnnna 
nnnnnnnnBnnn 
nmnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnannnnn 
nnnpnnnnnnom 
□□□□■□□pnpnn 
□nannnnapBan 
Samnnnnnnnnn 



□□□nnnaMdnan 

lMnnnnonnnnnn 

1 12 

Fig. 121. 

wnnnannnnMnnnn 

Hnnannnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnan 
annnnnanDnnnn 
□■□□nnnnnnnnn 
□nnnnnnnnannn 
annnannnnnnnn 
BnnnnnnnnnncB 
nnnnnnnannnnn 
□□■□□□□□□nana 
□nnnnnnnnnmnn 
pn naa Mnnnnnnr; 
iBDH nnn annnaan 

1 13 

Fig. 122. 



For 12-harness only one perfect satin is found by dividing the 12 into 
5 plus 7. Counting off with 7 gives the points for intersecting as follows: 
1, 8, 3, io, 5, 12, 7, 2,9,4, 11, 6. 

The design for it is illustrated in Fig. 121. 



For ij-harness we find five different perfect satins by dividing the 1 3 into 
2 plus 11, 3 plus 10, 4 plus 9, 8 plus 5, 6 plus 7. 

Counting off with (the number most frequently used) 5, we find the in- 
tersecting points to be 1, 6, 11, 3, 8, 13, 5, 10, 2, 7, 12, 4, 9. 

The design for it is shown in Fig. 122. 



icmnnrrannnMnmi 



± 



□□□□■□□□□□□□□□ 

nnnnnnnnnnnnDM 
nnnnnnnnannnDn 
nnn«pnnnpnnnan 
finnnnnnnnnnnMn 
nnnnnnnMnnnDnn 
nnMnnnnnnnnnnn 

□□□□□□□□□!!□■□□ 

nnnnnn«nnnnnnn 

&□□□□□□□□■□□□ 

□□□□□■□□□nnnnn 

lgpnnnnnnnnnnnn 

1 14 

Fig. 123. 

lsnuuuunannntnMnnn 

gnnnnnpHnnnnnnn 
□□Mnnnnunpnnnn 
□pannnnnnnnapM 
nnannnannnBnann 
□□□□□□■□□□□□□□n 
&■□□□□□□□□□□□□ 
nnnnnnnnnnnnnan 
nnnnnnnnnBonnnn 
QHnnn«SBgnnnpSB 
PMnnnnnnnnnnnnn 
HpnnnnnnnnnnBnn 
pnnnnnnn«nnnnnn 
□□□□■nnnnnnnppp 
lwnnpppnnpppnQpQ 
1 

Fig. 124. 



For i^-harness we find two perfect satins by dividing the 14 into 3 plus 
11, and 5 plus 9. 

The design most frequently used for this number of harness, and which 
is illustrated in Fig. 123, is derived by counting off with 5, as follows: I, 6, 
11,2, 7, 12, 3, 8, 13,4,9, J 4> 5, 10. 



For 15-harness three different regular satins can be made, as 1 5 can be 
divided into 2 plus 13, 4 plus 11,7 plus 8. 

The number most frequently employed for counting off is 4, which gives 
the points for intersection as 1, 5, 9, 13, 2, 6, 10, 14, 3, 7, 11, 15, 4, 8, 12. 

The design for it is found in Fig. 124. 



15 



i6pppnpntannnnnn*np 
□□□□□□□□□□Mnnnnn 
□□□□□□□■□□□□□□□□ 
□□□□Mnnnnnnpnnnn 

§■□□□□□□□□□□□□□□ 
□□□□□□□□□□□□□■13 
□□□□□□□□□□■□□□□ 
□□□□□□□nMannnnnn 
pnnnnmnnnnnnnnnn 
nnannnnponnnnnnn 
pnpnnnannnnnnnaM 
BnPnnnnananaBnnn 
npnnnnnnn«nnnnna 
nnpnnaBnnmanpnn 
nnB*pnnnnnnnnnnp 
iMOannnannnnnpnng 

1 16 

Fig. 125. 



For 16-harness three different satin weaves can be designed by dividing 
the 16 either in 3 plus 13 or 5 plus 1 1 or 7 plus 9. 

Using the number most frequently "employed for counting off the 
points for intersecting warp and filling, which is 3, we find 1,4, 7, 10, 13, 
J 6, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 2, 5, 8, n, 14, as represented in design Fig. 125. 



After the method given thus far for finding the different satins from the lowest number of 
harness (the 5-harness) up to the 16-harness, it will be easy for any student to find the different 
satins for any number of warp-threads in repeat (harness) that may be required. Those given in 
our lecture will comprise those most frequently used. 






29 



Table for finding the Satin Weaves most frequently used. 



Number of 
Harness. 


SUCCESSION OF STITCHES. 


Number for 
Counting 
off. 


5-harness... 


I. 


3- 


5- 


2. 


4- 
























2. 


6 " ... 


I. 


3- 


5- 


2. 


6. 


4- 






















O. 


7 " - 


I. 


3- 


5- 


7- 


2. 


4- 


6. 




















2. 


8 " ... 


I. 


4- 


7- 


2. 


5- 


8. 


3- 


6. 


















3- 


9 " ... 


I. 


3- 


5- 


7- 


9- 


2. 


4- 


6. 


8. 
















2. 


IO " ... 


I. 


4- 


7- 


IO. 


3- 


6. 


9- 


2. 


5- 


8. 














3- 


ii " ... 


I. 


5- 


9- 


2. 


6. 


IO. 


3- 


7- 


11. 


4- 


8. 












4- 


12 " ... 


I. 


8. 


3- 


IO. 


5- 


12. 


7- 


2. 


9- 


4- 


11. 


6. 










7- 


13 " - 


I. 


6. 


ii. 


3- 


8. 


13- 


5- 


IO. 


2. 


7- 


12. 


4- 


9- 








5- 


14 " ... 


I. 


6. 


ii. 


2. 


7- 


12. 


3- 


8. 


13- 


4- 


9- 


14. 


5- 


10. 






5- 


15 " .- 


I. 


5- 


9- 


13- 


2. 


6. 


IO. 


14. 


3- 


7- 


11. 


15- 


4- 


8. 


12. 




4- 


16 '■ ... 


I. 


4- 


7- 


IO. 


13- 


1 6. 


3- 


6. 


9- 


12. 


15- 


2. 


5- 


8. 


11. 


14. 


3- 



Fig. 126. 

Influence of the Twist of the Yarn upon Fabrics interlaced with Satin Weaves. 

To produce certain effects on fabrics interlacing on a satin weave the same may require a 
certain twist of the warp or the filling, or in both systems. Fabrics made on a satin weave may 
for their effect require the satin twill to be more or less visible ; again it may be desired to see 
none at all. Therefore in all cases, before deciding as to the direction and amount of twist to be 
put in the yarn for any kind of a fabric to be made with a satin weave, we must consider whether 
the face is to be formed by the warp or the filling and whether the satin twill is to be visible or not. 

For example: Take a fabric to be made with the 5-harness satin. If we have to use warp for 
face and want the satin-twill effect distinct, we must use the design shown in Fig. 104 with a warp 
yarn twisted to the left. If we want to produce a fabric requiring a smooth face, as doeskin, 
kersey, beaver, etc., and have the warp yarn twisted towards the left, we must use the design 
illustrated by Fig. 108. 

Arrangement for Commencing the Satin Weaves for Special Fabrics, such as Damask 

Table Covers, Towels, etc. 

In fabrics where " warp up " and " filling up " satins are figured as in previously 
mentioned fabrics, we have to change the commencing of the weave from the beginning 



30 



with one, so as to get a perfect joining, respectively cutting off from the warp effect to the 
filling effect. 

In this class of fabrics the weave must commence in the following manner : The last 
warp and filling thread of one effect must work in an opposite direction to the commencing of 
the first warp and filling thread of the other effect. Hence the 5-harness satin for such fabrics 
will be 4, 1, 3, 5, 2 (see Fig. 127). The 8-harness satin will read 3, 8, 5, 2, 7,4, 1,6 (see 
Fig. 128). The 10-harness satin 7, 10, 3, 6, 9, 2, 5, 8, 1, 4 (see Fig. 129), etc., etc. 



□■nnn 
□□□□■ 
ncMDq 
■□□□8 

□□□■□ 

Fig. 127. 



naannmaa 

■□□□□□DC 

pppbpppc 
nnnnanBC 
□Mnan nn c 

□□□□■ana 

□□□□□□□M 

ppbppppp 
Fig. 128. 



pppbpppppp 
bppppppppp 

mpppppBPP 
Bpbppppp 
□bpppppppp 
ppppppppbp 
nppppBPppp 
ppbppppBpp 
auuuuuunnM 
Bnnn nn Mn nn 

Fig. 129. 



mpbbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbbpppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbp 
bbbbpbbbbpbbbb_:b.ip laBBMnBLEPPBapppBD ^pbbbbubp^pp 
■ ■UBBiijiMMai«jjiL]::»«:JHXi::::n::«: ipppbppbbpbbppbpp 
pbbbbpbbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbbppi ;pbp: dc«: ::.: :pbz]bbbbp:j::pb 
bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpl ipbbbpbpbi innninnnuM ippbbbpbpbppp 
bpbbbbi;bbbb:.:bbbpupbpbpbbbpppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpl:_:bp 
bbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbppppbbbbpbppppbppppbppppbbbbpbpppp 
bbpbbbbpbbbbpbbp: nanHnMinDinnnniani ipbpi :bbpbbpi bdp 
PBBBBPBBBBPBBBBPnpnBPBBBBPPPPBPPppBPPPPBPBBBB: :. ini .■ 
bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpi jlibbbpbpbppi ipbpppi ibppi ibbbpbpbppp 
■□■■■■□■■■■naBMn: ipbpbpbbbpppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbp 
■bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbppppbbbbpbppppbppppbppppbbbbpbpppp 
biiibie ■■■■ nini mppbbpbbppbpi ippbppppbppbbpbbppbpp 
diihdiui! nmni 11 ipbi ibbbbppi ipbpp; ipbppppbpbbbbpppph 
bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpbpbppppbppppbpppbbbpbphppp 
pppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbpbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbb 
nppppBPPPPBPPPPBBBBGBPpppBBBBi niainiHiniDnDDHiiD 
naBnanoinnaaianiBniBuiiiL^M'aMHniiiiniiczBnniiMa 
ppppbppppbppppbpbbbbppppbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbb 
pbppppbppppbpppbbbpbpbpppbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpb 
■tibbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbbpppbppppbp1 1ppbpbpbbbpppbp 
■bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbp: ippbbbbpbppppbppppbppppbbbbpbpppp 
mbpbbbbpbbbbpbbp; ill !pbb.-;bb:_:~bppppbppppbppbbpbbppbpp 
□bbbbpbbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbbppppbppppbppppbpbbbbppppb 
mbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpbpbppppbppppbpppbbbpbpbppp 
□ppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbpbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbb 
bjppppbppppbppppbbbbpbppppbbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbppppbbbbp 
ppbppppbppppbppbbpbbppbppbbpbbbbpbbbbpbbphbr ubbpbb 
ppppbppppbppupbpbbbbppppbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbbppgpbpbbbb 

PBPPPPBPPPIjBPPPBBBPBPBPPPBBBPBBBB: IBBBBPBPBPPPBBBPB 
PPPBPPPPBP! IP; IBPBI [flflfl IPBPBPBBBBI IBBBBPBBBPPPBPBPBBB 
BPPPPBPPPPBP: IPPBBBBPBPPPPBBBBPBBBBPBBBBPBPPPPBBBBP 
PPBPPPPBPPPPBPPBBPBBPPBPPBBPBBBBPBBBBPBBPPBP1 IBBPBB 
PPPPBPPPPBPPPPBPBBBBPPPPBI 1BBBBPBBBBPBBBBPPPPBPBBBB 
PBPPPPBPPPPBPPPBBB1 1BPBPPPBBBPBBBBPBBBBPBPBPPPBBBPB 
PPPBPPPPBPPPPBPBPBBBPPPBPBPBBBBPBBBBPBBBPPPBPBPBBB 
BPPPPBPPPPBPPPPBBBBPBPPPPBBBBPBBBBPBBBBPBPPPPBBBBP 
PPBPPPPBPPPPBPPBBPBBPPBPPBBPBBBBPBBBBPBBPPBPPBBPBB 
BpPPBPPPPBPPPPBPBBBBPPPPBPBBBBPBBBBPBBBBPPPPBPBBBB 

□bppppbppppbpppbbbpbpbpppbiibpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpb 
■Qmbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbb: ippbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbp 
bbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbi ipppbbbbpbppppbppppbppppbbbbpbpppp 
bbpbbbbpbbbbpbbppbppbbpbbjpbppppbppppbppbbpbbppbpp 
obbbbpbbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbbppppbppppbppppbpbbbbppppb 
bbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpbpbppppbppppbpppbbbpbpbppp 
pppbppppbppppbpbpbbbpppbpbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbpppbpbpbbb 
bppppbppppbpp^pbbbbpbppppbbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbppppbbbbp 
ppbppppbppppbpnbbpbbppbppbbpbbbbpbbbbpbbppbpnbbpbb 
bpppbppppbppppbpbbbbppppbpbbbbpbbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbb 
pbppppbppppbpppbbbpbpbpppbbbpbbbbpbbbbpbpbpppbbbpb 

Fig. 130. 



Fig. 130 is designed to illustrate a fabric figured with the 5-harness warp and filling satin, 
and Fig. 131 is designed to illustrate the figuring applied to the 8-harness warp and filling satin. 



■BPBBBBBBBPBBBBBPPPPPBPPPPPPPHPP 

■■■bbbbpbbbbbbbpbpppppppbppppppp 
mmbbpbbbbbbbpbbbpppbpppppppbpppp 

spbbbbbbbpbbbbbbppppppbpppppppbp 
bbbbbpbbbbbbbpbpbpppppppbpppppp 

ffi□BBBBBBBPBBBBPPPPBPP^□PPPB□PP 
bbbbbpbbbbbbbpppppppbpppppppb 
bbpbbbbbbbpbbppbpppppppbppppp 
bbbbbbbpbbbbbpppppbpppppppbpp 
bbbbpbbbbbbbpbpppppppbppppppp 
bpbbbbbbbpbbbpppbpppppppbdppp 
■pbbbbbbbpbbbbbbppppppbpppppppbp 
■bbbbbpbbbbbbbpbpbpppppppbpppppp 

sbbpbbbbbbbpbbbbppppbpppppppbppp 
bbbbbbbpbbbbbbbpppppppbpppppppb 
gbbbbpbbbbbbbpbbppbpppppppbppppp 
ppppbpppppppbppbbpbbbbbbb3bbbbb 
bpppppppbpppppppbbbbbbbpbbbbbbbu 
pppbpppppppbppppbbbbpbbbbbbbpbbb 
Bpppppbpppppppbpbpbbbbbbbpbbbbbh 

§bpppppppbppppppbbbbbbpbbbbbbbpm 
pppbpppppppbpppbbbpbbbbbbbpbbbh 
ppppppbpppppppbpbbbbbbbpbbbbbbm 
DPbpppppppbpppppbbbbbpbbbbbbbpbb 
fippppbpppppppbppbbpbbbbbbbpbbbbb 
bpppppppbpppppppbbbbbbbpbbbbbbbp 
ppqbpppppppbppppbbbbpbbbbbbbi ■■> 
ppppppbpppppppbpbpbbbbbbbpbbbbbb 
pbpppppppbppppppbbbbbbpbbbbbbbpb 
ppppbpppppppbpppbbbpbbbbbbbpbbbb 
pppppppbpppppppbpbbbbbbbpbbbbbbb 
ppbpppppppbpppppbbbbbpbbbbbbbpbb 

Fig. 131. 



Before proceeding with the construction of weaves (derivative weaves from the previously 
explained foundation weaves), we will next treat of drawing-in drafts, followed by drafting of 
weaves and reed calculations. 



Ui 



Drawing in the Warp in its Harness," and the preparation of 

the drawing-in drafts. 

Description of the operation — Methods used for making out a proper drawing-in draft — 

Different systems of drawing in drafts. 

Drawing the warp-threads in the Heddles (which are adjusted to the different Harness 
frames) forms the beginning of the practical part in weaving ; the making out of the order (or 
arrangement) in which this has to be done, constitutes one of the first lessons in the theory of 



weaving and designing. 



THE HARNESS. 



The harness, or harness shaft, also termed a shaft, (see Fig. 132) consists of a ''Frame'' 

(marked A), and the iron rod (B) for holding the heddles (C). Through the eyes (£>) of the 

heddles the warp-threads are drawn as illustrated by E. 

For drawing in a 

warp in its " set of har- 
ness," two persons are 
required. The " drawer- 
in" inserts his " drawing- 
in hook " through the eye 
of the heddle, towards 
the second person called 
the " hander-in." The 
latter inserts one of the 
warp-threads in the "eye 
of the hook," which in 




(k 



/- 
z- 
3- 
*- 
5. 
6- 

t 



WPtvprotC 



riG. 132. 

turn is pulled out of the heddle-eye by the first-mentioned person. 
Two different systems are used for drawing-in : 
1st. Indicating the harness nearest to the warp 
beam as the first, the nearest to it as the second, and 
so on until all harness are used. This method is tech- 
nically known as "drawing-in from back to front" and 
is clearly illustrated by Fig. 133. 

2d. Indicating the harness nearest the reed as 
number one, the nearest to it as the second, and so on 
until all harness are used. This method is technically 
known as "drawing-in from front to rear," and is illus- 
trated by Fig. 134. (This is the system most gener- 
ally used in this country). 



i! i! i! : 



% 



ar 



,»<-; 



1 (Q 



Wrvi p - ro ff 



a — 



-36irnejs8r 

7- 

.' 6- 

» S- 

- v- 

' 3r 
- Z- 
. /- 



Rttd.. 



! 



hnaxi 1 ? 



;liU\ '-o^'i i'. 



2 



RtuL 



Fig. 133. 



WoujotfireacUk 
Fig. 134. 



Principles of a Drawing-in Draft. 

The drawing-in draft must clearly indicate the 

rotation for drawing the warp-threads in the heddles on the different shafts. This arrangement 

must be made in accordance with one or the other of the following methods : 

A. — It may be made by using common designing 
paper and indicating the rotation by marks. In em- 
ploying this method the rotation of the harness must 
be shown either by numbering the horizontal rows of 
squares which indicate the harness on the left side 

of the draft (see Fig. 135), or by placing the word "Front" on the proper place so as to avoid 

any misunderstanding (see Fig. 136). 



8 nnnnnnnn-innnnann 

0B 5 nnnnrxujjnMnnnq 

3 □□■□■nt nMnnnnncn 

znwaiinMnBa; 

1 Mnnnnni n-innnn nnq 

Fig. 135. 



.nnBnnnuLUJBL 

irJMfli 
Hint 



inannc iginn 
■ ■ !□■□: 

■ 



Front 

Fig. 136. 



(•U) 



32 









H. 










H. 




H. 










3. 




3. 




X 






3. 






1 




2, 








Z. 












Z 




l 














1. 













B. — Another method is by using the same 
paper as before for the draft but, in place of the 
marks, employing numbers indicating the harness 
to be drawn on (see Fig. 1 37). 

C. — A third method is by using horizontally 



Fig. 138. 



Fig. 137. 

ruled paper for indicating the harness, and drawing vertical lines indicating the warp-threads on 
the former. The stopping of the vertical lines on one of the different horizontal lines indicates 
the drawing of the different warp-threads on one of the different harness. The horizontal lines 
must be numbered (see Fig. 138). 

Different Divisions of Drawing-in Drafts. 

Drawing-in drafts are in general governed by the different weaves for which they are used, 
and are divided into " Straight Drawing-in Drafts " and " Fancy Drawing-in Drafts." 

Straight drawing-in drafts are those in which the heddles of the different number of harness 
the "set" contains are used in rotation; and after the last is used the first is employed over again 
until all the warp-threads are taken up. For example, in 4-harness we commence to draw in : — 

The first warp-thread on the 1st heddle on the 1st harness. 



The second " 


ist 


« 


(i 


2d 


The third 


1st 


1( 


n 


3d 


The fourth " 


" 1st 


« 


« 


4th 


The fifth 


2d 


(t 


« 


ist 


The sixth " 


2d 


<< 


« 


2d 


The seventh " 


2d 


It 


a 


3d 


The eighth " 


2d 


It 


<< 


4th 


The ninth 


" 3d 


a 


<( 


ist 



and so on, until every warp-thread the warp contains is taken up. 

Fig 139 illustrates the double repeat of a 4-harness straight drawing-in draft. 
Fig 140 illustrates the double repeat of a 6-harness straight drawing-in draft. 



□□■□noma 
■nnntMnnn 

Front. 

Fig. 139. 



epnnnni 



□□Mnnnnn«n 



4nanBnnnnnMa 
3na«aaxfcr 

2tMO. 



nu 



Fig. 140. 

Fancy drawing-in drafts are generally used for reducing the number of harness necessary 
(repeat) for producing a certain kind of weave in a fabric. In looms constructed for certain 
classes of goods (mostly in cotton) and which can be operated only on plain and common twills 
with regard to their motion for raising the harness, the fancy draws will often become a necessity. 

The method of making out fancy drawing-in drafts for certain weaves, technically known as 
"drafting," will be dealt with later on. 

Sub-Divisions of Fancy Drawing-in Drafts. 

A. Broken draws. 

B. Point draws. 

C. Section-arrangement draws (ist, plain, 2d, double). 

D. Skip draws. 

E. Mixed draws (cross draws). 

A. — Broken Draws. 

Drawing-in drafts, graded under this division, have their method of drawing arranged 
(similar to the principle of the satin weaves) as much as possible broken up, scattered, yet regularly 



33 



distributed over the repeat of the draft. We also classify under the present division of drawing- 
in drafts such as are necessary for producing broken-twills, i. e,, in which we draw for a certain 
number of threads from front to rear; next arrange the draw to miss one-half the number of 
harness, and draw a certain number of threads (as required by the design) from rear to front; 
next miss again one-half the number of harness, and commence again to draw from front to rear. 
For example: Fig. 141 illustrates a broken draw for 8-harness. Commence to draw harness 1 to 8 
straight through from front to rear twice over, next miss one-half the number of harness = 4 
thus: 8 — 4 = 4; commence on harness 4, to be followed by 3, 2, I, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,8,7,6, 5; 
next miss again four harness, giving you harness 1 for starting, to commence to draw from front 
to rear over again (repeat in the present example). 8nnnnnnn«nnnnnnnHnnnn«nnnnnnnMnnn 

I he present division 01 drawing-in drafts finds exten- □nnnnannnnnnnHnnnnnnnnMnnnnnnnML 
sive use in the manufacture of fancv worsted woolen and □□□■□□□□□□□■□□□□■□□nnnnnannnnnnn 
cotton goods. Un looms known as roller-looms, ibpppppppmppppppppppbpppppppmpppp 



"cam-looms," this system of drawing-in drafts forms the 
only means for weaving satins, corkscrews and similar popular weaves. 
Fig. 142 illustrates a broken draw for 4-harness. 



Fig. 141. 





H3 




<< 


5 ' 


i 


<< 


144 


<< 


8 




ippmpppbp 
3pppbpppm 
2phppp«pp 
impppmppp 




SPUPMULOJMU 

3ppppmppppm 
2pp«ppppMPn 

iBonnnwinnn 






snnannmnnnnnnnBng 
nnannnnnnnMnnnna 
□□nnnnnBnnnnnnnB 
□nna«nnnnuLiuMurx 
□■naaaaaaMi 11 11 iuBE 
nnnnnnaaanninnnBr 
□DcannnnnnnBDnnc 
iMnnnnnnnBnnnnnnn 


Fig. 142. 




Fig. 143. 






Fig. 144. 


1 




B. — Point Draws. 






In regular point draws, we draw from front to rear once straight through the entire set of 
harness, and afterwards draw from rear to front and repeat. For example see Fig. 145. Com- 
mence to draw in from the first 
harness straight through to the 
last, A to B, and back again, 
B to C. Designs for these draw- 
ing-in drafts must be arranged so 
as to repeat forwards and back- 
wards respectively in the centre. 
Such a weave will run upwards, at a given angle, to a definite point; then it will return by the 
same angle in an opposite direction until it reaches the base from which it originally started. In 
these kinds of drawing-in drafts the "point-harnesses" are only once drawn on, while the other 
harnesses are used twice in one repeat of the weave. Hence an 8-harness regular point draw 
will require 14 warp-threads for one repeat; a 12-harness regular point draw will require 22 warp- 
threads for one repeat, and so on ; always giving the double number of harness less 2 as the 
number of warp-threads in one repeat. 

Fig 146 illustrates a double repeat of a regular 8-harness 
point draw. Warp-threads 1,8, 15, 22 are the point-threads 
or the warp-threads which are drawn in theheddles on the 
point harnesses. 

A change from the regular point draw, but belonging 
in its principle of construction to it, are drawing-in drafts 
in which we draw in one or the other direction (front to rear or rear to front) continually for two, 
three, four or more times before changing to the other direction. 



nnnnrjBnuLiLiLjnpno 





c : :i 
1 Hi 



.11 di 1 ii 
□■□ml:ii : ■ 

^□■QanBBnnSnBoDn 

8 15 22 

Point Warp-threads. 

Fig. 146. 



34 



gpppppbppppphpppppbpppppppppbpppppbpppppbpppp ^ig- *47 illustrates a specimen of these 
ppppbpppppbpppppbpbpppppppbppppphpppppbpbppp i • j ^r j r _f fc f _ u_ .^-j^ witV, ^ u rnBC c 
pppbpppppbpppppbpppbpppppbpppppbpppppbpppbpp Kind 01 dratts to be made with o-harness. 
ppbpppppbpppppbpppppbpppbppppphppppphpppppbp A ...... , . 

pbpppppbpppppbpppppppbpbpppppbpppppbpppppppb An examination will show us a drawing 

ibpppppbpppppbpppppppppbpppppbpppppbppppppppo m^ ^ w a awing 

Fig. 147. straight three times from front to rear with 

an additional from rear to front (two repeats shown in draft). A second sub-division of the 
point draws are point draws containing the effect of a zigzag which are used to a great extent in 
weaves for fabrics imitating Jacquard work. 

Fig. 148 illustrates such a specimen drawing-in on 12-harness. 

pppppppppppppppppbpppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppbpppppppppppppppp 
ppppppppppppppppbpbpppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppbpbppppppppppppppp 
ppppppppppnnnppMQppBnpppppppppppppppppppppppPDppppnppppppppppBPPPMPPPppppppppppp 
ppppppppppppppbpppppmpppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppbpppppbppppppppppppp 
pppppppmpppppbpppppppbpppppbpppppppppppppppppppppppppbpppppbpppppppbpppppbpppppp 
ppppppbpbpppbpppppppppbpppbpbpppppppppppppppppppppppbpbpppbpppppppppbpppbpbppppp 
pppppbpppbpbjppppppppppbpbpppbpppppppppppppppppppppbpppbpbpppppppppppbpbpppbpppp 
ppppBPPPPPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPPPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPpnBPPPPpnpnpppnpBPPPPPBPpn 
3PPBPPpnppnPPPPPPPanannpannnpppMppppaBPPPpnBPPPPPMPPPpppppppnppnpppppppnpnpnPBPp 

PPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPBPBPPPBPBPPPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPI 



,_ppppaPPppppnppppppppnppnpppppnPBPBPPPBPBPPPBPBPPPPapppppppppnppppppnnnp ppppaDH 
BPPPPnpnpppnnnnnnppppnnnaapnpnppppBPPPPPBPPPPPBPPPPiJpppp nnnp rip nnnnpn pppppp nrrl ppp 



Fig. 148. 



C. — Drawing-in Drafts having a Section Arrangement. 

ist. — Plain Draw. 



i2pppppppppppppn 



2d set. ■ 



1st set. 



in 



ztppppppfjpppppiipppppiipppppppppppt 



nn 



__ PPPPPPPPP®PPPPP®PPPPP! 

pppppppppppppppppppppp©ppppp©ppppp©ppppppppppppppppppppppp®pppppfe3Ppppp©p 
"pppppppppppppppppppn@ppppp©ppppp©ppppppppppppppppppppppp©ppppp®ppppp®pi: 
jppppppppppppppppppia>ppppp ©ppp pp©ppppppppppppppppppppppp®ppppp®ppppp©ppr 
ipppppppppppppppppp©ppppp©ppppp®pppppppppppppppppppppppis)ppppp©ppppp©ppp; 



7pppppppppppppppppp®ppppp©ppnpp©ppppppppapppppppppppppp©ppppp®ppppp®pppp[; 
6pppppBgxiPPBPPPnpBPPpppppppppppppppppppppBPnpppBPppppBPPPPPPPpppppppppar- 

ppppbpppppbpppppbpppppppppppppppppppppppbpppppbpppppbppppppppppppppppppl 
pppBPPPPPBPPPPPBPppppppppppppppppppppppBPPPPPBPPpppBPPPPpppppppppppppppn 
ppBPPPPPBPPPPPBPPPPPPPpppppppppppppppPBPPPPPBPPPPpMppppnppppmpppppppppE 

PBPPPgPBPPPPPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPPPBPPPPPBPPPnPPPPPPDPDPPPPPPPr 

"PPT- ..._......... 



ibpppppbppappbpppppppppppppppppppppppbpppppbpppppbppppppppppppppppppppppg 

Fig. 149. 

These drawing-in drafts are used to a great extent in the manufacture of damask table 
cloth, towels, fancy cassimeres, worsteds, etc. For these styles of draws two weaves are com- 
pounded into one, each one being operated on its own part of the harness set. The manner of 
using two sections we find frequently extended to three or more sections, requiring a correspond- 
ing number of weaves to be compounded into one. 

In Fig. 149, we illustrate a specimen of such a kind of drawing-in draft. Harness 1 up to 
6, inclusive, forms the first set; harness 7 up to 12, inclusive, forms the second set. 

2nd. — Double Draws. 
These drawing-in drafts are generally used in weaves for double cloth fabrics, 
system of warp-threads (face and back) getting its own harness set. 



Each 



2d set. 



1st set. 



: 3ppppppppp©pppppppppppp: 

ppppppp®ppppppppppppppppppppp 



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pppppppppppp®ppp 



ppp ppp ppt .: .: is. : ;or .::: 

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M 



IP 



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ppppgppppppppppppppppppppppp©npPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPp: 
9p©pppppr~ ...-..- 



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apppppppBPPPPPPppppPBPPr^ ■ 



PPP PPPBPPPPPHppBPPBPPPBPgppppPBPP PP PPPPPPPBPP: 



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ma 

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IPPPPPPC 



pPppppbppppppppppPbppppp: 



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PPPPPBPPPP PPPPP PPBPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPPPPPPP 

BPPPPPP Pllinp Bpppppp nnB PPBp nnnnnnnnn P 




Fig. 150. 
Fig. 150 illustrates a drawing-in draft to be classified in this system. 
3. 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; 2nd set of harness, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16. 

DPE 

Iff 

Fig. 151 illustrates another specimen of 
drawing-in draft for 12-harness repeat. 



1st set of harness, 1, 2, 



i2pppppppippppppp©ppppppp©ppppppp® 

ppppp©ppppppn©ppppppp©ppppppp©pn 

upE ©ppppppp©ppppppp©ppppppp©pppn 

9p®ppppppp©ppppppp©ppppppp®pppppi: 

^pppppppppBt: 



1st set. < 



r 8ppppppppppppppB 

^PPPPPPPQPPBPf 

"ppppppbpppl 
ppQpEppbpppppp 



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30 



PPPPPPPBPPP 



nppppPBPPPPPPPPPPPPL- 

npppBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPppppnpBQr 

nPBPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBPPPPPPPPPPPPi 

l Mnnrlrinnnn nnFlnFinnMn nnn nnrlnnrtnnnnt 

Fig. 151. 



35 

D. — Skip Draws. 

These draws are in their origin short straight draws in a larger number of harness. After 
drawing a certain number of warp-threads plain straight, commence anew again, but one, two or 
more threads higher or lower than the commencement of the preceding draft. 

Fig. 152 illustrates such a drawing-in draft for 8- harness, 4 threads for the short straight 
draw ; skipping one thread. 

szzzzzzzznnnnnnzzzzHMZZMZZMZZBZZzzzzznnnnnzzzzzzzzzHBzzBZZBnnMZzzi 
nzzzzzzznznznzzBzzBzzMzzMzzzznzzzzzznnzzcazznzzBzzBnzmzzBzzzzzzzt 
zzzzzzzzzzzBnzBZZBZZBZzzz_zzzz_zzzzzzzzzzzz«zz«zzMzzBzzzzzzzzzzz 

nUZZZZZHZZBZZBZZBZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZMZZBZZBZZBZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 

EZMZZBZZBZZBZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZMZZBZZBZZBZZZnZZZZZZnZZZZZZZZ 
■ZZMZZHZZZnZZZZZZ_nZZZZZZZZZZMZZBZZMZZBZZZZZZZZZZZnznZZZZZZZZM 

□■zzBZzzzzzzzznzznzzzzzzzzzBznBZZBzzBzzzzzzzzzznzzzr :znzzzzBZz«a 
iMZzzznzzznznnnnnn~rzzzzMzz«nzMnz«zz^~znzcrnznnnzznnnnz:DwnaMzn«zz 

Fig. 152. 

E. — Mixed or Cross Draws. 

As the variety of different weaves is unbounded, so are also the drawing-in drafts, and under 
the above heading it is proper to classify the kind of drafts obtained in one way or another, by 
combining two or more drafts of the previously explained systems. 

Other Points a Drawing-in Draft may require in addition to the indications for Drafting 

a Certain Harness. 

If a waq:> contains threads of different thickness, color, or quality of stock, the drawing-in 

draft must have a copy of the repeat of pattern, clearly indicating for each warp-thread such 

c particulars (see Fig. 153 for illustration.) 

. §' . 5. The drawing-in draft should further show the number of warp, the 

«* £ f ail 5 I number of dresser, the number of ends in warp, the number and width of 

8nznEnziiizzzzczz!iin reed to use, the number of warp-threads to be put in one dent, in^truc- 
nnzzzzzBzzzzzzzM 
nnscnzznizzzzzan tions if any threads in particular have to be separated by the dents (see 

InEzzSEEzzEEizzz Fig. 154), and the number of heddles to be put on each harness. 

wznzzzzzzzlizzz'zzi Every one of these points clearly indicated on the draft will greatly 

Fig. 153. assist in the production of correct work, prevent mistakes and save much 

time. We append a specimen sheet of a complete order for the drawing-in department, such as 

ought to be used in every mill. 

Specimen of a Complete Drawing-in Sheet. 

Fancy Cassimere, style j.2. 
Warp No. 393. 3600 ends in warp. Reed 13x4= ^9}i inches width of warp, in reed. 



D. N. 4. 



Dressing : 6 threads black 4 run. 



I 

7 
1 

7 

2 



white 

black " 
lavender" 
brown " 
blue 



24 threads in pattern. 

Selvage : 40 threads 1 inch wide in reed for 
each side. 



10 
9 

8 
1 
6 

b 
u 

3 
z, 

1 



■a 
z> c 

_ o 

- 5 

Black. £ Brown. Jg Brown. Blue. 















. 








. 








. 








. 








> 


1 


















































































































































































































































































































































— 1 


1 — I -1 


L 



Fig. 154- 



36 



Heddles required for the different harness : 

Numbers i, 3, 4, 9, 11, each 300 heddles 
Number 2, requires 750 

5, " 600 

Numbers 6, 7,8, 10, 12, each 150 



1500 
750 
600 
750 

3600 



Having explained the general principles of drawing-in drafts for theoretical and practical 
work, also their classification, the next subject for the student to learn will be " the drafting of 
drawing-in drafts " from the different weaves. 

Drafting of Drawing-in Drafts from Weaves. 

Rule : Ascertain the " repeat " of the weave in the direction of both systems of threads. 
Next, examine each warp-thread separately (on the design) as to its rotation of interlacing in the 
filling. If each warp-thread shows different places (different picks) for interlacing, each thread 
requires a different harness. If there are warp-threads in the repeat of the weave which 
have throughout the entire number of picks the same intersecting places, they can be 
drawn on one harness. For example, examine the two warp-threads illustrated in Fig. 
155 ; both are working the same way ( 1 1 2 2 * t ) in its repeat of 8-picks, consequently 
these two threads can be drawn on one harness, giving the same result. 



□□ 

■ M 
MM 
□□ 
□□ 
■■ 

inn 
1 2 



Fig. 155. 



In Fig 1 56. we illustrate 3 warp-threads over 16-picks. An examination of the 
same will show warp-threads marked I and 3 interlacing correspondingly with the 
filling, and hence can be drawn on the same harness ; whereas thread marked 2 works 
differently, therefore requiring a different harness. 



wan* 
a ;■ 

nan 

nan 
■ r« 
□■□ 

■ □■ 

nan 
m:\rn 
■na 
nan 
ana 
ana 
nan 
ana 
inan 

1 2 3 

Fig. 156. 



Weave. 

^annnaaannnaanananaannnaaannnannnanannn 
aannnaaannnanananannnaaannnaannnanannn 
aaannnaaannnananannnaaannnaaannnanannn 
naaannnaaannai ianani lBBannnaaanaaananaaa 
rnBBBunnBBBnBBnBBnBBannnBBBnnBBBnBnBBB 
nnnflflflnnnflBBnBnflnBBBnnnBBBnnnBBflnBnBBB 

■un:iMMn:jnMnBnHnMMnnnMMnnnBnnnttMnnn Wifh "F\'rr irvw-p- nincfraf^ -a mmniot 01 i M , m 

MBnunBB«nnn«nBnBnMnnn««mnnnMBannBnMLinn witn rig. 157 we illustrate a complete weave 

■■■□nnMMnnnMn«MnnnBMnnnMBnnn«nBnLin -\ -.w •. 1. , 

> z;n in ; fOiiMnBn^M* ,one repeat) with its corresponding drawing-in 

draft : 

38 warp-threads ) 

12 picks } in repeat. 



- - innnBM«nBnBnBHHnnnMBMnnn*BMnjinBMM 



mnni 

1 38 

Drawing-in Draft. 

lMxinnnBnnnnnnnnnnnnnnninnnnnMnnnMnBnnn 
2nBnnnnnBnnnnnnnSnnnnnBnnnnn«nnnnnnnnnn 
3nnBnnnnnBnnnMnBnBnnnBnnnnnMnnnnnnnnnnn 
4nnnMnnnnnMnnncnnnnn«nnnnnBnnnBBMnBnBB« 
5nnnninnpcinBnnnnnnnBnnnnnBnnnnnnnnnDnnn 
6nnnnnBnnnanBnnnnn"nnnnnMnnnnnnnnnnnnnn 
TnnnnnnnnunnnnHnHnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn 
snnnnrnnnnnnnnnMnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn 

1 38 

Fig. 157. 
An examination of each warp-thread in particular will result as follows : 
Warp-threads I, 7, 23, 29, 33, 35 correspond, thus harness 1 

2, 8, 22, 28 

3,9, 13, 17, 21, 27 

4, 10, 20, 26, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, n, 38 

" , 5* 11, !9> 2 5 

" 6, 12, 18, 24 

14, 16 

Warp-thread 15 working independent, requires a separate harness; — 



(C 



37 

Hence, we find dra\ving-in draft illustrated below weaves reading as follows: 



The 1st warp-thread for harness I 

The 2d 

The 3d 

The 4th 

The 5 th 

The 6th 

The 7th 

The 8th 

The 9th 

The 10th 

The nth 

The 1 2th 

The 13th 

The 14th 

The 15 th 

The 1 6th 

The 17th 

The 1 8th 

The 19th 



tt 
« 
<« 
a 
tt 
it 
tt 
a 
a 
a 
it 

(I 

tt 



The 20th warp-thread for harness 4 

The 2 1st 

The 22d 

The 23d 

The 24th 

The 25 th 

The 26th 

The 27th 

The 28th 

The 29th 

The 30th 

The 31st 

The 32d 

The 33d 

The 34th 

The 35 th 

The 36th 

The 37th 

The 38th 



tt 



>< 

u 

ti 
u 

it 
a 
tt 
it 
it 
it 
« 
it 
a 
a 



3 

2 

1 
6 

5 
4 

3 
2 
1 

4 
4 
4 

1 

4 

I 

4 
4 
4 



Some weaves will be found inexpedient to reduce to the lowest number of harnesses, as a 
drawing-in draft too irregularly distributed will be difficult to comprehend by the operative who 
uses the same for practical work. 

After making out a fancy drawing-in draft for a weave, the design for the "harness-chain" 
must be prepared. 

Rule for Designing the Same: — Reproduce each warp-thread only the first time called for 
by its drawing-in draft on a different harness. For example : Produce harness-chain for weave 
and drawing-in draft Fig. 157. 

Answer : 



« 



3 3 

3 :s 

1 3 2 
3 3 

2 3 1 
3 3 



The 1st harness must raise and lower as follows (reading downwards): J 

The 2d 

The 3d 

The 4th " 

The 5th " 

The 6th " 

The 7th " 

The 8th " 



3 
3 2 



3 3 

2 3 1 

3 3 

2 5 1 

2 2 

2 2 



finding in this manner harness-chain illustrated by Fig. 158. 



tnnni 

■■■ ; ' ■ 
;□■■■□■!! 
■ ■■■ 



, m 



■■ 



■■■ 

JXWMM'.l 
Fig. 158. 



38 



RULES FOR ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF HEDDLES REQUIRED ON 

EACH HARNESS. 

Straight Draws. 

Rule : Divide the number of threads the warp contains by the number of harness in the set used. 

Example: 4800 ends in warp — 8-harness straight draw. How many heddles are required 
for each harness ? 

Answer: 4800 h- 8 = 600; 600 heddles are required for each harness. 

If ends remain over the full repeat they are to be added, beginning with harness one until 
all are taken up. These harnesses will consequently require one more heddle. 

Example: 4800 ends in warp — 9-harness straight draw. How many heddles are required 
for each harness ? 

Answer: 4800 -^9 = 533 full straight draws plus 3 threads. 

Thus, harness 1, 2, and 3 must contain 534 heddles (1602) 

" 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 " « 533 <* (3198) 



4800 



Fancy Drawing-in Drafts. 



Rule: Multiply the number of threads for each harness by the number of pattern repeats 
in the entire warp. 

Example: — 3200 ends in warp on the following drawing-in draft: 
32 threads in one pattern. 

3200 -*- 32 = 100 repeats of pattern in warp. 



rjnnnn*nnnnnnnnnnnnrjr 



!OnntX]QnBmai2 Harness,-3 



□nnaMnnnnannpnBBPonnnnnnnnpgnnnni 1 

□DawjnnnnnnDDnnnnnnannnnwnnnnnnnio 

□^□□□□■□□□□□nnnnnpnHnnnnnnnnnnn 9 

^□nnnoBnnnnnnnMpnnnfinnMnnnMnnnnnn 8 



pnndBnnnnpBnnnnpnnnnnnnnnnnnnn 7 
■ innpnnnnnnnnnnMMnnnnnnnn«nnpa; 



mi 

BK 

Bat 
1 2 



□r 



rnonnnpnnnnDwnnannnnnnnnMi: 



!□■□[ 



6 

dnaadno 5 
□□■nnnn 4 



HQnnnninnnnndnntinnnnnnQandtl 3 



inmannnnnnni 
uinnnnnnnnrr 



innnnnnt 

nnnnanannann« 1 

32 



Fig. 159. 



-3 
—2 
—2 
—3 
-2 
—4 
-2 
—3 
—1 
—4 
—3 

32 



1 "3 



3 
» 

W * 

s o. 

o -, 
(P 1 

•CI 5 

£ P 
3» 



No. of Harness. 
I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 



Threads per Pattern. 

3 
4 

1 

3 

2 

4 
2 

3 

2 

2 

3 
3 



X 100 Repeats. 



« 



Heddles. 
300 
4OO 
IOO 
300 
200 
400 
200 
300 
200 
200 
300 
300 



32 3200 

The repeat of the pattern will not always divide into the number of the ends in the warp. 
Sometimes it will leave a fraction over, which we have to add separately. For example, taking 
the drawing-in draft as before, and supposing the number of ends for the warp to be 3206. This 
will give us the 100 repeats of pattern as before, plus 6 ends. Numbers 1, 3, 6, 10, 11 and 12- 
harness call for the first 6 warp-ends in the pattern, hence: 



39 

Number I harness will call for 301 heddles. 
3 " " " 101 

6 " " " 401 

" 10 " " " 201 

" 11 " " " 301 

" 12 " " " 301 " 

Harness 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 will remain the same as before. 

THE REED. 

The reed consists of two horizontal strips of wood, between which a series of narrow strips 
of metal (flat steel wire) are bound in. 

After a warp is " drawn in its harness," it has to be "reeded;" one, two, three or more ends 
together are drawn in one dent or split of the reed. The purpose of the reed is, First : To guide the 
warp-threads after leaving the harness, holding the same during the entire width and length of 
the fabric evenly divided. Second : To strike the filling in evenly divided places all over the 
width of the fabric in beating up. 

The height of a reed (distance between both horizontal strips) varies according to the fabric it 
is used for. 

Silk fabrics requiring 2}4 to 3 inches height. 

Cotton fabrics " 2]/ 2 to 3^ " 

Woolen fabrics " 4 to 4^ " 

Carpets " 4^ to 5 

It is advisable to have the height of a reed ^ to ^ inch higher than the highest lift of any 
thread in the fabric. It will never do to have this height lower than any thread of the upper 
shed lifts, as this would chafe the warp. The reed has to be movable the least bit in the width of 
the lay, but is required to be steady towards front and back in almost every kind of fabric ; except 
in the manufacture of turkish towelings, or similar textile fabrics, in which the reed is required to 
give way in a backward direction regulated by springs. 

To get perfect work the reeds must be evenly set, the wires must stand parallel with the 
warp and the wire must be neither too thick, nor too thin, too wide or too narrow for the work. 
The " riding " of threads can often be helped by different number of threads per dent, or by 
taking different parts of the pattern in the same dent. 

REED CALCULATIONS. 

The reed is named by numbers, the number in each case indicating how many splits are in 
each inch. Thus a number 8 reed means a reed with 8 splits in every inch over the required 
width. If we call for number i6 l / 2 reed, we want a reed having 16^ splits in one inch, equal to 
33 dents in every 2 inches over the entire width of the fabric. Whole numbers or half numbers 
alone are used for grading of reeds. 

Example : Suppose we have a number 9 reed, 4 threads in one split or dent, how many ends 
are in one inch ? How many are in a full warp if 70 inches wide in reed? 

Answer : 9 x 4 — 36 ends of warp in one inch. 
X 70 width of warp in reed 

2520 ends in warp. 

Hence, we find as a rule for ascertaining the number of ends in the warp, if the reed num- 
ber, the threads per dent and the width of the warp in reed are known, the following : 

Multiply the reed number by the threads per dent, and multiply the result by the width of 
the warp in reed. 

Example : How many ends are in the warp if using 13 ^ reed, 6 threads per dent, 80 inches 
wide in reed ? 



40 

Answer: 13^X6 = 81 X 80 = 6480 ends in warp. 

The next process will be to ascertain the reed number, if the number of ends in the warp 
and the width in the reed are known, the threads per dent either given or to be selected accord- 
ing to the fabric. 

Rule : Divide the number of ends in the warp by the width in the reed, which gives the 
number of threads per inch. 

Divide this result again by the number of threads in one dent according to the weave or 
pattern required. 

Example : 6480 ends in warp, 80 inches wide in reed. 

1st. How many ends per inch? 

2d. What reed number required if 6 ends per dent are to be used? 

Answer: 6480-5-80 = 81 ends per inch. 

81-5-6 = 13^, number of reed required. 

It will be easily understood, how to find the width of the warp in the reed. Supposing the 
reed number, the threads per dent, and the number of threads in the warp are known : 

Rule : Divide the number of ends in the warp by the number of ends per inch, giving as 
the result the number of inches the warp will be in the reed. 

Example: Reed 12 X 3=3600 ends in warp. What width will this fabric have in the reed? 

Answer : 12 X 3 = 36 ends per inch. 

3600-5-36 = 100 inches width of fabric in reed. 

The number of ends to put in one dent has to be regulated according to the fabric and the 
weave. Experience is the only guide for this. The coarser the reed, to a certain extent, the 
easier the picks go into the fabric. The finer the reed, the smoother the goods, and with perfect 
reeds the less reed marks. 

The same number of ends are not always used in each dent, but the preceding rules may be 
used for finding the average number of threads per dent. 

Example : What are the threads per inch ? 

Reed number 20 

using 1 dent, 4 ends 

l " 5 " 
Answer : 4 + 5=9 9-^2 = 4^? threads, average per dent, X 20 number of reed = 9c 
threads per inch. 

Example : What are the threads per inch ? 
Reed number 18 

using I dent, 3 ends 
1 " 4 « 

1 " 3 " 
1 " 6 " 

Answer: 3 + 4+3 + 6= 16 threads in four dents. 

16 -5- 4=4 threads, average per dent, X 18 number of reed=72 threads per inch. 
Sometimes it happens that the average number of threads includes an inconvenient fraction. 
To avoid a calculation with this fraction, multiply the sum of the contents of the dents by the 
dents per inch, and then divide by the dents per set. 

Example: What are the threads per inch, warp reeded as follows in number 12 reed : 
I dent, 5 threads. 
1 " 3 

1 " 3 " 

3 + 3+5 ^nX 12= 132. 
132 -5- 3 = 44 threads per inch. 



Derivative Weaves. 



FROM THE PLAIN OR COTTON WEAVE. 



7. 



I 



A 



1 



■ 



I 



m 



1 



I 



v" 



1 



I. Common Rib-Weaves. 

This sub-division of the "plain" or "cotton" weave is classified into two distinct divisions, 
namely, weaves forming the face of the fabric by the warp (warp effects), and weaves forming the 
face of the fabric by the filling (filling effects). 

Warp Effects. 

The principle observed in constructing these weaves is to allow more than one pick to follow 

in succession into the same shed of a regular 
plain weave. This will require a high tex- 
ture for the warp in fabrics 
which are interlaced with them. 
The first common rib-weave to 
be formed is the change in 2, 
as represented in Fig. 160, re- 
quiring for its repeat 2 warp-threads and 4 
picks. 

Picks 1 and 2 are interwoven in the 
first shed of the plain weave ; picks 3 and 4 
are interwoven in the other. Fig. 161 shows 
a clearly drawn out diagram of this weave 
and the corresponding interlacing of warp 
and filling in a fabric. 

Fig. 162 illustrates the section cut of 
the woven fabric. 



1 



m 



l 2,Z.*.S6,78. 




rmrmrmnu. 
mnmrmrm~i 
■aanaron 

■ ■ ■ ■ 
■DBGBQBD 
IBQBJBJBa 
1 2 

Fig. 160. 





■ ■ ■ ■ 




■ ■ B ■ 


nBHBHB B 


nana ■ ■ 


nu b b 


■ B ■ ■ 


1 ■ ■ ■ ■ 


B ■ ■ ■ ' 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


BIBB 


■ ■ ■ ■ ] 


B fl ■ ■ I 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


B B ■ ■ 1 


0, B B ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


' ■ ■ ■ ■ 


■ B ■ ■ 


[ B B B ■ 


IB ■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


I'm m b b 


B B B B 


B B B B 1 


IB IB B ■ 


B B B B 1 


1 2 


■ ■ ■ ■ 


Fig. 163. 


IB B B B 1 



Fig. 164. 



Fig. 163 illustrates the common rib-weave as obtained by a change of 3 in the filling, thus 
requiring for its repeat 2 warp-threads and 6 picks. 

Fig. 164 illustrates the change of 4 picks in a shed for constructing the next common 
rib-weave, requiring for its repeat 2 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Weaves Figs. 160, 163 and 164 require for their repeat warpways, 2 threads, and therefore 2 
harness, which number, in practical work on the loom, will by reason of the high texture of warp 
generally used be increased to 4, 6, 8 or 12 harness, with a corresponding repetition 2, 3, 4 or 6 
times of the design, for the warp-threads. 

(41) 



42 



g. 

7 


1 


PP 
P 




6. 


M 


4 


,5 




» *■.'.! ; ' 


h 


^ 


WZL 


m/A 1 


3 




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3 


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g^l I 


/. 




^ i » 



/, 2.3it„5.6.7.8. 




Filling Effects. 

In these weaves every pick intersects alternately over 
and below two or three or more warp-threads; therefore 
being in its principle nothing more than the common 
"plain" weave, with two, three or more threads used in- 
stead of one in the plain weave. In their general appear- 
ance these weaves are the same as the warp effects of the 
same class of weaves previously explained except that the 
warp exchanges with the filling. As fabrics constructed 
with these weaves have the filling for face, a correspond- 
ingly high texture of the latter is required. The " ribs," as 
produced by these weaves, are formed in vertical direction, 
— » or in the direction of the warp-threads in the fabric, while 
^ in the former division, classified as warp effects, this direc- 
tion is opposite — that is, in the direction of the filling. 



oouonn 




■■ ■■ 




■■ ■■ 




■■ODHOD 




mt urn 




■■ ■■ 




scgbbcgbb 




■ B BO j 

1 4 




Fig. 165. 






rrrnBBBBnnncBBBB 




BBBB BBBfl DDD 




GGGGBBBBGDCGBBBB 




BBBB BBBB 




1 rmirn cbbbb 




BBBB BBBfl 




DDCrflBflflnCOnBBBB 




-BBBBCGGGBBBB-JCGG 



cggbbbgggbbb 
■■■gggbbbgog 

BBB flflfl 

BBBOOGBBBGOD 

flflfl flflfl 

BBBQC.'BBBQOG 

2GCDBBBDDDI" - "" 



I 



1 



IDDDI 



laaa 



Fig. 167. 



Fig. 168. 

Fig. 165 illustrates the change for two warp-threads in succession, interlacing with one pick. 

Fig. 166 shows a diagram illustrating the 4-harness rib- weave and the corresponding inter- 
lacing of warp and filling in a fabric. 

Fig. 167 illustrates the change for three warp-threads. 

Fig. 168 illustrates the change for four warp-threads. 

Weave Fig. 165 has for its repeat 4 warp-threads and 2 picks. 

Weave Fig. 167 has for its repeat 6 warp-threads and 2 picks. 

Weave Fig. 168 has for its repeat 8 warp-threads and 2 picks. 
But each weave can be made, if required, on 2-harness by drawing warp-threads interlacing the 
same in the filling on 1 -harness. 

II. Common Basket-Weaves. 

These are a combination of the common rib-weaves, warp and filling effect, having the same 
changes. Therefore, the principle of their construction will readily be found in the enlargement, 
warp and filling-ways, of the common plain weave. The first or most simple 
basket-weave to be found is produced by the exchanging of two successive warp- 
threads with two successive filling-threads, alternately up and down ; or an equal 
combination of rib-weaves, Figs. 160 and 165. 

Fig. 169 illustrates this basket-weave, requiring for the repeat four warp- 
threads and four picks. 

Warp-threads 1 and 2 are the first mate-threads. 

Warp-threads 3 and 4, the second. 

Picks I and 2 are the first mate-picks. 

Picks 3 and 4, the others. 



r BB" BB 
DGflBCDBB 
BB 1 BB' II '. 
■ ■ BB 

4QGBBCGBB 
DGBBGGBB 
BBDGBBGG 

1BBDDBBGG 
\ 4 



Fig. 169. 



43 




/. * 3. 9. 5. 6. Z 8. 

Fig. 170. 

threads working the same, and also illus- 
trates a combination of weaves, Figs. 164 
and 168. 

III. — Fancy Rib-Weaves. 

Warp Effects. 

The first step towards designing fancy 
rib-weaves is the combination of the regu- 
lar "plain" weave with its sub- 
division the common rib-weave. 
Fig. 174 is designed to il- 
lustrate the combination of one 
pick "plain" to alternate with 
two picks of the common rib- 
Aveave ; or in other words, to put one pick 
in one shed, and two picks in the other shed 
of a regular plain weave. 

Fig 175 illustrates the diagram of this 
weave with a corresponding illustration of 
the interlacing of warp and filling in a 
fabric. 

Fig. 176 illustrates the section cut of 
the woven fabric. In its appearance in the 



gbgbgbcb 
dbobobob 
bgbgbgbc 

□■GBGBGB 
GBGBGBGB 
BGBGBGBG 

- ■ ■ ■ ■ 
■ ■ ■ ■ 

111 ■ ■ 

Fig. 174. 



Fig. 170 shows a diagram illustrating 
the 4-harness basket-weave, and the cor- 
responding interlacing of warp and filling 
in a fabric. Fig. 171 illustrates the section 
cut of the woven fabric. 

Fig. 172 illustrates the common 6-har- 



GGGBBBGGGBBB 
OOGBBBGGGBBB 
OGGBBBGGGBBB 

BBB . ■■■ 
BBB " ■ ■■ : 
■■■ ■■■ 

6QCZBBBZZZBBB 
GGCBBBGZGBBB 
DCGBBBGGGBBB 
BBBZZZBBBZZG 
■■■ ■■■ 

1BBBGGGBBBGGG 

1 6 



r _ ~~:BBBBZz: — bbbb 

■■■■::: bbbb 

occ bbbbt " 7 bbbb 

■BOB ■■■■ 

BBBB BBBB 
BBBB . BBBB ~\ 
BBBB : BBBB 
BBBB _ BBBB 

IDC BBBB BBBB 
GGGCBBBBZZZZBBBB 
■■■■J . BBBB 
.~BBBB~~ BBBB 
BBBBZ: BBBB 
BBBB " BBBB 
■ ■■■ :ZZ" BBBB TGG 

■1BBBBZZZZBBBBZZZQ 

1 8 



Fig. 172. 



Fig. 173. 



ness basket-weave, having three successive 
warp and filling-threads working the same, 
and forming also a combination of weaves, 
Figs. 163 and 167. 

Fig 173 represents the common 8-har- 
ness basket- weave, with four successive warp- 



Fig. 176. 




/ & 3. V. J. 6. 7. 8. 

Fig. 175. 



u 




$1:1:1:1: 






&&&K£e.7.8. 




woven fabric this weave, as well as the following 
similarly constructed weaves, will produce the fancy 
effect by alternately exchanging heavy and fine rib lines. 
Fig. 177 illustrates the change as to the size of 
the rib produced by one pick in one rib to alternate 
with three picks in the other rib. Repeat of weave: 2 
warp-threads, and 4 picks. 



dbdbdbdb 
dbdbdbdb 
dbdbdbdb 

bdbdbdbd 
8dbdbobdb 

□BQBDBQB 
GBQBDBDB 
BOBDBDBC1 
DBDBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 

■ n am 

1 2 



Fig. 



177- 



HP 

£1 



fl 



ZP=tn 



WT 



I 



I 



mrmm 



■ 



I 



EEEE 



^ 



W 
7 



1 



/ Z. & ^. 5 ff. 

Fig. 17S. 
or two changes of the plain weave and 



z. 



Fig. 178 illustrates the diagram of the weave, with 
a corresponding illustration of the interlacing of warp 
and filling in a fabric. 

Fig. 179 illustrates the section cut of the woven 
fabric. 

Fig. 180 illustrates a fancy rib-weave having two 
picks in one shed, to alternate with three picks in 
the other shed. Repeat of weave: 2 warp-threads and 
5 picks. 

1 Fig. 181 illustrates a fancy rib-weave as prc- 
duced by a change of the shed of 1, 1 and 3 picks 
one change of three picks in the same shed. 



a ■ a a 

GBQBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 
■DBDBDBD 
BDBDBDBD 

6DBDBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 
GBGBGflDB 
BDBDBDBD 

1BDBDBDBD 

1 2 

Fig. 180. 



IOGBDBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 
DBDBDBDB 
BDBDBDBD 
DBDBDBDB 
BDBDBDBD 
BDBDBDBD 
BDBDBDBD 
DBDBDBDB 
1BDBDBDBD 

1 2 

Fig. 181. 



12DBDBDBDB 


DBOBDBufl 


DBDBDBDB 


BDBDBDBD 


BDBDBDBD 


DBDBDBDB 


BDBDBDBD 


BDBDBDBD 


BDBDBDBD 


DBDBDBDB 


DBDBDBDB 


IB ■ ■ ■ 
1 2 


Fig. 182. 



Fig. 182 illustrates the combination of three different ribs, (as to its size) or the changes for 
picks in one shed, as 1, 2, 3. Repeat of weave: 2 warp-threads and 12 picks. 

Filling Effects. 

In fabrics produced with these weaves, the rib-lines run in the direction of the warp-threads 
in the fabric. The face and back of the fabric will be produced with the filling, the warp forming 
the centre. 



45 

Fig. 183 illustrates the combination of one warp-thread in one filling change, to alternate with 
one filling change containing two warp-threads. 

Fig. 184 illustrates the warp change of 1 and 3 in a fancy rib-weave. Repeat of weave: 
4 warp-threads and 2 picks. 

'HI SS9 11.4 ■■■■■■ □BOljBDBB DBBODDBDDBBB 

bzzzbzzzbzzz bbzzzbbzzzi bzbbzbzc bzzbbbzbb~zzi 

■ ■■ 131 iii iziiizziib ■ ■ ■■ ■■ b iii 

■zzzizzzazza bbczzbuzzzi bzbbzbz: bzzbbbzbbz: 

III III' III ' ail BBI CBDDBDBB rBBZZZBZZBBB 

KZZZBV ZBZZEJ BBZZZBBZl BZBBZBZ" BZZBBBZBBZZZI 



bzzbzzbz: 
■■ ■■ *■ 

BZZBZZBZl 

zbbzbbzbb 

bzzbzzbz: 


1BZZBZZBZZ1 
1 ^ 



~I~~BZBB 


B BB B 


CBI "BZBB 


B BB' B _ 


CBZGB BB 


■ ■■ B 


2 B B BB 


■ ■■ b 3 


1 8 


Fig. 1S6. 



■■■■■■_■■■ l_. 

1 BZZZBZZZBZZZ) 1BBZZZBBZZZ IBZBBZBZZi 1BZZBBBZBBZZ 

14 15 13 1 12 

Fig. 183. Fig. 184. Fig. 185. Fig. 1S6. Fig. 187. 

Fig. 185, with a change of 2 and 3 in its construction, requires for its repeat 5 warp-threads 
and 2 picks. 

Fig. 186, with a change of 1, 1,2, requires for the repeat of the weave 8 warp-threads and 
2 picks. 

Fig. 187, constructed by means of change 1, 2, 3, requires for the repeat of the weave 12 
warp-threads and 2 picks. 

IV. Fancy Basket-Weaves. 

These weaves are obtained by combining common basket-effects of different sizes in one 
design. They also have their principle of construction in the combination of corresponding warp 
and filling effects of the fancy rib-weaves. 
cbbzbb Fig. 188 illustrates the fancy basket-weave produced with an alternate r- maa - mmm 

szbbzbb" change of one and two threads, warp and filling ways. Repeat: 3 warp- gupESSS 

la) 8 "**" 4-1 J -1 4ZBBBZBBB 

Vf 1 "- threads, 3 picks. 

Fig. 188. pjg^ jgg j s produced by the alternate changes of one and three 1BDa J" a: 

threads, warp and filling ways. Repeat: 4 warp-threads, 4 picks. IG " J 9 * 

Fig. 190 illustrates a fancy basket-weave of a 



\Ul construction twice as heavy as the weave illus- cbzczhzhbbzbz * bhu 

gSzoz™?™" trated in Fig. 188, or the alternate changes of two E|EEcf a Sjin B H 



IZIZZC 

#■■■ OBSB 

3ZIBBBB J.1BBBB 
ODBBBBZOf ' ' 

ODBBBBZZr 

V 



pi nil a 1 



and four, warp and filling ways. Repeat : 6 warp- g-ggg g g ggg g 

- - - . - . . B"BBK B ■ BBB B 1 

aSS-aS"? threads, 6 picks. cbzdzoz.b.zb^zb ... 

Fig. 191 illustrates a fancy basket-weave pro- 

•rlG. I 9°- . . . r r J /•« ■ BZBBBCBZCZBCBBBZBZZa 

duced with a change of 3, i, 1, for warp and filling- SiSSSSSSSV" 

Repeat: 10 warp-threads, 10 picks. ER^i.?.'!^.!! 

T-, - -11 1 J- i. IBCBBBZBCOPBCBBBCBCCa 

This weave will also indicate ' ft 

an important point in the con- ' 9 

struction of fancy basket-weaves 



□BBZZZZB~.-BBBBZBBZZZZBZ""BBH3 
TBBZT I llll U 



■■ -•-H-g~-BBBB-BBz-'-^g=fBB ^"ith regard to their repeat. If changes are required, and 

B '1'BBBBZBBJ B ' .... ■■ ° 

■BB"5nRB ii BBBB"BB i,i, B i *BBBB 1 warp and filling ways are of an uneven number, the repeat 

KCCBBBBZBB' ~*--J BBBBJ.BBZJZD '.,.'. ,-,,,,,,, , 

k ■■■'!■ ■ "" " for warp and filling threads will be double the number of 

k mi bb a aaaa aa 

55 S 5555 aa a aaaa threads called for in those changes. For example take 

BunBBJBBZBB' I llll II 

l4 rBin the present weave. Changes for warp and filling are 3, 1, 1. 

rnzoTji bi ib ■■ : a ...a . 

B™B , BBB ,, BB""B M BBBB , BB i S" thus, as three is an uneven number, we find 34-1-1-1 = 

■ aaaa aa a aaaa aa 



"BB I III! II 

a auaa aa a aaaa aa 
■ run BB ' a aaaa a a 
a aaaa aa a aaaa aa 

] 



■ 



5X2= 10 threads of warp and 10 picks necessary for one 
complete repeat. 
iB^BiBB_iB S ^ == B =S iiii_ii i5i zi Fig- 192 illustrates a fancy basket-weave having for its 

F IG I9 2. foundation the change of 1, 2, 4 for warp and filling. 

Repeat: 14 warp-threads, 14 picks. 

In addition to basket-weaves made with even changes 



46 

for warp and filling, it may often be necessary to construct this division of weaves in one system 
heavier than in the other. The reason for constructing basket-weaves in this manner is found 
either in the difference of textures of warp and filling, or because of the different counts of yarn 
for the warp and filling. Figs. 193 and 194 illustrate two weaves constructed in this manner. 



nnnaunnDMB 

OGCBBBGaGBBB 

BBBDGDBBBGGG 

■■■ BBBLHG 

4DOOUBDDnHB 

OaaBBBGGGBBB 

■■■ : mmm 1 

IBBBGGDBBBGGG 

1 t> 

Fig. 193. 



Repeat ( 6 war P" threads ' 
r |_ 4 picks. 



nnnDBBBBnancBBBB 

naDQBBBBQDDDBBBB 
DGGGBBBBGOGGBBBB 
■ ■■■ ,.j , ■■■■ 
BBBBGGGGI" - 
BBBBGGGGI _ 

CGDGDBBBBGC 
ODDDBBBBDDDD 

DQaGBBBBGCDQI 

■■■■ ■■■■ 
BBBBGGGGBBBBGGGG 

1QBBBGGGDBBBBGGGG 
1 8 



DLIULJ - 

.... Repeat (» warp-threads. 

r [o picks. 



Fig. 194. 



V. Figured Rib-Weaves. 

These are the combination of common and fancy rib-weaves so as to produce a new weave. 
The following few examples, with the corresponding explanations, will illustrate methods by 
which each rib-weave (as numerous as they can possibly be constructed in plain and fancy) 
can be varied in an endless manner. The first step towards figuring will be to change the 
rib-line in a common rib-weave after a certain number of warp-threads. Figs, 195, 196 and 197 
are designed for the purpose of illustrating this method. 

Fig. 195 contains for its principle the common rib-weave, Fig. 
160, 2 2- The rib is arranged for one pick higher for every six succes- 
sive warp-threads. Repeat: 24 warp-threads and 4 picks. Thus, as 4 
picks form the repeat for the common rib, find the number of warp- 
threads required for the full design as follows: Successive warp-threads, Fig. 195. 
X number of changes, = warp-threads required for full design. 6 X 4 = 24. 

Fig. 196 contains for its principle of construction the common rib-weave, Fig. 163, - . The 

rib is again arranged for two picks higher for every six successive warp-threads. Repeat: 18 
warp-threads and 5 picks. 

Fig. 197 contains for its construction the common rib-weave, Fig. 164, 4 . The rib is 

arranged two picks higher for every eight successive warp-threads. Repeat: 32 warp-threads and 
8 picks. 

Figs. 198, 199, 200 and 201 illustrate a second division of figured rib-weaves, having for 
their foundation fancy rib-weave warp effects. 



gbzb jbze a an ■ ■ e::b::e 1 

LB.'B ilHJa.'a B B_".B_iGEGBGa 
BGBGBJEGBGEJZBZB JjH ]EGB 
BGBGBGGEGE-EGB ~.B. BEGEGBG 

4GBGBGBGBG3 ,BI. BGBGaGBZB "> 
OBlBCBBJB_BGBGBGBGGEGEGB 
BGBGBGBGEGBGGBJB BZ3 B7E 

lBGBGHGaa_jBGaGBGBGBBGEGaa 

24 



GBGBGBGfflGfflGBE J3G3G 
GBJBGBfflGBGfflGEGEGSG 
DBGBGBfflGBJBG.jEJB ]3 
BGBGBGfflafflZBGjSGaGE 
BGBGB J.jH Jffl DfflGBGB IE 
BGBGBGGBGH JBEGE E J 
6QBGBGBGBGajSE ",B EG 
GBGBGBBjB jfflZ'BGEGBG 
GBGBGBfflGBJBG. 13GBGE 
BGBGBGBGHGBGGBGBGB 
BGBCBG JHGfflGB JEGEGE 

iBGBGBaGfflnfflGffiEaaaaG 



Fig. 196. 



8GBCI 
DBG! 
DBG: 
QBG 
BGB 
BGB 
BGB 
■ ■ 
1 



BGECEGEGEBaBG 
BGBjBrEGSBDBC' 

BEGGGGGBGBGBGi 
BaZBGBGBGBCBQI 

gbc EGBcaaaBar 

aBGECEGEaDBG 

GlElELEGGGBC 
nQHGHQHQHQBD 



IGBGBGBGEGEG 
DBaBDEGEGEG 
OBQGHQEDEQB 

JGBCCEZBGBGB 
QBQBGEQaGEGE 
GBaBDEGGGEGE 
CBDBGGBGSG.aG 
GBGBEGEGEGEG 
32 



Fig. 197. 



DBGEBGBa 

■ ■ ■ ■ ) 

BGBGDEGa 
BJBjBGBG 
-1 B EB ■ i 
BGBGBQBG 
BGBGGBaa 

■ a ■ -■ 

1 8 

Fig. 198. 



CEGaZEBGBGBG 
BGBGBGBGBGBQ 
BDBGBGBGBGBG 

BGBGBaaaaaaB 

BGBGBGBDBGBG 
BGBGBGBGBZBG 
CGEGBaBBaBaBG 

bgbgbgbgbgbj 
bgbgbgbgbgbg 
bgbgbggezezb 
bgbgbzbgbdbg 
1bgbgbgbgbgbg 

Fig. 199. 



Fig. 198 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave, — — j (see Fig. 177). Repeat: 8 
warp-threads and 4 picks. 

Fig. 199 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave,- - v Repeat: 12 warp-threads 

and 6 picks. 

Fig. 200 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave, g . Repeat: 12 warp-threads 

and 6 picks. 

Fig. 201 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave, ? g) with four changes in the 

repeat, each change 8 warp-threads, thus: repeat 32 warp-threads and 8 picks. 



47 

Figs. 202 and 203 illustrate a third sub-division of the figured rib-weaves° having for their 
foundation the fancy rib-weave filling effect. 

Fig. 202 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave, 3 -. Repeat: 4 warp-threads and 

S picks. 



1 


2 




3 




4 


Dnr-3~aw: 


~B"~ 


■ 


~ZIE' — HI — "B 


:b~bg 


LjEcet'eb: 


B 


B 


1 — ^ rr* — *^M 


:b a . 














■GB B B C 


a s ; 


BCB B ^B G , 


]■ ■ 


b n □ a 














c e e kb 


B 


B 


.' h e c:a 


a an 


ce_b_eb; 


_B_ 


■ 




:_hb[ 


:b_bg 


■ ■ ■ r.s_H KB B 


:bg^h :. 1: 


BGBGB' CHI Hi HBu B 


■ DC 


j a a 














1 










l4 



■GBGBGBCBGBGB 
■GBGBGBGBGBGB 

BDBGBGBGBGBGB 
■GBGBGBGGHGHG 
■CH~B~B~^BGaC 


GBGB 
GBGB 

GBGG 


GBGBGB 
GBCBCB 


KB 
KB 


B._E_EZS 
BZECECB 

GBZBZBG 
ZBZBZBG 


s^h_: 




























■ an "■ . ■ " 
BGBGBGBGGaaaaaGaB 

lBGBGBGBGGaGaGaaaa 


g'bg'bCBJ 


KB 

: b 


ZB_B_BG 
ZBZBGBG 



Fig. 200. 



Fig. 201. 



8CBGCGEGD 
BGBBBGBB 
DHGGGHGG 
BZBBBZBB 
CGGHGZZH 
BBB III 1 
nZQEGGCH 

■II 111 

1 4 

Fig. 202. 



Fig. 203 is constructed out of the regular fancy rib-weave, 5 -. Repeat : 6 warp-threads 

and 12 picks. 

The next method for the designing of figured rib-weaves is the combination of the 
warp and the filling effects of the common rib-weaves. We may select both effects correspond- 
ingly, or combine two different effects. 

Fig. 204 illustrates the combination of the common rib-weave, 4 v warp effect, with the 

common rib-weave, i -, filling effect. Each effect is arranged for a repeat of 8 warp-threads and 

8 picks. Repeat of complete weave : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 



inGEHZzzzaaaaa 

BGGBBBBZZBBB 
GEEGGGGEEGGD 

BGGBBBBZZBBB 

lzhszz nana: 

■ggbbbbggbbb 
qgccbeczcgeh 
bbbbggbbbbzg 
ccczeezzzzeh 
bbbbzzbbbb c 
czzchegczgeh 
1bbbbdgbbbb 

1 6 



isczzzeeee: 

Eaaazznz: 

DDOQGHHHC 
EEBEZ" 



■ y a 



GG EEEEB B ~BC 


a 


EEEEZZ _B_ B M 


a 1 


Dj EEEEB B B r 


a 1 


EEEE . BBB. 


a 


ci.j ijIll . aa 


:::: 


CB a B BKKKK 


1 


DB B B^B . . KK 


HH 


CB B B BKKKK 


1 


igijI ■":: aa 


rr^ 


Br-'BGB B EEKE .. 




a a bobcd be 


HH 


lBQBGBuBCBEEEZ.. 




1 


Fig. 204. 





16^ — HHGGHE" 1 


B^BGBGB 


gh zaazz. 


B B B B 




B B ■ ■ 


gb~ .aa 


a a a a 


C BE EBB 


a a. b.j 


HE BB : ■■ 


■ ■ a 




a a a 


EB " 33 B 


a. a a 


CB BjBGBC 


aa. aa 


CB _B .B BH 


a _ HH_i_, 


DB' BBB 


33. . 33 


CB. a B BK 


3 ". B3Z..J 


■gb a "B zaa .zee 


BGfl B B HH . BHG 


a :a a a ex: aa 


IBDBGBDBDHBCGHHa^j 



Fig. 205. 



Fig. 203. 

Fig. 205 illustrates the combination of the common rib-weave 4 , warp effect with the 

common rib- weave 2 -, filling effect. Each effect is arranged for a repeat of 8 warp-threads and 

8 picks. Repeat of combination design: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. These changes of 
warp and filling effects may also be arranged after the shape of a certain weave. For 
example, Fig. 206, which is arranged after the 4-harness broken twill ( az" V 



32nCEE 
EE 
CBE 

ebz: 

CLEE 
KK 
CCEE 
EBZ. 
"EC 
HE 

HE 
BE 



EE r 

EE 

L. EBEE 

BH 

1 EH EC 

HE 

BBB 

BBB 

I B B I 



G — EEBGBCBCBZEE - 

3HHODBGBCBCBGC. E 

ZCHHCBCBGBGBEE. 



a a 



HEE 



1 a a a a 

■LiBCB BUQE 

lialDBOBatx 



. EH ,. ..he: 

2BHH— .-.EE 

Fig. 206. 



EB' HBEB 
3BEJ BB 

•- • GB ^ , Ha 

'. BE^I 

E3^. HBEB 



GEE 

3 ..J 

BB 

3: . 

.BE 

3 .. 

BE 
3 
B .1 
■ 



■ 

BG 

33 
3 

HH 
3 

BH 

33 



"'- KK 

be : 

HH 

E3H , : 
I BB 
BB . ;c 
HH 

L'u Jit! 

""^he" 

HB E 
I BH 
EB E 

HH 
EB E 

H3 
HH 



BE ' 
3 H 

he; 



": 33" 

EB 

BE BE 
E BE 

HH HEI 
H HH ■ 

BE EHI 



IGBDBOBnCBE 
■ B B BEE 



a a 



BH 



"be 



,eb 

: 

33 
} 
E3 

: 

HB 



I 

h: 



_□ 
EH 
~G 
BH 

; 
EB 

HH 



..HH ...HH 
HH 

::: kk 

EB , HH 
I BE HH 
EH HH 

■ ■ " 



iZJ kJ . . . . ] . i . . . . . j . . . -■ 

B BE BE . EH BE 

EH 1 BE . HE EE3 BE B B B B 
S .. 33 33 .BH EE B B B B 

EH . .HE EH EE 3EB B B B I 
E .EH . .HH iHH HE' B B B B 

HH .HE HH BB EBB B B B I 
B .BE . BB . IHH . BB ■ ■ ■ ■ 

EE a a a a ex; EB kk :::: 

33 BBB BEX] HE BH KK 



a a 



J3B EH 
IHH BH C 

HB HE" 
KK 



3H__EHHH_. 



BBB HE 

HH HH EE 
HH HH HH 

HH BH BH 
HH . .HH HH 

HE EH HE 

BH HH he; :::: 

KK HH HH BB 

UU -..UB-. GHH_.-.UH_.. 



B BB 
EE 
3E HH 
HB HH 
EB BE BB 

BH KK 
BE HH HH 

EB EB . 
BH HH HH 

KK KK 
BE BB HE 



Fig. 207. 



For warp and filling face the same fancy rib-weave ( 2 — T - ? ) is used. Each change in effect 
(after the 4-harness twill, as mentioned before) is arranged for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks 
repeat. Repeat of weave : 32 warp-threads and 32 pick;;. 



48 



Fig. 207 also* has for its principle the four-harness broken twill. Two different common 

rib-weaves are used in its construction, as follows : For the warp effect - 4 ; for the filling effect 

2 -. Each change in effect is arranged for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks repeat. Repeat of 

weave: 32 warp-threads and 32 picks repeat. 

32DBOBaBCBGaGEEGCOEEEaaEEECBGBaBaB 
CBCBLB BBBB' HHGLI SB 1 '." B B ■ B 

QB-B m m .lee bbb_ bee i i i i 

B BLB.B BEE EBB_.r_.BB ,_._ B.LB lblbg 
B B B B ..BE ■ BBB EBEBLB B . BG 
LB B ■ BBBB. 3BB.. . BB _ _. B ■ B B 

LBOB' ■ B T:aB LEEE^LBEELBLBrB^B 

B 1 Sg ,L ^B'S BaH bB aHB B' ;i B^Sl ; B C B 1, B B B"B? ^aBGBDBGBCaGBBBGGGBBB-BGB 

CGGSSL EBB BBBHLB'BGBLBL BLiB'BG DBaBOBOBBBBG-GBBBCGGGBCB 

EBB BEE IBB BBB I I I IDIO GBGBGBl B BEE ^BBBiBGB 

BE BEE. BBBLB,_B_BLBLB^BLBGB B B = B BBB BBa = B.,BJBQ 

BEE "EBB ""BE , '"BGBr BCBGBGB' I J ■ ■ BBBB BEE _B. l_lu 

CIGGBB . iBBHG IBEEBGBUBLBGBuBGBLBG IGluI^ aBH^^HHSul |.j|D 

EBB EBB' '~BHI jaGBDBDBGBnBDBaBDBD QBLL_.EEEUL.LJEEEGBGBaBQBGB 

BB EBB-JBBBBaBGBGBGBaBGBaBa CBBBB H -L,BBBaaaaBGBQBGBGB 

BBB " _BBB. B_B . B BLBGBGBaBDQGEBaaa CB BBS GGHHHDBDBgBgBQB 

G BB. ..-BGBGBGBDBnBDBDBHHBaDHEH "BBS EBB B B B B B B 

BEB^GEBEJBaBGBGBaBQBaBaBaaaaEQQa BE EBB ■ GaBaBQBgBGBGBa 

DDDBBDDaBDBaBQBDBaBaBQBnHHHDGBHH G BBB BBHnBCBDBCBDBCBU 

BBBGDBBBBaBGBDBDBDBnBaBanDDHHGDD BB r ^EBE' BjBGBGBGBGBgggB 

DnnEHaanDBDBDBaBDBDBDBDBHnBaUBBH C EBB , . BJBQBGBGBCBEBBG 

EBBaaBBEQBGBaBaBaBaBaBGBGaaBEaGa EE^ BEE BgigBaBGBQBaGgB 

DaDBBanaaBnBDBDBGBaBDBnBBBBDaBBa ^, an ^ ! --B^H^ffJSuSB^gEBsg 

■DBDBDBDBaB 1BGB 1EEBJ jEEEGGGBBGaG aBLUj,jjiCJJjLi„iBBK JGB 

BGBLBJB.BIBLB.BijG.. BE - ' -EBB EBB DDHBBGBgBDBDBgB^B BEBD 

I.I 11' • 1JI .1 BBBLi BEE.; .BE 1 EBDBnBOBGBDBDBL . .EBB ^E 

LBGBOBGBGBGBGBL1BOG. BE. i' '...'BEE' ■ 'EBB GgaBqBaBGBgBGBEEE i EEEG 

DBDBDBDBDBDBDBDBBHBDnEBEDDDEBGDa BBOBOBgpaBaBGBI J BBB ; UB 

■DBDBDBDBDBDBaBaanaBBGGGBEEL, JBBB B _BQB:_Bi = .BJB C BEE BBSG 

■DBDBnBaBDBDBDBaBBBDaBBBDGaBBaGa BGBGBGBGB BBBB BEE .. 

lBQBnBDBDBnaDBDBDaaDBBnCDBBBDDBHg iBGBaBQbGBaBaaQBEECaaBEEG 

Fig. 208. Fig. 209. 

Fig. 208 illustrates a figured rib-weave having warp and filling changes equal (^-j— 3 ), and 
with systems of effects arranged to exchange in the shape of the 4-harness even-sided twill. 
Repeat: 32 warp-threads and 32 picks. 

Fig. 209 illustrates warp and filling changes equal (- 3), both arranged to exchange in the 

shape of an even-sided twill. Examples 204 to 209 will indicate the great variety for figured 
rib-weaves. An endless number of them could easily be constructed. 

In the beginning of our explanation of the common rib-weaves, we mentioned that in " warp 
effects " the warp forms the face and back of the fabric and the filling rests in its centre, while 
in " filling effects," the filling produces the face and back and the warp rests in its centre. To 
improve or increase the strength of the fabric we may interlace the warp or filling threads float- 
ing on the back of the fabric on an extra weave. Figs. 210, 211 and 212 are designed to give a 
clear illustration. 

12nBGBGBGB^B"B~BGB GQaaGBBBBBGaGGGBBBBB CGQGGBBBBBGaaCCBBaHB 

GBGBLBBBLB' B BBB BBBiMGCLGGBBBBBGGGGG HBBBBGL L.BBBPB^LL 

GBGBBBGBLBLBEBGB BB BB ~ BB BB LBB BB il II 

I BBB B H BBB B B BBHBBGGGGGBBBBflGGGGG BBSBBGGGGGBBMBGGGGG 

EB » B BBS BBB GGGaaBBBBBODOQQBBBBB CaaaaBHBBBGaaGOBBBBB 

CBGB B B B H B..B BBBBBGGGL iGBGBBB: JGGG BBBBBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGG 

BBBBBBBBi coQGGGBBBBBGGGGGBnflBB 6DGGGGBBBBOGGGGGBBBBB 

BBB BBB m B BB BBBHBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGB BBBBBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGG 

BGBGBBBLBGB BBBG I 1"~ II II BB BB II II IB IB 

B BBB B B BBB B I BBBBBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGG BB 'BB in BE 

BBB B B BBB B B I GGGGGBBBHB ' ' BBBBB GGGGGBBBBBGL B IBB 

1BGBGBDBGBGBGBGBG 1BBBBBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGG 1BBBBBGGGGGBBBBBGGGGG 

18 1 10 1 lij 

Fig. 210. F.g 211. Fig. 212. 

Fig. 210 illustrates the common g rib-weave (warp effect), having its warp-threads, as 

they float on the back, interlace in rotation once more with the filling, and thus giving additional 
strength to the fabric. 

Fig. 211 illustrates the common g - rib- weave (filling effect). The filling, when floating 

on the back of the fabric, is arranged to interlace additional, after the manner of a broken twill. 

Fig. 212 illustrates this additional interlacing arranged with the same twill for each rib. 



Effects Produced by Using two or more Colors in Warp and Filling of Fabrics 

interlaced upon Rib and Basket-Weaves. 



Rib and Basket-weaves are frequently used for producing various effects by different com- 
binations of colors in warp and filling. We will describe a few of the effects most frequently used, 
thus giving the student the necessary points for the construction of any effect he may have occa- 
sion to produce. 



49 



Fig. 213 illustrates an effect derived by a color arrangement of the warp (dressing), I end light, 
I end dark, and a color arrangement of the filling, 2 picks light 2 picks dark, upon a fabric inter- 
laced with the common rib-weave (warp effect) - 2 . 



Diagram for Explain- 
ing Figs. 213 to 224. 
Arrangement 

Weave of Warp 
(Dressing.) 



> 

r. £. J5 
n 3 



IQBDDnDDaLXinODDn 

■ ~BZ«H^E-lHHH«HHa 
LB fl --■□ 'E^ESE^SHS 

B B 



JE 
3E 



iDBnannDDnoDnnnn 



DBGDl 

. a a 



Effect. 



I — CTR1T 



3H 
3H 



3E3333 






E B 

"3§E 

:za 
: e 



-E B 
BE 
E B 

-3 3 
BE 

,E 3 

iBH3 



Bfl ~" 


II 


EE 


- S3 1 


33 


■■DC 


^33- - 


33 


33 


IZBBZ 








ZEE 


33 ' 


33 


33 


1 


S3 


33 - 


33 


EE 






^33 






DBB 


33" - 


33" 


33 


ZEE 


EH - 


33 


33 


Z ■ 


■ 33 


33 


■ 33 


EE 




SS 


33 


CI*Z 


33 


33 


ZEE. 


HH - 


33 


33 


CMC" 


33 


33 


33 


ZEE 


33 


33 


33 


CBB-H 


^33= 


-__:- \U tU r £3 


JS3 



BBZZZZZZZZZZZZZQ 
IZBflBSHBMHHMHH 
■I. >-:=:□□-- EE ! ' = EB 
HB : 

"".=--- ' - '4 

ZEE EEEEESSEEESE 

4 

ZEE EESSEEEEEEES 

Zi: - -: - 1 

ch: 

Cirs_ 
Z3B_ 
C«sZ 
ZEE 

: 

ZEEZ 



EEE3SEEEEEE3 

E3BEEEEEEEEB 






Fig. 213. 



Fig. 214. 



Fig. 215. 



Fig. 216. 



Fig. 214 illustrates the same weave and the same arrangement of the warp as Fig. 213- 
The arrangement of the filling is also, 2 picks dark, 2 picks light, as used in Fig. 2 13, but is started 
on the opposite shed. In Fig. 213 the light filling covers the dark warp and the dark filling 
covers the light warp, and the effect produced are lines across the width of the fabric, (in the 
direction of the filling), each line having the size of two successive picks ; in Fig. 214 the light 
filling covers the light warp and the dark filling covers the dark warp, forming for effect a 
hair-line. 

Fig. 2 1 5 illustrates a heavier hair-line obtained with the common rib-weave filling effect 2 2 . 

Arrangement for the warp: 2 ends light, 2 ends dark. Arrangement for the filling: 1 pick dark, 
I pick light, each style of warp covered by its own colored filling. 

Fig. 216 illustrates the tricot effect produced on the same rib-weave as Fig. 215 ; also the 
same color arrangement for warp and filling, except that the light filling covers the dark warp, 
and the dark filling covers the light warp. 



■■zzzzzzzzzcczczz 1 zrcccccccnccccn 

BB EE EEEE EEEE EE f'EEEE— -EEEE ■■-! 
BB_:Z-f-^EE "EEEE ^ EEEE EE> : EEEE ~EEEE 

iZBizzzi: = _ . _z _z ^z;..J 

3EEEEEE' 'i 
LSE. EE gg'""' l "-"- J "gg gg Se""""""eE' 1 
DSaaBBEEefcEBEEBBBEBE&BBBEBHBBEEEBBBHBB 

Fig. 217. 



n~B~B r 

■ZBZB 
B fl B 

B b : 

B B 
B B 

ccbbz: 


xooocczoccczr - 1 

= z^zzz; — zz 

=HKBt E E E E 
1 i-EEB»SBBEafcE E: 1 
ICZCCCCCCCCCCC 
I"" □ — ZZZ _ Z~ZCCZCD 

TS=E E E I 


CZRBZ 


g g' E E 1 


OCMC 


E E "•• M ; 


ZZi»-Z 
1 — mmr 


r-. " ? ^ " r. 


:ioi ; 
1UUU 


, £'_ §; z §: §; i] 


DOBBO 

CCSBZ 
CLlgpC 


r^ r- 


C-LS, 


BE E E ■ 1 



m~ E E E E E 
' ■■ 

Z E E E E B 

LEE E E E E 

E E E E B 

L E E E E E E 

[ . E B E E B 

1 E E E E S E 

r E E E E E 

E E E E E B 

L E E E E 3 

BE B BE 3 

B ■ r E E BM 3 

: E E E E B B 

O . E E Hi i .31 J .3 



Fig. 217 illustrates an effect obtained by combining effects Figs. 215 and 216. 
of the warp : 

2 ends light, 



Fig. 219. 
Arrangement 



2 


' dark, 


2 


' light, 


4 


' dark, 


2 


' light, 


4 


' dark, 



16 ends in repeat. 
Arrangement of the filling : one pick dark to alternate with one pick light. 

Fig. 218 illustrates an effect produced upon a fabric interlaced on the common rib-weave 

(warp effect) - 3, with the following arrangement for the warp : 

2 ends light, 
1 end dark, 
1 " light, 
1 " dark, 

5 ends in repeat Filling: all light. 



50 

Fig. 219 illustrates a hair-line, upon a fabric interlaced on the fancy rib-weave l (filling 

effect). Dressing : 1 end dark, 2 ends light, = 3 ends in repeat. Filling : one pick light to alter- 
nate with one pick dark. Each color in warp is covered by its own color in filling. 

Fig. 220 represents another hair line, having more ground space between each line. Weave: 

fancy rib j -. Dressing: 1 end dark, 3 ends light, = 4 ends in repeat. Filling: 1 pick light, 

I pick dark. Each color in warp is covered by its own color in filling. 

Fig. 221 illustrates a heavy hair-line effect similar to the one shown in Fig. 215 and is pro- 
duced upon a fabric interlaced with the common 4-harness basket-weave. Dressing and arrange- 
ment of filling : 2 ends light to alternate with 2 ends dark. Each color in warp to be cov- 
ered by its own filling. 

Fig. 222 shows an effect produced with the same weave and dressing as Fig. 221. Filling: 



all light. 



■DDOCDDamnDnGDa 

GMBHMHBSBnEBBB 
■GGGBHUSBSaHBBBB 
DMBGC 

GMM _H'+ ! '3' ! f 'EG 1 1 
GBB 3 ! : "B k :> ;E rJI 
B B ' 3 1 

33 3 . !3 • 3. 

am - 3' . 3 : .3 u 

DBB "3 ■•- ■'. -3 1 ' '3 ; '1 

3 ' - '3 3 i fl 

DBB 3 i 1- 53- ; 3 : n 

GUi _3 ' '3 :B ' 11 

DMaEBBBBBBBBBBB 
QBECEBBBBBBBBaaB 

Fig. 220. 



■■nnc 


1 j Tin 


mm 


GGG 


■■GDI 


1-~!H3 i 


1Hl3 \ 


GBB 


L: .■■ 


3 ;HH ! 


H HH ; 


!B3 


■■ 






jgg 


' 33 


1 !HH i 


! KH" ^ 


ABB 


33 


; <HH J 


'■□□' i 


aea 


D^HG : 


iHH I 


3HH'- * 


■ IBB 


Dan - 


iHH • 


:QH 1 


-333 


□3B_: 


1 -HH l 


"iHH 1 


J.3B 


pT7"^~- 


i ;SH ; 


'BH : 


33 


ciMn 


;Ha 3 


iHk-j 5 


133 




.- BS 3 


iQE = 


■133 


HH 


:HH' 1 


•HH '' 


■133 


i hh 


5 'HH 3 


=jHH 3 


BSE 


L V 1 ■! 


: :3H< 3 


■33 i 


iBB 


DMDI 


idaay 


iEBG 


JBB 


I 


? IG. : 


221. 





■■naaaDDDDDnaaDD 

■ ■GG iBB . 33 : 33 
( ■■ ! 33 ; I 133 33 

DGBM^G^GGG^G^GGQ 

C: ' T--. : :M " > "WB 

DBPI BBSS 

33 33. 'BB 

GBBGi 33 " 33 :-B3 

GBflCt ; :' '11 

GBBGi - : SB 

G- v'"- ■ 'BB : BB ;33 

G-; 33 -33 GBB 

aaSGHBBEBBSBSBES 

nwiHHiMHHMaa 
Fig. 222. 



Fig. 223 illustrates a " star-effect " obtained upon a fabric interlaced with the 4-harness com- 
mon basket-weave. Arrangement for warp and filling : 

1 end light, 

2 ends dark, 
1 end light, 



4 ends in repeat. 



■■GO 


zona 


DDDanani! 


■■ 


= iHS' i 


:riri^,.-riri j 


jamm 


^H-i 


■UB' - -HH -3 


c ■■ 


JjQj 


GG3GGGGG 


Gin: a 


"IH'1 5 


S+HQ1I 


gbb ; 


Lj[j[] 


BBBB3BB 


GBB 


nHH - 


333 '3338 


CJ^H 


-□ ! 


i '3 "SB3B 


L'-l 1 


■ -H S : 


iB 3 : 1 IBaB 


GEB_ 


iHHH 


-333 -333 


GBB 


SKB : 1 


333 1333-3, 


GHej^ 


:H- - 


J iB .«GBJ 


□H§ 


: \Q: ',: J 


Brii-ia ;. 1 


LJHHD 


- 1 KHt3 


1333 -1333 



CBBGEBEBaBBBESBa 
DBBDBBHBBBHBBBEIB 



■■GGaaDaaaaaaDanaaoaan 

■■G _ ™SE '■ ■<"■■ 33 : . i :B3- ■-' -1 
DGMBEEBHBBSBBBBBSaaBB 
CGMGGGG" '• ~G GTGGGGGGG 
C- ! ~ :^H';-= i " ' -3 

f'.'n r"«' '.".".' 

GBBJB33"33- iBBC 

GBBGBSE^ ' : 3 
DB I=5R:1 !J° : - £ 

"3 3" 

GEEGEB3 BE BBC 
DBBGBBBB;: '333 

GBPG ME' ' i : : 3" 
GBBGBBBBi&SBGB 

G33;:b33hB3; ibb:- 

aBBDBHBBiBBBHBBBBaBiMS 



3aa 

iBB 



!'3BBBB 

333 IBB 

iBBBNfl 



IBB 



^B 

13 r i lr"4 



Fig. 



223. Fig. 224. 

Fig. 224 illustrates another small effect upon a fabric interlaced with the 4-harness basket- 
weave. Arrangement for warp and filling : 



2 ends dark 
4 ends light 



;} 



or 



1. 



color No. 
color No. 2. 



6 ends in repeat of color arrangement, and 12 ends the repeat of the entire effect. 
It will be easily seen that an endless variety of effects can be produced, but those pre- 
viously given illustrate the most frequently used, and will be a guide for the student in construct- 
ing other effects on 2, 3, or more, color arrangements. 



VI. Oblique Rib-Weaves. 

This sub-division of the rib-weaves is used in the manufacture of a line of fabrics tech- 
nically known as " basket-cloth " ; and they are also used to a great extent in the manufacture of 
worsted suitings, cloakings, etc. For their construction we use the following rule : 



51 



Divide the repeat, which must be equal warp and filling-ways, in four equal squares. (For 
example, take diagram, Fig. 225. Suppose n a, b, c, d to form the repeat for the weave, warp 

and filling- ways. Small squares numbered 1, 2, 3 
and 4 are the four equal squares required.) Next, 
divide the main square {a, b, c, d) into eight parts 
by running two oblique lines from each corner through 
the centre (e) to the opposite corner. For illustra- 
tion, see diagram, Fig. 226: lines b to d and a to c, in 
addition to lines f to h and i to g will divide the main 
square. a, b, c, d into eight even parts, each of a tri- d '- 
angular shape, as indicated by numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7 and 8. Two methods of construction can next 
be observed: either we fill out every triangle containing uneven numbers with filling-weave 
effect, and every even-numbered triangle with a warp-rib effect, or we select two connecting 
triangles such as 1 and 2 = a, e, b, for warp effect rib-weave, and the next two triangles 3 
and 4 = b, e, c, for filling effect, to be followed by triangle c, e, d with warp effect, and triangle 
d, e, a with filling effect. Weaves Figs. 227, 228, 229 and 230 are constructed according to the 
first-mentioned rule. Figs. 231, 232, 233 and 234 are produced according to the second. 



d 



I 


2 


4 


3 



Fig. 225. 




method of construction. 



BSmRS t> ,. / 6 warp-threads. 
dhqBm Repeats ^ .A 
r |_ 6 picks. 



. _«GBG 

GGBE3G 

1BDHDDD 

1 (i 

Fig. 227. 



BBHHHBDBn 

Hcrr» ■■ 

EGEEB ' n 
EGEGBBBB 
BBBBCBCB 
G IBEETB 

BBDBGDDQ 

1GBCBBEEB 

1 8 

Fig. 228. 



Reneof/ 8 War P" 
Ke P ectt \8picks 



threads. 



lOCDnODBDBDO 
[ HHHHi B 
GBCGGBGBBB 
GBCEEB 
car.a BBBBB 
bbbbb :: HJ 

BEE EG 

■ ■■ ■ 

■ bbeeeg 

1bdbcbcdddd 

1 10 

Fig. 229. 



Repeat 



10 warp-threads. 
10 picks. 



I2HBBHHHBDBnBD 

a b in 

a bbbbb b l: : 

BnaDCGHGBBBB 
BDaGBBB' ' GUG 
BCEl B'.-BBBBBB 
BBBBBB B 1 JB B 
GGCJ : BBB B B 
BBBB B a a 
OCL"B BBBBB B 
■ I I B B 
lL.BL-B BBBBBBB 
1 12 

Fig. 230. 



■p f 12 warp-threads. 

" \ 12 picks. 



6DBGBGB 
BBGBGG 
CG"BBB 
BBBGC 
DQBGBB 

1BGBDBG 
1 6 

Fig. 231. 



Repeat /^warp-threads. 

1 { 6 picks. 



-n :; ■ ■ 

GCBGBGBB 
BBB B 

BBBB 
BBBBGC 
DGGBi BBB 
BBGBI a ' 

1gbgbgbgb 
Fig. 232. 



■ 8 warp-threads. 
Repeat ^ g picks _ 



mGBGa"~B _ B^a 

GBGB'.'B B 

B ■ BBB 
BBBB ■ 

BBBBB 
BBBBB 

GG! 1 M .BBBB 

BBB' B B LO 

JDBCBGB" .BB 

IBGBGB-BGBlJ 



Fig. 233. 



Repeat-[ IOwar P- threads - 
1 10 picks. 



I IO P 1 



1 eBGBaBaBGBGBa 
I B B ■ B BB 
EBB B B ■ 

B B BBBB 
BBBBB B 

G BBBBBB 

B BBBBB 

BBBB ■ B 

B B B BBB 

BB B B B B I 
BBBB 



1 



)u 



Fig. 234. 



-p f 12 warp-threads. 

Kepeatj J2 picks 



i'B a a a a a 
a a a a a a 
a a a a a a 
a a a a a a 

[ a a a a a a 
a a a a a a 



B 
BBB 

BBBB 

GGG 
BBB 



BB 
BBB 



BB 
B B 
BB 

a 

iB 
BBB 

BBB 

BBB 

; 

BBB 

; 
BBB 



bbb bbb aaa 

BB B B B ■ 

. . IB BBB 



Combining Common Rib and Oblique Rib-Weaves, 

Design Fig. 235 illustrates the repetition of weave Fig. 234 with an 
additional common rib effect, warp and filling ways, which will form 
horizontal and vertical lines in the fabric for outlining the effect pro- 
duced by the oblique rib-weave. Repeat: 18 warp-threads and 18 picks. 



Fig. 235. 



Derivative Weaves: 



FROM THE REGULAR TWILLS. 



I. Broken Twills. 



" Broken twills " are derived from the regular twills by running the direction of the twill 
one-half of the repeat from the left to the right ; and the other half from the right to the left. 
These changes of the direction of twill must be arranged so as to produce a well broken up 
effect. By means of this break, or change of twill, we produce a like change of the twill line, 
visible upon the face of the fabric ; hence this classification as broken-twill weaves. 

The first number of harness for producing a broken twill is four-harness, and the regular 
twill to be used for it is the 3 twill. 

After interlacing the first warp-thread in the first pick, and the second warp-thread in the 
second pick, change the direction of the twill by interlacing the third warp-thread with the 
fourth pick, and the fourth warp-thread with the third pick. 



DnannDHn 

naDHDDDB 
QBDQDBQQ 
■DDDBDDa 
4DDBDQDBa 

oaaBDaGB 

OBGGGBZG 

1 4 



■■ ■■■ ■ 

bbb'zbbbj 

bzbbbzbb 

■■■ ■■■ 

■a ■■■ ■ 

■■■OHIO 
■Illlll 

■■■ mm 
1 4 



■OCDBCDO 

qbdddbdd 

ODBGQDBa 
CBCGDBQDa 

□aaHDOQB 

DOBQOQBa 
BODDBGGG 
DHDDDBaa 

1 4 



cnnBnannoBao 

□aciQBQacDOBa 

QGGGGBGGGGGB 
□DBaaaGGBGZG 

D«aoDQC«aaDa 
■DDDDQHnaaaa 
6DDDHDaaanHDn 
naaaBaaaaGBa 

DDDDDHDGDDDH 
ODHDDDDDBann 

DHaDnanHDaaa 
iBaanaDBanaaa 
1 c 



Fig. 236. Fig. 237. Fig. 238. Fig. 239. 

Fig. 236 illustrates this 3 4-harness broken twill (filling for face in fabric). 

Fig. 237 represents the opposite effect, or the j 4-harness broken twill (warp for face in 

fabric). 

Fig. 238 illustrates the 4-harness 3 twill, broken only filling ways. 

After running 3 picks on regular twill from right to left, its direction is changed from left to 
right for the next 3 picks. Repeat : 4-harness, 6 picks. 

Fig. 239 represents the broken twill derived from the six-harness 5 twill. Three successive 

warp-threads are interlaced with three successive picks in regular twill from left to right, and the 
remaining three warp-threads and three oicks are interlaced in the opposite direction of twill, 
i. e., right to left. 



□□□□uacnaDnQHDDQ 

onnanBaaaaocnBan 

□OQnaOBOOaOQDDBD 

DDnaomBncjTjnaaaB 
DGDBaaaaaaaBaaaa 
anBDQDDDaoBnaooa 
cb ,: XDDOBaaonaa 
BGQGcnaoBoooDaon- 
8aaQGBaaaaaaDBaaG 
naaaDBaaaaaDDBGa 
caaaanBDDnanDaBn 

DDaDDDDBaDnDDDDB 

CDDBnnannaoBDDDa 

DDBDC DDDDBDDDan 

DBaaanDDDBDDnDaD 

lBaj'JZDDDBDaaDDDD 
1 8 

Fig. 240. 



□DCOBBQBODaaBBOB 
I GBGGGGGGGBGG 
I ^GBG^': '■ ZZBBG 

i ■. am i :■:■ 

I- l n BB ■ :j3i"HBJGJG 
[ BBB :CGGDHBHQDDn 

EBB":I:ZG GBBB ." ZZZZ 
BBZPlZZGZBaZMZZ - " 1 

8QaGaBHiGBaaaaBBGB 

anaaBBBGGaaaHBBa 
DDaaaBBBaaaaaHBt3 

\'S\": 1 1 Z'HBGGG ir-JZBB 

■GBBaanaBDHBaaaa 
GBBBGaaaaHBHaaaa 
HBHaaaaaHBBaaaaa 

1BHDBDDDDBHDBDDDD 



1 



DDDaaBznazianonnBzzzg 
naaanaBnc jaaaaBzzzl 
DDaaanDBDanaaaaDGBjz 
DDaaannDBaDDDDDDaaBa 
dcz: m loaaaaaQD.m 
□DDDBaaaoaoaaoBDaana 
DDaBQDanDaaanBannaan 

DDBDDDaDDDDDBDDDDDaa 

DBDaaDDDDDDBDnDDaQDZI 

BDQDDDnnDaBDDDDDDDaa 

lODDDaDBDDaDDDDDDBDDDa 

rZZZZZBZIZiZ DGDD "BJZJ 

DaaaanDBDDcaDaanDBz 3 
onnaanaumanaaaaaaamn 
nGDDDDDanBDnnaanDnaB 

DDODBDDDDanDGDBnaaDa 

DDDB'ZDDlZDGZDDBQ'ZlZaaa 

DaBnnDDcnaoDBDDDnaaa 

DBDDDDDDnunBDDGDDDC 

iBaaaDDDDnDBaDDnnnaaa 
1 10 



n^^B^BBZZBZZZBZBBZDB 
G G "GBG G G ZGBGZZ 

oGoaaaaBHaoaDaGDaBHD 
nDaaBnnBBanDaaaaaGBa 

DGGZ:ZGZZGBZG.: ZG~'ZGB 
HDDHBDHnnnBDDHBDHDaC 

aaaBGaaGGG.. bbbggbgb 

DGBQDDHDaanaBHDDGDHD 

□BaaaGGGDaaBGDaaGaGa 

BBDDHDDDHDBHDDHDDCHD 
lOaDDBnBBanBDaDBDBBDDB 

BDBGGGBGZzaaaaaGBaQZ 

DBGBDGGBBZ G ""GGZGBH " 
DDBDBDCGBG' ' "GZGZZGBB 
'"B :CGZ GB G " GZZGB 
G GBZaZZ- G G.GBZGZ.G 



GGQI 

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GBG 

IBBUl 

1 



:g g gbgzzgzb 

!' ' g. g "■ bbbzzbzeg 
g g .cgbgzzgzggg 
g„„_ g bg_ :az_za.:i 

lu 



Fig. 241. 



Fig. 242. 



Fig. 243. 



Fig. 240 illustrates the s 8-harness broken twill. 



Warp- threads 1, 2, 3, 4 interlacing in rotation in picks 1, 2, 3, 4. 
5,6,7,8 " " " 8,7,6,5. 

Fig. 241 represents twill, fig. 240, arranged for a fancy combination by adding spots, regularly 
distributed over the entire repeat. 

Fig. 242 shows the 9 10-harness broken twill. 

(52) 



53 



Fig. 243 represents a fancy combination weave produced out of weave fig. 242. The 
original 10-harness broken twill is shown in Fig. 243 in the same kind of type as in Fig. 242. 

Fig. 244 illustrates the regular ? ^ twill, arranged for a broken-twill weave (broken in the 

direction of the warp). After running six warp-threads in the direction from left to right (regu- 
lar), we form a break and run warp-threads 7 and 8 with the twill in the opposite direction. 

IBQOBBGBaBaaBBGBG ( Q , Tro ,-~ tVn-^o/-Ic 

DDMDQMaoMaaM -o l. Jo warp-tnreaas. 

QBBGGBaBaBBaGBGB KeDeat < ■ , 

IBBUGBBaGBBGDBBGG ^^ C | 4 picks. 

Fig. 244. 

By means of a fancy drawing-in draft (i, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 4, 3) we can arrange this weave for 
four-harness, having the foundation weave (- 2 regular twill ) for the harness-chain. 

7naoBBDBnoBODBBonnnBBBOnnaBBmBaDBaBBannBBB 

''BBGGGBBBGBGGBBGBGGGBBBGG aaaBBBQaCBBGBaaBaCBBGGGGBBBGaaaBBaaBaaBCBB 

BGGGBBBGGBBaBGGBBaaaBBBG QCBGBBQCGBBBGGGBBGBG7B~'GBB ■■■ ■■ ■ 

■ ■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ QBBi B B BB ... BBB ■■ ■ ■ BB BBBGDG 

GGBBBGGGBGBBQGBGBBBGGGBB ■■■ II I I ■■::■■■ ~ BB ■ B BB JGGG 

OBBBGGGBBGGB BB. .BBBGGGB BB BBB. BB B B BB BBB BB B_GBGG 

iBBBGGGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBBGna IBGGBG^BB LGBBBGGGGBBGGBGGB^BBGGGBBBGGGBBD 

1 9 12 15 24 1 42 

Fig. 245. F.G. 246. 

Fig. 245 shows the 6-harness 3 twill, arranged as follows : 

9 warp-threads twill from left to right, break, and the next 
3 " " " right to left, " 

3 " " " left to right, " 

9 " " " right to left. 

24 " in full repeat. 

Drawing-in draft will call for 6-harness ; and for harness-chain the foundation twill - — 3 must 
be used. 

Examples Figs. 244 and 245 will also illustrate and explain any different changes in using 
a different number of warp-threads in rotation before breaking off. In this selection we have an 
unlimited variety at our disposal. 

Fig. 246 illustrates the breaking off of every three warp-threads in rotation upon the 7-har- 
ness - — ^ twill. 

Fig. 247 represents 5 warp-threads of the 3 l s 3 1 3 twill, used successively from the left to 
right ; next a break and five additional warp-threads, used with a twill arranged from right to left. 
These breaks may also be applied to different graded twills as 27 — 63 ° — 70 , etc., and which 
will be treated under the sub-division of the regular twills in the next chapter. 

For illustrating this point Fig. 248 is designed, representing 12 threads of the 63 steep- 
twill 5 2 1 2 in a direction from left to right, and 12 additional threads of the same weave having 
its direction of twill from right to left. 

ldDOBGBGBBBGGGBGBGBI 

B . BB BB B , BB I 

1 

1" 
I 
I 

I BBB BBB B BB B BB B IB 
I ■■ B BB B B BBB BBB ■ 
BBB BBB BBB BB B BB B I 
BBl B BB B BB BBB BBB I ) 
BB' BBB ! BBB B BB B BB B 
B B BB B BB B I BBB I BBB 
1BG., B III ■ I III i IB BBB BBB B B BB B BB 1 

1 lu I IS .1 

Fig. 247. Fig. 248. 

The arrangement of a steep-twill containing 70 , 63 , 45 °, 36 grading, combined for a 
broken-twill, is shown in weave Fig. 249. Repeat: 48 warp-threads 12 picks. 

The foundation-twill for this weave is the regular' 1 l ' ., ' , 12-harness twill, which is also 
used for harness-chain if using a cross-draw for drafting weave Fig. 249, for 12-harness. 



B IB 
B B B 

BB 


BBB 
BB a 
BBBGC 


BBl 

a ai 

BB 


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IB 

IBB 


1 BBB . 


BB B 


BB 


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a BB 


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BBB 
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a : 


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BBB 


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1 



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bb a ■ 


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IB ' .BBB 
IB B BB ■ 


aaa 


I . BBB 


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54 



The next sub-division of "broken-twills" out of " resrular-twills " is found in arrancrinff the 



breaking off filling ways. For example: Fig. 250 illustrates the 4 - 
after every four successive picks. Repeat : 8 warp-threads and 8 picks 



- 4 twill broken filling ways 



■■■■■ G ■_ 

:<■■■■■ a> di/gomgohbo 



innoDHG 



DDGBDnonGBBBBDaDDDGnnQDCGGDl 

HQDBHDaHDBBBGaanGDaaHDBBOOHDDi._- _ 

DCBBaDDaBBBDGaaannaaDBBBaaGGQaBBBBBCHaDDQBBaaai. 

DaBaODGBBBDaaDDDGaOBBBBBDaannGGaBBBBaaDDnDBBaDDB 
DnBaDDDBBDnaDaDanDBBBBBBCjaDDGDaHDBBBBDHDDHBBDDGB 
DBBnOGBBBHDanaaDBBBBBBDaHannDDDDHDBBBBDDaDDBBaDB 

GBaDDDBBDDDnaanBBBBBBDaaaaGDDDDnDaDBBBBaanaBBaDa 
l:i:i cii 'b , ■ ig ihbii c; ■■:■;:: ,ij: ' obgbbbgb' : ■ ;: 
bbgolbbb :: bbibb :::: ■■■< ■ :: ■■■ "BBBjn 

BO"GBBCf_i Gibgbbbbg. jQjl' igbbbbb :::: :: ■■■:: ■:: 

BaaDBBanDaQBBBBiJGGi.jaDUaCBBBBBBLOGDLJDDBOBBaaOHBan 

bqdbb' :■ :o iDBBBBaaaaDonuaaaGBBBBBBnarn ~cl 'Bbbbbggbbgi 

12DGGBBG "GBBBBaanDaaaca :::: ihbii :: ; ■■ bb 

a 1 ' b :: ibb c<: » r 1:::: bo ■■■■■ :: a ■■:: ::■ 



CGI 
DQI 
GDI 

gi~ 
aia 



:ni 



"3: J 

j3Ui i ! 1a 

B GBB a 

BaaaBBaaaaar 

IBGGBBDDDDDr' 

1 



CBBBDanDGnaa 1 igbbbi'^gggggbbbbi 
:■■■:: :::: una • :; bbi 

^BBnGnDDQG' IBBBIB iGGGaaaBCBI 
IBBGDnaDaDBBBBBBGDHGDnCDDDHCI 

~ia r "BBBBBB"iaaaaaGGGGGaac 



IGBGOGBBBGl iGl 

ib :; bib ■ 

ibb bg aBB "bb 

IBBBGQGOaBBGGB 

bbbbb ' ::■■:■:' 

a <■■ aa 1 gi.:gg bbb a .acca 

. iGG 1.. BBB a BBB i:iB 

BGGBaGGGQBBBBBGEBaaGCBGBBBBCG'. ■□■ I 
_ jaaGGGGGGBBBBBBCGGCCCDGCBBi rCDBBDQ 

OGGaaaaGaaaGBBBBBBQaGaQQaBBBaaGBBQ 

24 48 



BBBBGGGOBBBBDDOa 
GBBBB BBBBGGG 

■■■■ ■■■■ 
GOGBBBBGD ' BBBBG 
BBBGGGGBBBBGGGGB 
BBGGGGBBBBGGGGBB 
B I <BBBBG ]l GBBB 

im ::■■■■ 

EBBBBGGGGBBBBGGGG 
GBBBBGGGGBBBBGGG 
Gl BBBBQaGGBBBBGa 

■BBB Bill 

BBBGC DGBBBBI G ' B 
BBGr III! GDGBB 

BaaaGBBBBaaaaBBi 

1GGGGBBBBGGCGI"" 
1 



Fig. 249. 



Fig. 250. 



Fig. 25 : shows the i twill broken filling ways after every four picks. Warp ways 2 threads 

are missed after every 6 warp-threads, to produce an additional fancy effect. Breaking off regular 
(or steep) twills in the direction of the warp and the filling will form the next movement in the 
construction of broken-twills out of the regular twills. In this manner Figs. 252 to 255 are 
constructed. 



CBcaacaaGaGaacaa 

ECCGBBQBB " OQGGDB 

aa aa aa gbb j 

cqi i"G :GG' _a . anaa 

BGBBGB B BBGBGG 
BB ■■ C, IB II 

BBGBB > OBBGBBCGG 
BGBBGB ■ "BBGBGG 

t a ■ a aa a_Gja aa 
a 1 aa aa jGGaaca 
aa' ■ 1 aajaa.j ibb 

B B BH_ BGGBGGG 
BGBB: B -„B 'BBGBGG 
GBBGBB II II 

BBGBB BBGBBGGD 
1BGBBGBGGBGBBGBGG 
I 8 



rBBB"^BB^~GB"BBB r "GBB-GGB 
I BBB B BB BBB B HO 

CGGBBBCDGBBBGi : IIIUGGIBB 
BGG BB IBB B ■■ IBB I 
BB B BBB BB B BBB i 
BBBGCLBBB » III ;i .GBBBGPG 
jGQBBBGGGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBB 
GGBBB. ■ BB ■■■ I :GII 
III BB B BBBUGBBGGGB 
BBBGGGBBBGGGBBBGGGIIIGGG 
BBGGGBGBBBGGBBGGGBGBBBGG 
B 1 BBl BBB B " i BB BBBG 
i-i ill' ' ■■ : ■ ■■■ • ■■ I 
GCBBBrBGGGBBGGBBBZB rn GQBB 

I ' hi.; ■■■ ;■. ■■■ i ■■■ 

I' II' " III' B BB BBB' ) 
BBGCLB III II I III 

□bb _ : <: in. Gnu 1 - _■■■,- -j 

DGGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBB 
GGBBBGBGGGBBGGBBBGBGGGBB 
OBBBQCBBGG B BBBaQBBGGGB 
BBBGCCBBB. ' BBBGGGBBBGGl J 
BBl I 'LI BBB '< BB 'G I III G 
1HGGGBBCGBBBGBGGQBBGGBBBG 



-'4CBBGGBBaDGGBaDBaBGBGBGGB 
GGBBGGBBrGBB BB BB BB 
Bi "J BB' < M ■■ I B B B. Ill 
■I BB BB II BB "BBGC 

S'GGBBCGBB "GBB' -BB. _BB1" IBB 
BB II I' J ■ BB B B B , B 

18IGGBB' GB BBGBGGBGBGBCBBG 
BB' BB" " BBGGBBnuBBGGBBG- 

lOQaBBGCBBDDBBDDBBDDBBDDBB 
OBBGaBBDBanBDBBDBDBaBGGB 

II " ■■ " ■■ ■■ bb : bb : G 

BGr.BB _B Itl II l-IB 1 

lliGBBCGBBi BQQBQBBaiaiaBGLiB 
BI II ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ 

BaaBBOGBGBBaBaaBGBaBaBBa 

BBGGBBGGBBGGBBGGBBGGBBGG 

BB BB GBBGGBBO' BB BB 

III BB B'G'B"BBGB"B^B 

BBGGBBGGBBGGBBGGBBGGBBGQ 

BGGBBGGBGBB : "BGL.BGBGBGBBG 

OH || Dl II II IB 

GBBOGBBCBGCBaBBCB : :BGBGGB 

BBGGBBGGBBGGBB' I BB BBGG 

lBDDBBDDBaBBDBDDBDBDnDBBa 



Fig. 251. 



Fig. 252. 



Fig. 253. 



BGGGCBBGGDGB 
GBGGBGGBaaBG 
CGBBGGGGBBGG 
CCBBGaGGBBGa 
GBGGBaaBQGBa 
B .J GBB , B 

6B ' "G.GBB.ji iJCJB 
DBGaBGaBGOBG 
I BB . BB !G 

CGBBGGGGBBGG 
CB_' ■ B _JBD 

IBGCCCBBGGGGB 

1 6 



Fig. 252 is obtained from the 3 3 twill, by arranging the breaking off in the direction of the 

warp and filling, after every 6 successive threads. Repeat: 12 warp-threads, 12 picks. 

Fig. 253 has for its foundation the regular ^ 4-harness twill. Arrangement for breaking the 

weave after warp-threads 8, 12, 16, 18, 20, and 24, thus forming twill effects of three different 
sizes as follows : 2, 4 and 8 threads. 

Another step towards figuring for broken-twill designs is that of using a 
motive (effect) for figuring by means of the two directions of the twill. To 
illustrate this method Figs. 254 and 255 have been designed. 

Fig. 254 illustrates two repeats of the motive, warp and filling ways. Fig. 255 

shows this motive applied to a broken-twill weave produced by the § twill. 

12 warp-threads and 12 picks are used for each part of the effect in the motive; 
therefore, as 6 parts compose the motive, we have 6 X 12 = 72 warp-threads and 72 picks the 
repeat for the complete design. c in motive, is illustrated in the design ; □ in motive is 
shown a in the design. 

Warp-threads I to 12 in the weave equal the longitudinal row 1 of squares in the motive. 
Warp-threads 13 to 24 in the weave equal the longitudinal row 2 of squares in the motive. 
Warp-threads 25 to 48 in the weave equal the longitudinal rows 3 and 4 of squares in the 
motive. 

Warp-threads 49 to 60 in the weave equal the longitudinal row 5 of squares in the motive. 
Warp-threads 61 to 72 in the weave equal the longitudinal row 6 of squares in the motive. 



55 



Picks I to 12 in the weave equal the horizontal row I of squares in the motive. 
Picks 13 to 24 in the weave equal the horizontal row 2 of squares in the motive. 
Picks 25 to 48 in the weave equal the horizontal rows 3 and 4 of squares in the motive. 



72BGOCBBBacDBB7"GEBBGz^EBE":GiBBE _ ZGEEEaDaEEEOODEEGCDCEEEGGGEEEGBCGCBBBOOi 
gggbbbgg. '■■■_..;_ aaa z; aaa gzebbgz aaa ggbee . . .bebgggbbe ebegg_bbb ;= g... 



cggi 



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30 


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gcgbbe : ~ _ebeggobbbgg ■■■:.:: 

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cbeeg: ^eeggbbgggbbb^ggbgei 

czaaazz ebbgb zooBBBoaoBBoai 

gogbb3"."ggb3Bggzbbbg :gbbbgg 

bgggebb ' zaaooBBBoaoBBBzaz 

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EaBOOzaaaznoHHHaooHBBDnzaBt 

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CEEBGG-.33B _BB_0 "BBBGGGBG333 
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EOQGEEBGaLJEEDGHBBDaOBBBGEGDDBEBaai - ^ 

EEGCZEBEOGDEaBBBGaaBBBaOBEGGGBEEO 

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aBEBGGGEBBGGBBGGGBBI 



BEE'" "'".'. BEEGGGBEE 

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23 .. it iEEBDG 1 BEEOGGE 

3BEGGGEEBCBDOCBBB: 

333 Gi 33EGGGBBB ,i. 

--3EOCGBEGGr — 






I GDI 



GBG 
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BBDDDBBBGCG 

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Fig. 255. 



Picks 49 to 60 in the weave equal the horizontal row 5 of squares in the motive. 
Picks 61 to 72 in the weave equal the horizontal row 6 of squares in the motive. 

Using two or more colors in Warp and Filling for Producing effects in Fabrics inter- 
laced with Broken Twills. 

In Figs. 256, 257 and 258 we illustrate three examples of effects produced upon broken twills 
by various arrangements of colors in warp and filling. In Fig. 256 the common 3 — j 4-har- 



■ B 



rr 



",r 



i i. i 
3nnD3DQQDQQnDQyy 

ii 'EHffli 11 Kami f i>wbi 11 mm 

II Ifflffll II Ifflffll 'I IfflfDI II lEBffl 
i 



■■ 


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1 


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1 : W 


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a 


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1 BB 


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FXG. 256 



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OO OOOO OO BBB 

IBBI I 'BB' II BBI II BB 

ffl B B Ol I 

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BBI I BBI 1 BBI II BB 

IBi I O BI i BI 1 

IBBI I OO ' OBi ' OO 

BB BB BB I OO 

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OO BBBB BB BBB 

'BB BB BB ' OO 

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Fig. 258. 



ness broken twill is shown arranged for 3 ends light, 1 end dark, or color No. 1 and color No. 2, in 
warp and filling. The effect obtained is a " hair-line," very extensively used in the manufacture of 
worsted and woolen trouserings by reason of the clear and distinct line-effect this weave produces. 



56 

Fig- 257 illustrates the same weave (4-harness broken twill) arranged for three different 
colors. Arrangement for warp and filling: 2 ends light or color No. I ; 1 end medium or color 
No. 2; 1 end dark or color No. 3. 

Fig. 258 illustrates the 8-harness broken twill (broken, warp and filling ways, every four 
threads), arranged for 2 ends light to alternate with 

2 ends dark, 

4 ends in repeat of color arrangement and 8 ends repeat for weave and effect. 
II. Steep-Twills or Diagonals. 



The next sub-division of the common or regular twills are the steep-twills, which are derived 
from the latter by using either every other or every third, fourth, etc., warp-thread in rotation for 
forming the weave. 

1 st. Steep-Tivills having 6j c 



grading 



are obtained by using every alternate warp-thread of a common twill. To illustrate their method 

of construction Figs. 259, 260 and 261 are designed. 

Fig. 259 illustrates the regular 16-harness twill, 



wggbgggbggbbbbbbh 
gbgggbggbbbbbbbg 
■jogbm: '■■■■■■■ _ 

aGJiaaiiiMiiaji 
aDijjiiiiiiia ii 1 

GBGGBBBBBBBQGBGG 
BGGBBBBBBBGGBGGG 
QGBBBBBBBGGBGGGB 
I ■■■■■«■ a B 

BBBBBBB iGBOGDBQC 
BBBBBBGGBG GGB G IB 
BBBBBGGBGGGBGGBB 
BBBBDGBGGGBGGBBfl 

■■■ ■ __ bg mil 

BBGGBGGGBGGBBBBB 
1BGGBGDGBGGBBBBBB 

1 1(3 



Fig. 259. 



16GGBGGGBGGBBBBBBB 
DBGG DfflDDBfflBBBfflBD 
■ B GBBBBBBB j 

QaGBQGBfflBBBBBGiGB 
DDBGafflBfflBHBS _ ■ ; 
GBGGBBBBBHB.J JBG 1 
BaaBBBBBBBaGBGGG 
DGBBBBBBBGGBaGGB 
DBBBBfflBSGGBDGDBG 
BBBBBBBGGBGGGBGG 
BfflBBBEB3_ J BG3GB )GB 
BBBBBGGB^G ".B _BB 
BBBBGGBGGGBGGBBB 
BBB _J IB G G GBGGBBBS 
BBGGBGGGBGGBBBBB 
1BGGBGGGBGGBBBBBB 

1 16 



2 3 2' 

Fig. 260 represents the same weave, every other 
warp-thread indicated by a different kind of type. 

Fig. 261 illustrates the steep twill or diagonal weave 
as obtained by using only warp-threads shown in Fig. 
260 with m. 

This example of constructing a steep twill out of a 
regular twill, which has an even number of warp-threads 
for its repeat, will also explain that the former requires 
only one-half the number of harness that are used in 
the foundation weave. 



DBDBDBBB 
CGCGBBBB 
BGBDBBBG 
■ BBB : 
1 ■ ■■■ B 
GGBBBBGG 
B BBB ■ J 

gbbbbgg 

GBBBZiBOB 
■ III 

BBB ■ ■ 



■ I 



■ : 1 



IGGG. I 

■ ■ b ■ : 
BGGGGBBB 

1 B ■ IBB 
. . Ill* 

BGBGBBBJ 

DDGBBBBG 

DBDBBBQB 

GGBBBBGG 

BGBBBGBG 

GBBBBGG 

[ ■■■ ■ ■ 

BBBBGC 

BBS B B : 

BBBGG B 

■■:■:■ 1 

■ ■ BB 

BGBQBGBB 
1BGGGCBBB 
1 

Fig 261. 



Thus the present example — 

Fig. 260. 16-harness for regular twill only requires 

8-harness for its corresponding steep twill. 

If we construct a steep twill out of a regular twill which has an uneven number of harness for 
its repeat, the same will not be reduced as in the case with an even number. Thus, 9-harness in 



IBGBDI 

■Baaaci 

IBGBGfll 
IQDDDBI 
• 1 HI 



BJ 

n ' 

! ■ 



33CGGBGGGBBBBBB 
QGBGGGBBBBBBG 
GB_ BBBBBi. 
BGGGBBBBBBGG 
■■■BBB ■ 
!)■■■)■■ ■ 
LBBBBBB'JQGBGC 
BBBBBBGGGBGGG 
■■■■I ■ ■ 
BBBB ■ BB 
BBBGGGBGGGBBB 
BBGGuBUGGBBBB 
1BGGGBGGQBBBBB 
1 13 

Fig. 262. 



13aaGBGGGBBBBfflB 

QGBGGGBBBBBBG 
DBGGGBBBBBBGG 
BGG BBBBBBGGG 
aGQBBBBHBGGGB 
□GBBBBBBGGjSG 

gbbbbbb gggbgg 
bbbbbbgggbggg 
bbbbbg"jgbg , " , gb 
bbbbg ■ ^b " ""bb 
bbb g„bg"g_ bbb 
bb^ gib ;g :bbbb 

IflGUGBGGGBBBBB 

1 13 

Fig. 263. 



DGGGI 
DBGI~ 

aaai 

BGBI 
■ I 
GBBBG I 
GBBBGBGBBB 
■■■ BBBGBG 
BBBGBGBBB - - 
BBGG BBB B B 
BBGB BBB B 
BBB ■ mm 
BGBGBBBC'G ■■ 
13GGGGBBBGBGBBB 
CBQBBBGiGG BBB 
DGGBBBGBGBBBJ 
BGBBBGG ■■■ 
I BBB. B BBB 
OBBB . GGBBBGB 
GBBBGBGBBBGG 
■■■ ■■■ ■ 
BBBGBGBBBGG 
BBG'G ■■■ ■ ■ 
BB ■ BBB GGB 
B 1GG 'BBB BGBB 
'BGBDBBBQaaQBB 

1 13 

Fig. 264. 



the regular twill requires 9-harness for the steep twill. Again, n-harness regular twills require 
u-harness for the repeat in their respective steep twills, etc. 



For example : we give in Fig. 262 the regular twill known as 



1 3 -harness repeat. 



57 



Fig. 263 illustrates again the analysis of the same with the view of constructing its respective 
*' steep-twill," which is illustrated in Fig. 264. An examination of Fig. 263 shows warp-threads 
1 and 13 indicated by the same kind of type; so, in constructing the steep-twill after using warp- 
thread 1 3 of the common twill for warp-thread 7 of the steep-twill, we must use warp-thread 2 of 
the common twill for warp-thread 8 of the steep-twill, and so on, until warp-thread 12 of the 
regular twill forms the last warp-thread (13) in the repeat for the steep-twill. 



ggbggb 

■ iiil ■ 
GBZZBG 
GBBZBB 
■DQBCD 

■■ana 

63GBGGB 

a ■■ ■ 

GBGGBG 

Duau 

BZGBQG 

lie an 
1 3 

Fig. 265. 



ggbbggbh 
■ ■■■ ■■ 

gbbggbbg 

Lflflfl JBH 

■ ■ ■■ 

bbbzbbbz 

bggbbggb 
bbgbbbgb 

BDDBBaOBB 

B~BBB~BB 

DIIDOIIC 

r ■ jg ■■■ 



111 .III .9 
1 i 

Fig. 266. 



GiailDIDII 


cum :~in 


■ '_!■■: B BBG 


''BBB BBB J 


1 '■■':■ Bfl/B 


Bflfl ■■■ LI 


■■ ■ ■■ ■ 


■ ■ ' ■■■ ' ■ 


B_BGBB.-fl.JB 


■ ■■■ ■■ 


I BI I II 


■ flfl _ ■■■ 


bzbb_b jBbg 


1 BBB I III ": 


BB ■ ■■ D 


■■■ ■■■ 


ax h ■■ ■ 



1BODI 



DGBaBBGaBDBB 

CZJBBB Z BBB 

GBGBBZZBGBBG 

CGBBBGGGBBBG 

B7BflG_fl'Zflfl.7G 

CBBBGGGBBBGG 

DBBGGBGBBGGB 

■■■ BBB 

BBDnBDBBDDBG 

BB BBB B 

BaGflGBBGCBZI 

, BQGCBBBCGGBB 

12GGBCBBGGBCBB 

BBB BBB 

CBZBBZGBGBBG 

BBB BBB J 

B flflGZBZBBZG 

CBflflZZZflBBGG 

cbazzb. bagzb 

BBBGGGBBBGGa 
BB^GBGBBGGBG 

BB :z :bbbzgzb 

B_ZB rs _ZBGB 
IK ZCBBBZGGBB 



1 



Fig. 267, 



Fig. 268. 



These two examples will easily demonstrate to the student the great amount and variety of 
steep-twills, 63 grading, which can be constructed out of the common or regular twills of 45 ° 
grading. 

Weaves Fig. 265 to 276 illustrate a few of the steep-twills most frequently used. 

Fig. 265 illustrates a 3-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular twill, 2 * 
Repeat : 3 harness and 6 picks. 



BGGBBGBB7 
BIBB BB 
GGBBGBBGZ 
( II . :bb I 
GBBGBBGC : 
BB BB BI 



EO □ 



■GBBG 
DDBBD 

bb : 

JBBGB 



irGZBZBGBBZZBZBZBB 

gbgbgbbb i i iii 
lb: b bb b b bb j 
a b in ■ ■ ■■■ J 



7GZBBGBBZZBBZBB 
GBBGGBB JBBGGBB 
BB II '..II II 1 
BBGGBBGBBGLBBG 
BBZBBZ BB BB Z 
B BB II BB I 

1BGBBGGBBGBBGGB 
1 7 

Fig. 269. 



B III I B IBB I 


cm II B D II B 


B SIB H I fill 11 


B Bl_. I B II I ] 


[ III :■ B BBB - B 


■ IBB .BB B B 


BBB B B IIB I I 1 


III XIBDBD 


ID 1 1 III llul 


1BGBGBUBBBGBGBGBB 


1 B 



Fig. 270. 



1SGBBGGGBBBGBBGGGBBB 


ZuBBGBBBGGGBBGBBI 


BBGGGBBB IBBGQ BBl 


B 


..II BBB BB BB 


B 


B III BB ' BBB 


B 


1 BB. BBB . BB BBB 


1 


BBB BB ■ BBB... 


BB 


BB BBB BB BBB 




BBB BB BBB B 


B 


B BBB BB BBB 


B 


BBB BB BBB BB 




Bll .11 III 


BB 


■ SIS BB 911 BB 




III II IBB z m 


I 


BB BB BBB BB 


I 


BB IB BBB II 


N 


I II Eli! II 


BB 


<B ._BBGBBBUG-jBB- 
1 a 


BM 


Fig. 271. 





A 1 



2 1 



Fig. 266 represents the 4-harness steep-twill (63 °) derived from the regular 8-harness twill 

Repeat : 4 harness and 8 picks. 
Fig. 267 illustrates the 5 -harness steep-twill (63 °) derived from the regular 10-harness twill, 



5 1 



2 2 - 



Repeat : 5 harness and 10 picks. 



MOB 
















1 








a 1 


IBBI 


1 ill 




I 


BB 


BB 


■ Baa 


IB 


















Gl 


BB 


B 


BBBB II 


1 BI 


III 


■■■■ 


IB 




B 


B 


BB . ■ 








B 


■G 


IB 


■ I 


: ■■ 


B 


BB 


I 


BB 


BB B I 


IBBI 


1 ■■ 


in 1 


1 fl 


1 1 


■ I 




BB BI 


1 1 


IB 


■■ 


BB 


BB 


I 


BB 


B ■ BI 


IBB 


III 


ii ■ 


BB 


1 IB 


I 


B 


B BB 


BI 


I I 


ii 1 


IB 


B 


IB 


■ I 


B BBl 


ID 1 


■ III 


1 ■ 1 


IBB 


BB 




■ I 


. BB 


BB 


■■ 


1 ii 


1 


1 B 


■ I 


I 


B llll 


1 BI 


IBB 


■ ii 


IBB 


B 














B 


BB 
P 


BB 


I 


BBBB 


BBl 


IB I 


1 ■■■ 


IB 


BB 


fl 


I 


BBBB ■ 


IBBI 


1 B 


mi 


I I 


BB B 




BBl BI 


IBB 


I 1 


III! 


II 
















'"- 


B 


I 


GBB-/UI 


■a ,: 


■ a 


II 


I 



24GBBBGBBBGBI 
■ I III 



IB BBBI 



flfl flflflfl BB BBBB . 

GBBB flflfl BBB BBB Bflfl BBB 



BBBB BB llll BB 
BB III III III III III ■ 
■BBB ■■ ■■■■ ■■ 

" BBB Bflfl III III III II 



1 



E.-. 



Fig. 272. 



■ ■■ BBBB flfl BBC 

Fig. 273. 



Fig. 268 represents the 6-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 12-harncss twill, 
j. Repeat : 6 harness and 12 picks. 

Fig. 269 illustrates the 7-harness steep-twill (63 °) derived from the regular 7-harness twill, 
-3. Repeat : 7 harness and 7 picks. 



58 



Fig. 270 illustrates the 8-harness steep-twill (63 °) derived from the regular 16-hamess 
2-^-3. Repeat: 8 harness and 16 picks. 

Fig. 271 represents the 9-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 1 8-harness 
Repeat: 9 harness and 18 picks. 



Fig. 272 illustrates the 12-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 24-harness 
Repeat : 1 2 harness and 24 picks. 



1 1 



Fig. 273 represents the 12-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 24-harness 
i 2 ! 1 1 1 a . Repeat : 12 harness and 24 picks. 



twill, 
twill, 
twill, 
twill, 



OGB ' ■ BB BBBB 
DOCB ■ BBGBB 1 

DIOOIOilDIHI 1 
jDIDjIQIIDMDD 
BGGBGBBOBBBBGG 

B ■ ■■ ■■ 
GOBQBBGBBBBaaB 
BDQBQBBDBBOarT 
: B"BB ■■■■ B7 
ODBDBBDBBDDDDB 
B BB BBBB 'M J 
DBGBBGBBC ' B i 
DBBGBBBBCiGBQCB 
BDBBDBBDnDDBnD 
BB BBBB B B 

OBBaBBaanoBDUB 

BOBBBB - B~'OB~B 
BBDBBanaDBDDBD 
CBBBB B ■■ B BB 
B BB B B B 

bbbb a . :bgbbg 

GBBGGGi JBi JGBGBB 
BBB B B BB IB 
BBD DDB I II 
BBGCB j I ■■ ■■ 

B C B B BB B 

a::i 1 ii in 

1 14 

Fig. 274. 



fCB ' BBB' ■ I II 
DQnBDBBDBDDUBBB 
I BBBDDDBI BBD 

DGBDBBGBaDQBBBa 
GGGBBBCCGBCBBCB 
DBDBBGBDDDBBBaa 
C'C'BBBC CC'BC'BBC BO 
aOBBGBZ GBBBOUa 
DBBBaDaBDBBQBDD 
aBBGBGGGBBBG " I 
Bill JGGB._iBBLBUCa 
BBGBDGGBBBGGGBG 
BBDGGBGBBGBL " B 
, BGBGGDBBBGDaBDB 
1BGQCBCBBCBCGGBB 
1 15 



EBGDBaaBBGBBDBB 
GG B _ BBBB BBBB 
L B . BL.'BB BB BB 
<..Omi BBBB BBBB 1 
BGGBGGBBGBBQBBGD 
GB BBBB BBBB ' 
B BB IB I I JC B 
B BBBB BBBB ] 
GBGGBBGBBGBBGGBG 
DC BBBB BBBB . B 
B. BB BB BB B 
G BBBB BBBB B , 
ODBBGBB 3BBGOB B 
GBBBB BBBB B 

BB- BB BBDGB GBD 
BBBB BBBB B 
BBGBBGBBGGBGGBGG 
BBB BBBB I B 
B BB'CBB CBOCBCCO 
BBGBBBB 1 iOGBOGOBB 

BB BB B B BB 
BG BBBB'- GOBI " 1" BBB 
BBGBlL iGBCCBCCBBG 

BBBB fl BBBB 
B BB B B BB 
BBBBGGGBGGGBBBBG 
GBBDGBGGBGGBBGBfl 
BBBC C'JBCUCBBBB .' B 
BBGOBGCBDCBBC'BBC 
BBC II B' C BBBB.BB 
B B B BB BB B 
II lilt III 



1 



Fig. 275. 



Fig. 276. 



Fig. 274 illustrates the 14-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 28-harness 
Repeat: 14 harness and 28 picks. 



Fig. 275 represents the 15-harness steep-twill (63 ) derived from the regular 15-harness 
4-4,. Repeat : 1 5 harness and 1 5 picks. 

Fig. 276 represents the 16-harness steep-twill {63 ) derived from the regular 32-harness 
1 2 1 5 4 1 2 1 2 1 4 - Repeat: 16 harness and 32 picks. 



twill, 
twill, 
twill, 



2d. Sleep-Twills having a grading of yo° . 

These twills are derived from the regular twills by using every third warp-thread in rotation for 
the construction of the new weave. To give a clear understanding diagram 
No. 277 is designed. A represents one repeat of the regular twill known as the 
4 1 1 2 8-harness twill ; B illustrates the drafting of the different warp-threads 
according to previously given explanation for forming C, the new design. 




A 



G 



B 



C 



IZl.H. 5.6 7. a 



8GBGGD 

BDDGBI 

IB! 
GGIBBGBG 
I III I ] 
BBB B II 
BB B Q[ B 

1BGBOGGBB 
1 8 

Fig. 278. 



tDGBBDBDB 
BGBGBGGB 
I Bi rin ■ 
GBBGBGBG 
UBGBGGBB 
BGGBBOBG 
BI II BOG 

1BGBGGBBG 
1 8 

Fig. 279. 



WGDGBGGGBBB 
GGBGGJGBBBG 
GBGGGBBBGG 
BGGGBBBDOG 
aaGBBBGaGB 
GGBBBGaGBG 
GBBBGaaBDG 
BBBGGCICGG 
BBGGGBaaaB 
1BGGGBGGGBB 
1 10 

Fig. 280. 



dbobddbddb 
dgbgbgbggb 
cgbg: bgbgb 
bdbddbddbd 
dbgbgbggbg 

GBGnBGBGBD 
DBDDBGDBDB 
BDBGBDDBGa 
BGGBDBDBDD 
BDGBDDBGBa 
lODBGBaaBQDB 
DDBDBDBDDB 
DDBDDBDBDB 
BDBDaBDDBD 
DBDBDBDDBD 
DBDDBDBDBD 
DBDDBDDBDB 
BDBDBDDBDn 
BDDBDBDBGG 
1BGGBDDBDBD 
1 10 

Fig. 281. 



12 I IIIID 

DGBDDGBBBBBG 
DBDDDBBBBBDD 
BOOaBBBBBOOD 
DOGBBBBBGDaB 
DDBBBBBDDDBD 
OBBBBBGGGBGG 
BBBBBCDGBDQD 
BBBBGDDBDDDn 
BBBDDDBDDDBB 
BBGiGCiBGC BBB 
1BDDDBDDDBBBB 

1 12 

Fig. 282. 



DBGBOBGB 
ODBBGGBB 
GOBBGDBB 
BGBDBDBQ 
DBBDDBBD 
DBBUDBBD 
DBGBDBGB 
BBGGBBGD 
BBOGBBGO 
BDBDBDBD 
BDDBBDGB 
BDDBBDDB 
12DBGBGBGB 
DDBBDDBB 
DDBBDDBB 
■DBGBDBO 
DBBDGBBG 
GBBGGBBG 
GBGBGBGB 
BBGGBBGG 
BB BB 
■GBGBGBD 
BDDBBGGB 
1BDDBBGCB 
1 4 

FiG. 283. 



Fig. 277. 



Arrangement of drafting: 1,4,7,2,5,8,3,6. Repeat: 8 harness, 8 picks. 
Fig. 278 represents the regular twill known as 3 3 x v and 
Fig. 279 represents the steep-twill (70 ) derived out of it. Repeat : 8 harness, 8 picks. 
Fig. 280 the regular twill 3 3 l 3 is shown, arranged for a 70 steep-twill in Fig. 281. Repeat; 
IO harness, 10 picks. 



59 



is shown, arranged for its 70 steep-twill in 



- 2 , and Fig. 285 the 70 steep-twill 



Fig. 282 the regular 12-harness twill - 
Fig. 283. Repeat: 4 harness, 12 picks. 

Fig. 284 illustrates the regular 15-harness twill 5_ 
derived out of it. Repeat: 5 harness, 15 picks. 

Fig. 286 represents the 70 steep-twill designed out of the regular twill 
Fig. 262, page 56). Repeat: 13 harness, 13 picks. 

Fig. 287 illustrates the steep-twill having 70 grading, which is derived from the regular 
twill 7 -^ 



(shown in 



^— 2 (see Fig. 259, page 56). Repeat: 16 harness and 16 picks. 











aZBBBBBZZBBZZ 


ZBB 








zzzbbzzbbbbbz: : 




zbbzbzbbzb 




B BB BB III! 




BBB ■■■ 




□BBBBBZZBBZZZI 




■ ■■■ ■■ 




BB : BBBBB BB 




BBZBZBBZBZ 




:■■::■■ ■■■■■ 




ZBBBZZBBBI 


cbzbbz: 


ZBBZGBB 


BBBBB - '■■ . .ZBB_Z 




BBB ■■■ 


zzbbzb: 


:bbzzbb 


Bfl BBBBB BB 






;zbbzzi 


IBZBZBB 


CBBZZZI : ZZBBBBBZI 




■■■ BBB 

ZBBBZZBBBZ 
■■■■■■ 






■ BBB 
BBZZ 

■BZZ 


Z _ BB~~ZBBZZB 








BBBBBZZBBZZZI 








ZBBZZBBBBBZZ 




bb_ ■■■:. a 


DBBZ Bl 


IZZBBZB 


BBB 


_BB BBZZBB 




■BBZZBBBZZ 


BBZBZBI 


IZZBBZZ 


BZZBBI ' 




■ ZBBZBZBBZI 


IIZjIIl 


nDBJBQC 


■ZZZ 


IB BBBBB 


ZZB 




1 BBB ZBB 


bbzzbb: 


1ZBBZBZ 










BBZZBBBZZB 


BZBZBBL 


3ZBBZZB 


16ZZBB 


IBB 




lSDonDCMDonni 


15ZBBZBZBBZB 

: ■>■ ■■■ 


B BB 1 


l _ BB B 


CZZB 


B I BBBBB 


ZBB 


■■ ■■ ■■■■■ 


b.^bbqe 


■■_■_■ 


■ZZBBZZZI 


BBB 


■■□DBBZEBBBBBLX 


■ «■■ ■■ 


wzbzbbz: 


3BBZDBB 


BBBBB 


BBZi 


■ ■■ ■■OH ■ 


BB7B_BB ■ ~ 
: ■■■ (El 

■■■ : ■■■ 


zzbbzb: 


jBBZZBI 


GOBB 

DZBB 
■ BBB 


BBBBB 

:zzbb I BB 

BZZBBZZZB 


BB 


■■ ■■■■■ ■■ 






BBB 


■■ ■■■■■_:■■ 






BZZI 


■ ■ ■■■■■ : ■■ 




ZBB B 1 


IBZZBBZ 


DBBZ 


ZBBBBBZ: 


BZ3 


bzzbbbbbzzbb_~b 


■■■ BBB 






DBBZ 


IZBBZZBBBB 


■1311 BBQCBB 


GBBBDZflBBZi 


■ B Bl 


1 ' ■■:■ 


■BBB 


ZZBBZZZBB 


ZZB 


11311 ■■ ■■ ] 


□BOBBQBIZIBB 


BBZBZBI 


IZZBBZL" 


BBZZ 


BBBBBZZBB 


ZZZ) 


III11 ■■ ■■ 


BBZZBBBZZB 


BBDGBBC 


:b""bb~d 


BBZZ 


ZBBZiZBBBB 


B " 


■■■■ _■■ ■■ ■ 


■■■ BBB 


bbzzbb: 


IZBBZBZ1 


BBB 


IBB "JZZBBZ 


ZBB 




BZBBZBZBBD 


bzbzbb: 


EBBCOB 


BZZBBBBBZ" _ 


ZZB 


11 11 IE! 


■ BBB BB 






BB BBBBB 


ZZB 


1BZZBBZZBBZZBBBB 


1BBZZBBBZZB 
1 5 


ibzzbbz; 


:bbzbzb 






1 15 


1 13 


1 




10 



Fig. 284. Fig. 285. Fig. 286. Fig. 2S7. 

These few examples (Figs. 277 to 287) will easily explain the method of construction for 
these weaves; we would only add that if the number of harness in repeat for the regular twill 
can be divided by 3, the number of harness in repeat for the steep-twill will be reduced one- 
third, as follows : 

12-harness regular twill to 4-harness steep (70 ). 



15 



5 



18 " " 6 " ' " etc., etc. 

Any number of harness repeat for a regular twill which cannot be equally divided by 3 
requires the same number of harness for the steep-twill as is used in its foundation twill. 

jd. Steep-Twills having a grading of 75°. 

Weaves of this sub-division of the regular twill of 45 ° grading, are derived from 

the latter by using every fourth warp-thread in rotation. In constructing 75 ° steep-twills out of 

regular twills having a number of harness for their repeat which can be divided evenly by four, 

only one-fourth the number of harness are required ; for example : 

12 harness " regular" = 3 harness " 75 ° steep." 

16 " " = 4 

20 " " =5 

24 " " =6 " " " etc., etc. 

Again, in constructing 75 steep-twills out of regular twills having for their repeat an even 

number of harness not called for in previous rule, the number of harness required is lowered 

one-half; for example : 

14 harness " regular" = 7 harness " 75 steep." 

18 " = 9 

22 " =11 

26 " =13 " " " etc., etc. 

These two given rules will readily explain a third, as follows ; 

Every regular twill of an uneven number of harness for its repeat, if used for the construction 
of a steep-twill of 75 grading, requires every warp-thread of the former used ; or in other words: 



60 



Steep-twills of 75 grading, constructed out of regular twills having an uneven number of harness 
for their repeat, require an equal number of harness for the former ; for example : 

9 harness " regular" = 9 harness " 75 ° steep." 



A. 



B. 



C. 



II 
15 



I 2 J. H 5 6 7 8. 9. 10.11 12. IS. W 15. 




\T 



L 



_ 



r- 



l_i 







r. 



z 



s 



L_ 



^-fe4 



~ 



_ 



.... 



i_ 



\ 15 



1* 



* 



n 



1 2.3.1.5.6 18 910.1112.13.14.15 

Fig. 2SS. 



\l. 

\%. 

11. 

10 

9. 

8. 

7. 

6. 

5. 

t. 

3 

2. 

1 



u 



<< j j (< <l 

<< y - << l< 

{ i< j r " " 

To give a clear understand- 
ing of the construction of the 
75 steep-twills, diagram 288 is 
designed, illustrating under A 
one repeat of the regular twill* 
6 4 * 4 = 15 harness. 

B illustrates the drafting of 
the different warp-threads (after 
rule given at beginning) for form- 
rig C, the new design. 

Arrangement of drafting : 
I, 5, 9, 13, 2, 6, 10, 14, 3, 7, 11, 
15, 4, 8, 12. Repeat: 15 har- 
ness, 15 picks. 

Fig. 289 represents the regu- 
lar twill, 6 4 2 4 for 16 harness 
repeat. 

Fig. 290 shows its 75 steep- 
twill derived by drafting 1 , 5,9, 
13. Repeat: 4 harness, 16 picks. 
Fig. 291 illustrates the steep- 
twill of 75 grading which is de- 
rived from the regular twill of 



45 grading, 



ness. (See Fig. 262, page 56.) 
Repeat: 13 harness, 13 picks. 



tc 

It 



etc., etc. 



lGGCCGBBGGGCBBBMB 
GGGBBZGCGBMBBBD 
a BBCZGZBBBBBBZG 

■ ■ . ... BBBKDB 
■■ I CC _ ■■■■■■QGDG 
■GGGQHHH " m 
BBBBBBZLZLBB 
GC 1IIIIIDDCCICI 
ODMMMQaGGMGG 
GBBBBBBQCCCBBZZG 
BBBBBBGGCZBBZZZZ1 
BBBBBGGGZBBZ' :Z_B 
BBBBZGZ.ZBBZZ._ZBB 
BBBGCZZBB jluuIII 
■B JGBBQC BBBB 
iBCGCGBBGaaGBBBBB 

1 lb 

Fig. 289. 



■ ■ ■ D 

GBGBGBGB 
GGBBGGBB 
GGBBGGBB 
BGBGB B 
BGBDBGBG 
GBBGGBBG 
GBBGGBBG 
GBGBGBGB 
GBGBGBGB 
BBGGBBGG 
BBGGBBGG 
BGBGBGBG 
BGBGBCBG 
BGGBBGGB 
1BQCBBGGB 



= 13 har- p IG _ 290. 



DGBBBBBGCB - 
B llllt . B 

GGBGGBGGBBBBB 
BBBDGBGGBL ■■ 
GBBBBBjCBCTBG 
1 B BBBBB BZ 
LBC.B_ BBBBB. 
BB BGGB ZBBB 
BBBBB BGOBGa 
B BBBBB . BZO 
■CDBGCBBBBBGC 
BBB BBBB 
BBBBZGBZZBZZB 
13 BBBBB B ~ B 

.. b bbbbb ::b 

GGBGrBDCBBBBB 

■BBGGBGGBGGBfl 

BBBBB B ZBG 

B BBBBB B 

GBG'_B~ BBBBBG 
BBC r _BZ:BZZBBB 
BBBBB B fl 
BQGBBBBBZZBZZ 
B B BBBBB 
BBB BBBB 
1BBBBGCBGGBCGB 

1 13 

Fig. 291. 



III. Reclining Twills (27 grading). 

This sub-division of the regular twills has its principle of construction very nearly 
related to the ones given regarding the steep-twills ; in fact, points given in the latter as to 
warp will apply in the present sub-division of twills to the filling. Therefore in constructing a twill 
of 27 grading out of a regular twill of45° grading, we only use every alternate pick of the latter. 
For example, Figs. 292, 293, 294, 295, 296 and 297. 



8BBBCCGGB 
BBZGGZBB 
■GOGCBBB 
GGCGBBBB 
: 'BBBB I 
LCBBBBCG 
GBBBBQQG 

1BBBB_ . 
1 8 

Fig. 292. 



BBBBGCGGffl 
BBGGGGBB 
EZGZGBBB 

ZZZZBBBB 
GGGBBBBG 
GGBBBBGG 

GBBBHaaa 

lBBBBGaaa 

1 8 

Fig. 293. 



BBGGGGBBBBGOCCBB 
~ BBBB . BBBB 

ggbbbbg: BBBB 

BBBBCZnZBBBBC 
4BBGGGGBBBBGGGGBB 
BBBB ■■■■ 

ZOBBBBGC BBBB G 
BBBB BBBB. 

1 8 IB 

Fig. 294. 



Fig. 292 represents the regular 8-harness twill 4 - r Fig. 293 illustrates the same twill 

analysed, every alternate pick indicated by a different style of type. Fig. 294 represents the new 
weave, derived from weave Fig. 293 by using only picks 1, 3, 5 and 7. Repeat: 8 harness and 
4 picks. 



61 



Fig. 295 represents the regular twill - 



9-harness. Fig. 296 is its analysis. Fig. 297 



is the reclining twill derived from the latter. Repeat : 9-harness and 9 picks. 



9Mmon«cai 
■■na«aoM 

■ ■ ■■■ 
■ bbbb 

CBZZMM3 

■ tiat 

axis.. ■ 

bbbb ■ 

'■■■■CCBCZ1 

1 9 



9BBBODBODB 

EH' S IBB 

■■:■■■ 

I HDDBfflfflH 

zb._zbb.mzi 

BZZBBESZZ1 

■■■■ I 

*BSB _D 

■■■■ li:d 

1 9 



■ ■■■■ a mmut. 

■■■■_■ bbbb a 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ ■ ■ 

■ m ■■■■_■:■■■ 

■ bbbb ■ ■■■■ 
■■■■ ■ bbbb ■ 

■■■■ ■: 1111: 1 j 

■ ■ ■ BBBB ■ BB 

:■■■■■ ~ ■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■■■ ■ Bill 

■ ■■■ _■ ■■■■'_■-< 

bbbzz.bz^bbbbz^bzizb 



LBZ_BBi 
■ ■■■ 

■ ■■■3 
1 



IZZBBBBQ 
■ BBS B 

■■■ooBjoa 



Fig. 295. Fig. 296. Fig. 297. 

These two examples will clearly illustrate the method to be observed in designing reclining 
twills for any number of harness. Regular twill weaves with an even number of picks in repeat 
reduce to one-half the number in the reclining twill ; again, regular twills with an uneven number 
of picks for their repeat require, if changed to reclining twills, the same number of picks. 




450 



380 



COO 



150 



■■bbbSS 



»■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■ 

I 1I1IIMIIIIII ■■■■■■■■ 




Diagram for illustrating the construction ol steep twills of 52°, 63°, 70 and 75 grading, 
and reclining twills of 3S , 27 , 20 , and 15 grading. 



62 

IV. Curved Twills. 

This sub-division of the "twills" is derived by a combination of "regular" 45 ° twills with 
63 , 70 or 75 , or similarly graded "steep-twills." One kind of these twills is run for a certain 
number of threads, after which the run, without forming an interruption, is changed to the other 



ODOiiiDaiiniiDiiaaDiiiDDiiniiDii 

!z flflfl : ! IBZ'GB.J ■ j ZZflflflQaGBaaBOGflQ 
LBBB "" » IBB . iBB flfl III OB BB IB 

BBB BB BaOBDDBBBDL BB B DBGG 

BB' 1 Llll BB '.BB BBB BBB BB BB B 

B BBB flfl II : ■ ■■ B I I 

6GGGflflflZ'. BB BB BB Z ■ BBB IBB .BB BB 

□cbbbgggbg :b_gb _g Bflflzz._fl. gazgag 

GBflflGGGflflGBfl IB BIB ' flfl flflZlflBG 
BBB . II I. B III BB B B 

BBDOQBflBQBBOBBDBBBaaDBflBnBBQBBQa 
IB .^flflflGGflGCflGGflflGGGBBBaQBaGBaGB 

1 ' 8 16 32 



45° twill. 63 twill. 



Fig. 298. 



GGGGBBflflGGflflGGflflGGGGflflflflDGBSGaBB 
DGDBBBflaDGBBQGBBGnGBBBBGaCBBODBB 
DGBBBBaGGBBaGBBGGGBBBBGDDBBaGBBG 
■III BB I BB I BBBBI. DBBnDBBD 

■lll.i-GII 1 BB . BBBB BB BB 

BBBanaaBBBaaBBaaBBBaaaGBiiarBBGc 

BBaaQDBBBGQBBaaBBBCQGaBBB " BB B 
BGGGGBBBBGGBBGGBBGGGGBBBBGGBBGGB 

8GGaGBBBBGGBBGQBBGGGGBBBBDGBBGGBB 
G.'iJBflflflG'J'ZBBTBflz BBBB BB BB 

GGBBBBGGOBBGGBBGGGBBBB ■ II IGBBD 
DBBBBGGGGBBGGBBGDBBBBDDGGBBnaBBD 
BBBB j BB I BB BBBB BB BB ! 

BBBQGDGBBBGGBBGGBBBGGGGBBBGGBBGG 
BBQGC BBB" BB'.BBB. DGBBBGQBBQGB 

IB IGaGBBBBDGBB DBBGGGGBBBB .._ BB B 

1 8 16 32 



45° twill. 63° twill. 



Fig. 299. 



system. The same twill which is used in 45 ° must also be used in the construction of the 
steeper twills. 

The following few designs will clearly explain the method of constructing curved twills. 



GGnnUHZGBSGGBBGGGGBBGnflBBBnGGGBBGGBBGOBBBB 
GGDBBBBGGBBGGBBGGGGBBDGBBBB.!:.. BB BB .'BflflflG 
UZflflflB GBBGUBBGJGBBBGGBBB GG_BBBGGBBGGBBBGQ 
I. BBBB ; II ■■ HI IIUJ Jill II III J 

BBBB .BB' BB .BBBB BB BBBB_ . BB_ II I " J 

BBB r IB BB BBBB BB . .BBBB ", BB^.GBB -;_:G_B 
BB' BBB BB ..BBB . BB _ BBBB flfl ZGflBZZZBfl 

BGGGGBBBGGBBGGBBBGGGBBDGaBBBBG' ■■ .'BBGGGBBB 
BBBB BB. BB BB flflflflZZZZflflZCflflGGflflflB 

GDGBBBBQGBBGGBBGGaGBBanBBBB. j BB _ BB :ZBBBBG 

DGBBBB .: BB iGBBGGZIBBBZ BBB .■ ZGBBBQGBBGGBBBDG 
GBBBB . ZBB.jGBBGGGBBBGGBBBGGUGBBBGGBBGGBBBGGG 

■iii ■■ ■■■■■■ ■■ xiiiij it :■■:: 1 

BBB _' . BB J BB BBBB BB BBBB BB HZ B 

BBZiL '. BBB : BB GBBBGGGBBGGGBBBBGGUBBZZBBGGGBB 

IBGGGGBBBGGBBQDBBBQaaBBaaGBBBBGZZBBaGBBGCGBBB 

1 8 16 20 24 32 40 44 



63 



45° 63° 45° 

Fig. 300. 



«3° 



Fig. 298 illustrates the curved twill obtained from the 



twill. 8 warp-threads are 



designed in the regular 45 ° twill and 8 warp-threads in its 63 steep-twill = 16 warp-threads 
repeat. Drawing-in draft: 16-harness straight draw or 6-harness section draw. 



nDDBBBGGGBBGBGBaGBBBGBGBGGCBflBBDGGBBnGGBGGGGGGBBBBBBCGGBGGGflGGDBBBGGBDBGGBBBnBGaGBBGGGB 
[ B B BB B B. BBB. 9 BBBB '.il B . BB BBBBBBfl B j B III! B B j 1MB B B BB BB B 

BBQBaaaGBBQGaaQBBBZZ..ZBGJBBBB_. t.M- ■ BBBBBBB. BB .BB .ZBBBBGB. GGGGBBGGGGG BB BB 

GGBBBB BB ■ ■ BB B ■ BBBB BB . BB. lUGGBBBBBBBBi jGlZBGGGBGGGlZBBBB.jGGGBGGBBB, BZBGBBGBGGBQ 
DGBaaaaBBQaBGGBBBGB. fl .. BBBB B jG B . i ■■■■■■■:■■ ■ mo ■ I III B LB BB B B ! 

B B BB B 1. '. <flflB ■ : . 1 BBB B ■ flBBBBBB J J . B .. BB BBBB B B . BBB ZZ BB ■_< flflfl 

CBBBBGBBGCB' JGBBGGzzfl ,_MIJZIJ t .IIJU JGflflflBBB JG ji.JBBGGGBQGQUBBBBBGaBaOQQaBBBL» fl ZBBGGBGBGa 
GBGGGBBGBGGZBBBZB I III I I llllll flfl Bfl . BBBBB ■ . ■ ABB ■ ■ Bfl B 

■ BB B BflflZB B BBB fl.. ■ BBBBBB BB ,■_» ~jGBGGGaDBBBBBQDBQOBDOBBBGGCQGi_BBBGGflGBBBB] 
■flflfl Zfl .HZGGflBG flflfl. ■ B BBBBB BB BflGGGGflflflflflBGGBGGBGGBBBGGBGflGGflflGflGGGflGGD 
BGGCBflGaflGflflfl IflGflGGflflfli ■ B Bflflflflfl B ■■ uGGGflBflflfl » BGGBGGI BBfl BGBC BBB 'Bfl* 

XDBGflZ Bfl B ■ INI J I BBBBB Bfl '. ■■ . IIIIMZJJl'J< <■.." ■■■aBaGGGflflfll B . BflflB* J 

flflfl .fl B Bfl . , BBS : iB B >_ BBBBB B , . BB . Bflflflflfl.:. ■■ I III 1ZH ■ .BB B 

flflfl . ...MB B B Bflfl B ■ BBBBB BH ■ . . : ' BBBHBB. ' ■ i B: l. ■BBGlZBGBZ! :■■■ I. ■■ _ ._ ■ 

GQGfl : .BGflfl am bbbb bbbb . ■ ... bb ^ ; iiimi b ■ bbbb ■ ■ z abb b b ■■ ■■ ■ 

■ fl 'fl BB '"BBB ..: A BBBB B ... fl JZ CHIIIBI AA II: ] llll I ...', ■■ BB I BB 

GGflflflflGflflZflGfl BB ■ ■ llll. II Bfl . . BflBBflflBB ■ ■ ■'_ ZZIBBBA' i. G B ' flflfl _■ B.AA BG'iflJ 

GOB Bfl ■ flflfl ■ ■ ■■■■ < ■ ■ IGG ■■■■■■■ J AB . f '.'J IIBI I'll ■'_»_■■■ ■ ■ jBBLJQBOBD 

■ Zfl J ■■ ■ flflfl ■ III I I lllllll ^ II llll II I III '<.■■:■' Bflfl 

■ BIB AB JGAGGflflGGGGflGGBBflGGfl Z flfl . .GjGflBBflflflaaQaBBaaaBaaaGflflBBflGaBaaaaGBBBGB 1 .: flZZflfl GGBGBDD 
L'fl III III I I III I B 1 Bflflflflfl.: < BB G ■■> IQI 1' lllll "BZ'f BGGBflfl.fllflGZflfl'GflGjiIfl 1 

CflGGGflflGGflZflflflZflZB JZjflBBGGflG fl 1 ' BflflflflflGaGBflGGGGBGGGGGflBBflBGGBGGBGGflflflGGGGGGBBflGGflGflflflG 
■flflfl 'BZBZGGflBGOJGGGGflBflaflGGflZ '. JflBBflB .' ■■ ', Z ■■ . iGGGflflflBBHGGBQGHGGBBBGGBGBGGBHGBGGGBGGG 
fl'JZZBB B flflfl ■ ■ BBB'fl i <fli i i ' Bflflflflfl DGQBDGGC BAG ZCCCflflflflfl: GBGCflGG flflfl' ■ ■ Bflfl: _■:■■ 

■ ■ IflGLi 'Bfl flZjfl J III J ' I ..ZBBAAB IB . AA ' ■■■BBB A ■ BBB fl GflflflGAGGQflflflGG 
flflfl fl I BB j '.Bflfl Z'B'fl ; flflflflfl ■ ! ■• BBBBBAZ:' AB A T. ABB Zfli jZBBGGGflGflflGGGfl 

13GQGBflflGG HflZflZflZGflflflGflGflGQGflflflflfl ■■ B BBBBBB B. . . Zfl ZZBBfl. ! B._B_j,_ ■■■GflGGaflflGGCfl 

OGGflGGflGflflGBGBGGBflBGBGGGGGflflBflGGGflijULiflfl GGGGflflflflflflflGGGflGGGflGGGBBflfli. ■ ■ BBB B B AA A .A 

■ BGBaaGGflflaGGaGBflflGGGGaGGflflflflGQGflDGGBaGGGl BBBBBBfl Bfl. ' Bfl: i Bill ■ i BB GGGGBflGGGflfl 
Gl. IflflBB II II II iGB B JGflflflflZ: 'BBOGBBDOQGBBBBBBBB' iGL BZiLiGflGGGGflflflflGGaGflGGflflflGflGflGflBGBaGfla 

BB B BAD ■ ■ BBBB B. ■ I. BBBBBBB- BB ' fll IGI I ■■■■ fl. flL flflfl . A B BB ■ 

■Gfl 7. BB ■ Z BBfl ■ iZGGflflflG' ■ ■ , i.K.JflBflflflflflGGGGflZ.GflflGL BBBB B BUDBBBOOQDOOBBDBaDBBB 

BBBB Bfl ZGBGGflBGGGGflGGflflB B flfl ■ BBBBBB i. flfl , flGGGGflflflflfll .. fl. GGGGflflflGflGflGGflflGGGGflGG 
L.fl BB B 'BBB B B Bflfl B I I llllll II L II _ BBIBfl II flflfl flGflGGflflGBGGGflGQ 

■ fl ■□ ■ ABB B B Bflfl am j ,, BBBBBB , , B J.JI B flBBBB ■ fluGflflflGGGGGGflflflGGGGflflflfl 

■ Bflfl ■ ■ BB ]GGGflflflGflGGBGGGGflflflflfl .' flflZZiGGflflGGaGflaflflflflGL B^Lfl- :! JflflflGGflGflGGflflGflGGGflGOQ 

■ BB B Bflfl B B BBB B li B BBBAflB B i ■■ BflBflflGGZa ■ BBBGBCBanBBBDDDDBBDDa 
B IB BB B B BBB . B BBBBB II flfl " BflflBflflGGI ■ " ■ . : BAB: BZGZGflflflZfl BflflflG 

lBBUGBGGBGBBGGGGDaBBBGGflGflGGGflBBflflGGGflGGGflflGaGGGGflflBaflBaaBBGGBGGDBflBGGGaBaGBBaaGGGBBGGGB 
1 87 

Fig. 301. 



Fig. 299 illustrates the curved twill obtained from the 



twill. 8 warp-threads are 



designed in the regular 45 ° twill and 8 warp-threads in its 63 ° steep-twill —. 16 warp-threads 
lepeat. Drawing-in draft: 16-harness straight draw or 8-harness section draw. 



63 

Fig. 300 illustrates another curved twill obtained from the - 4 twill. 

Warp-threads 1 to 8 call for the 45 ° regular twill. 

^GGBaaBDDGBBBB ., ~ .. .. ^ n . 

umDamaaammmmn " n. to in OZ steer) 

bggbgogbbbbg: y lu 1U w j 3LCt r 

■ ■■■■ ■ ., ., .. n . .. 

GBjaaBBBBaaBG " 17 to 20 AC regular 

BGaGBBBBOGBGa i / lo .su ^.5 itguiai 

DDDBBBBDDBDDB „ .. .. .- ,. 

DDBBBBcnBanBa 21 to 2 _L 6^ steeo 

CBBBBQGBGGBOa A1 lu A T- ^J ow-^-jp 

BBBBGGBQGBGGG (i 



__jncBDaBDnaB 2C to X2 A.K regular 

BBGGBrQBTjGGBB ^O Lw J-" *tO lc & u101 

1BGGBQQBDDDBBB « „ „ . „ « ,, ^ „ n i. 

33 to 40 63 steep 



:bodi 
Fig. 302. 



41 to 44 " " 45 regular " 
Repeat of design: 45 warp-threads, 8 picks. 
Dra wing-in draft: 8 or 16-harness section draw. 

Drawing-in Draft for 13-Harness. 

isDnnnBanDnnBnnnnanDnBnDnnDanoDnBBnnnaaDDDnDDDDDaDDnDBonnDnnnnDDnnnnnnnDnannnBnnncDnBDnnn 
nnnaaDanaoDnDnDDanBanDDDDnDDDBDOonDnncncnDDncGcncBBurQGaoDnDDDnanBnnDDnaDDBDDDaaDaacnna 
DnaaQaaaaBaaaaaDnBaDnnDaaDaaBacnDQQanDDaaDDDDDnGBanaaaGaaQDDL CGGB^GCoaacaaaaGDaaaBUCDnBi 
aGaBQQaDaGaaaaaaaDaGaaaaaGUBQGaaaGaaaaaaacaaQCBBaGCGaGGcaGacGaaBaaaaaaoanBGODaaaaaaaaaa 
DGGaaaaaBaGaaaaaBGGazr.GrGZBzzaGGGGcaaaDDaDDGBBaaQCGacc DaDaDDDBaDDDaDaaaBaaaaaaGBGGnaaG 
aaacaaaQaaGaGaaBaaaaaaaaaBaaaaaaaGcaaaaaaGBBaaaaaaaaaDacDDD^GBDaanaaQDcaaaaaGaaaaaaaaBa 
oaBGaGGBGaaGaGriGGGGGGaaaBQDaDaaaaaaaDnDDBBaDaaaaDaaaaDaaaaacBaaaGaaaaGGBacGGziGB: 
aGaaGGGGGGaGGnBGGGaaaQGBaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaBaaaaaaaaaacaaGoaaauBaaaaGaacaaBaaDaaaaaaGaaaaaa 
GQaaaaBGaGaaGBaDananaaDanaGaGGaaGaaaDBBaDaGGGaGCGaaaGaaaaaBaaaaGaaacaBaaGaaaQaBGaaGaBaa 
CBGGaGGGaaaQaGGGGGGGaaBGaaaaaaGQaaaaBaGaaGaGaGGaaaaaaaGQBBGaGGaGGaaaGQaacaaGGGaaaQGaaaa 
DnaiDaB~ujDDaBDaDaDDnDBnDnDnnnDDDDDBBDDDDDDuDDOCDDDaDnDDBDDaDDDananDnBDDaDDDnaBDnnDnDnDa 
DcannDannnDBDDDcnanaBnananaaDannaBnnnnc DaGancacGuaaGanBanaGanaQGaaaBaanaaanoBQGQaQCBnaa 

inaGaaaaaaaGaaaGaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaBaaaaaaaaaGaGaQaaaacBBaGGGccccGGGCBGGGGGGaacaGaoaaDaaaa 

1 87 

Fig. 303. 

Fig. 301 represents a curved twill with 87 warp-threads for repeat, which is obtained from the 
regular 4— g — — 2 — — 2 13-harness twill (shown in Fig. 302) according to draft represented in Fig. 
303, and thus will readily explain itself, as the drawing-in draft also clearly indicates the different 
grading of the twill. 

V. Skip-Twills. 

This sub-division of our regular or foundation twills embraces the weaves in which the twill 
line does not run continuously through the entire design. In their general appearance these rep- 
resent a combination of parts taken from a regular twill. 

They are designed as follows : After drafting successively 2, 3, 4 or more threads from a 
regular twill for the new weave, skip (or omit) I, 2, 3 or more threads; draft again 2, 3, 4 or 
more successive threads, then skip again, and continue in this manner to draft and skip until you 
get the repeat for the new weave. 

We can arrange this skipping in the direction of the warp, in the direction of the filling, or 
in both systems. 

1 st. Skip-Twills in which the Skipping is arranged for the Warp. 

Fig. 304 represents the regular 4-harness twill - s . 

Fig. 305 illustrates the skip-draft reading as follows: Take two, miss one, four times over; or 
I, 2,4, I, 3,4, 2, 3. 



CGBDBBGB 


■ ■ ■■ 


■ I ■ ■ 


B BB fl 


■ KB B 


IB ■ BB 


BB B B i 


IB Bfl_B . ] 
1 



r 


: ■■ ■■ 


BB 


a 


a 




■■ BB 


B 


a 


BB 


B 


■ a 


B 


BB ■ 


IB ; 


a 


■ ■ 


B a 


B Bl 


1 


1 


BB BB 


BB 


a 


B 


c 


BB BB 


B 


a 


BB 


B 


a a 


a 


BB ■ 


IB 


IB 


■ B 


B B 


■ II 


1 


1 








a 



BflBQ 
■ II 

BB 



Bar 

1 bb 4n-!=imn-n 1. m bb b «x •' ■■ _aa bb b b 

■■ am ' ■■ ■■ LS" 5" -■ -- -5" !L- 

■ ■ ■■ ■ B ' BB B B BB BB II - 

B a llJu.i <B Bfl_B i 1 , J..^. .J.I .. I I _■_■! II II IB BB 

14) 1 9 1 10 1 111 1 

Fig. 304. Fig. 305. Fig. 306. Fig. 307. Fig. 308. Fig. 309. 

Fig. 306 represents the skip-twill derived by means of draft Fig. 305 from the ? ., 4-harness 

twill shown in Fig. 304. Repeat: 8 warp-threads, 4 picks. 

Fig. 307 illustrates a second kind of skip-draft for 4-harness, reading as follows: Take four, 
miss one, four times over; or 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 1, 3, 4, I, 2, 4, I, 2, 3, which, if applied to the 
4-harness twill 2 shown in Fig. 304, will produce the design as represented in Fig. 308. 

Repeat: 16 warp-threads, 4 picks. 

Drawing-in draft: Either 16-harness straight draw, or for 4 or 8-harness with a section 
arrangement. 



64 



Fig. 309 is the 6-harness 3 - 3 twill. 

Fig. 310 represents a skip-draft reading as follows: Take six, skip two, three times over. 
This skip-draft, if applied to the - 3 twill (Fig. 309) will produce the weave of a skip-twill, as 

shown in Fig. 311. 

nooHanaunmanoa 

GGBBBGBBHG:_r BZZGBB 
GBBBGGBBL-ZZBulXjBBB 
■■■□DOBDQDBBQQBBBa 
BBDDDBDDDBBBDBBBDD 
BDaDBBDDBBBDBBBQDa 

f'LL . ■■■ : ■■■ ■■ ■ 

CDBBBIBBBi.rr.BaOCBB 
GBBBGGBBaaOBGaOBBB 
BBBaaDBaDaBBDDBBBD 
JBZ.-ZBGZGBBBGBBBaa 
IBOODBBOOBBBDBBBaDD 
1 18 



ernDnnBDCCBnirnBDDDD 

□DDDBnaDBDDDBDDDDC 

QOGBDDDBQCDDOOQDDH 
DDBGnDBCuDuDDDDaBG 
DBaDDDDaDCC ! ■ 
IHaDDDDDDDDBDDDBDDD 

1 18 



Fig. 310. 



Fig. 311. 



Fig. 313 shows another variation of the skip-twill, derived from the common twill 
(Fig. 309) by means of skip-draft illustrated 
skip two, six times over, twill from left to 
right to left. 

Repeat: 36 warp-threads, 6 picks. 



in Fig. 312. The latter reads as follows: Take three, 
right; take three, skip two, six times over, twill from 



eaocaonoBODDBODGonncpr'jrPoennnDonnBDQ 

DCnnDDannDSODDSDDDnagDDnDDDDnDBDDGBa 

QQQaaoQQQpooDBOGnBaaooooaoawaooBOGGB 
. DDBQaaaaacaaBaaQBaaGaaaQBaaaBGaaBCGa 

DBDraBnGDaDDaaGBDDDDDBDDDBDnaBDDDOnn 
lBQDCBGCeJWZIGaQDDnQDeGGGBGaQBQQODQGOCD 

1 38 



Fig. 312. 



OOOBDOB1 BBBDBBDDBDBBaOB ZB~ SB BBB 

nDBDDDBDDBBDBBBCBBDGBanCBCDBBCBBBCBB 
r<BBGGBC~~B_ ,IICIN'.JI~ r l|i:ill'.MJ B 

BBBGBBGGBGGGBGGBBGBGGBBGBBBGBBGGBGGD 
BBGBBBGBBGGBGGGBGGBBGBBBGBBGGBGGGBGG 
BQGBBGBBBGBBGGBGGGBBBGBBGGBGGGBGGBBG 

t[ m ■■ ■■■ ■■ ■ ■■ ■■■■■■■ 

BGBGGGBGGBBGBBBGBflGGBGGGBGGBBGBBBGBB 

QBBaaBaaaaai ■■_■■■■■■■■■ bbcgb 

■■■DBBCGBZGGBGZBB.. B " BBGBBBGBBGGBGGG 
BBGBBBGBBGGBaGGB_':BBGBBBGBBGGBGCGBGG 
IBaaBBGBBBGBBaGBCGaBBBGBBCGaCCCBQCBB 



1 



Fig. 313. 



For drawing-in draft use skip-draw shown in Fig. 312. For harness-chain use the regular 



(7-harness) by- 



twill shown in Fig. 309. 

In Fig. 314 we illustrate a skip-twill derived from the regular twill — 
means of skip-draft shown in Fig. 315. Take two, miss two, seven times over, forms the repeat 
of this skip draft. 

Repeat of weave: 14 warp-threads, 7 picks. 



nGBBODBBDninDB 
DnBBDQBODBOnBB 
GGBZ ■ - "BBZGBB 
OBDaBBGGBBZ'"~BG 

bbqgbbccbzzb j 
bbggbzzbgzbbzg 
bddbqdbb x bb 1 
7qgbb ■■ bggb 
ddbb ■ bggbb 

naBQDBnaBBDDBB 
DBDDBBDDBBDDB .1 
BBDDBBDDBDDBDD 
BBDDBDDBDaBBDa 
IBQaBDDBBDDBBDa 
1 14 

Fig. 314. 



fODDDDOaeODHCOCl 
DDDBDrJBDDDDDDa 

i . -zooaaaooa 

QDnDDDaDDBDDBa 
nDDDaBDDBDDDDa 
DBODBDDDaDanaa 
IBDDDDDDDDDDBaa 
1 14 

Fig. 315. 



nCCBBDDBBDDDBDDBBBDDB 
GGGBCGBBBCCBGZZBBGZBB 
CCBCZZBBCGBBQQGBGGBBB 
DBBGDDBDG BBS DQBDDQBBO 

BBBCZBZZZBB ■■ ■ 
BB BB . ■ ■■■ ■ 
BZCBBBCGBGGGBBQGBBCGG 
7GGGBBGGBBGGGBGGBBBGGB 
QGGBaGBBBGCBGGGBBaCBB 
GGBGaGBBaGBBaaaBCCBBB 
CBBGZGB." ■■■ BIGuBBQ 
■ ■■< ■ ■■ ■■ » 

BB^zaBBaaaBaaBBBCCBaca 

1 BGGBBBGGBGGGBBGGBBGGG 
1 21 



Fig. 316. 



Weave Fig. 316 is derived from the same regular twill as Fig. 314, but has a different 
drafting, as follows: Take three, miss two, seven times over. 
Repeat of weave: 21 warp-threads, 7 picks. 



OEDZiBDGGBBGQBflBGBBBBGBBBGaaBBGOB 


HGGB EGGBGHQBBGHBBBI 'BBBBGBBB .' 'BB 


( aaa b a b a ■■ ::maa ■■■■: ■■■ 


■Ki sua ■ a ■ a ■■ ::■■■ dbbb 


BBBBGBBB BBaZ. BGH 1 ■ ' a BBGHBBBG 


■■■ ■■■■ Man ■■:: ■ :: ■ :: ■■ a 


■■ :»■■ ibii ■■■ aaa ■ a ■ ;; 


BGHGBBGGBBB BBBB BBB 3 '. BBHDDBOHCD 


■ ,a ' bb ::■■■ mi bbb i'hihddi 


hggb' :H' ■ a ■■ ::dii bbbb bii ■■ 


'. ■■:; ■ a s bzegbbuebbb bbbbbbb 


i ■■■ ■b:; . ■ a ■ a ■■ ::■■■■■■■ 


■■■■ aaa ■■□...'_"■ a ■ a ■■ a«BBG 


BBB ■■■■ BBB BBa , B a ~.B a BB~.a 


BBGEBBB ■■■■ " BBB' GBBa IZB "OGGBGEG 


1 32 



8DDnnBaODDBDDODBnnCDFlGnDCnanGDDDD 

TaaaooaaBaaGGBaaaar-ocazKcaaacaGa 

DnDDDDDDaoaDBDDDD§DDDDBDDGDBLJDDa 

DGnaaaaaaaaaaaaaBaaaaBaaaaBGaGGB 
DGQ»aGQaaQaGOGQaaGGGisiaaaa«aaaaBa 
DGBGDaaBaaDnadaaaGaQQaGaNiaGGznaa 
DBaaaawoaaGBaaGGacaQaaGaaaaciPiaac 
iBDDaGBQaQaBGDDaBaaGaaaaacDaaaaaa 

1 32 



Fig. 317. 



Fig. 318. 



Fig. 317 represents a skip-twill derived from the 8-harness - 
shown in Fig. 318. 

Repeat of weave: 32 warp-threads, 8 picks. 



-^ by means of skip draw 



65 



Fig. 319 illustrates the skip-twill derived from the 14-harness — j — 3 3 1 — 3 regular twill by 
the following drafting: Take three, miss six, fourteen times over. 

Repeat of weave: 42 warp-threads, 14 picks. 

Fig. 320 represents the skip-twill derived from the 18-harness ^—3 — — 5 — — ■* — ^—3 regular 
twill, derived by means of the following drafting: Take three, skip ten, eighteen times over. 

Repeat of weave: 54 warp-threads, 18 picks. 



ieodbdgbbgegc1 

igcbgggbgbgcgi 



in ■■ 



■■ ■■■zl: bbb ■■ :: 

IBCGBBQEaaBBDBBBOHai 





ISGGGBGGGGEBBBZBBGZECGGCErBBGBBBCECCCBEZZBGL 


■BZEGGGBBGGB 




CGEZZZZEZBB'ZBBBZEZZZ BE 


GZBGZBBZEZZZBBZZBCCC 


BZZZZEBBBZBB 




CECZZBEZZBGGBBZEGCCBBZ 


ZBZZZBZ: HBBBZBBGGE 


ZZZGEGBBZBBB 




GCGZBBZ ■ BZZZBGZZZEBBBZ 


BBGGEZZ DGHDBBDBBBOEC 


ZBS ZBZZBBZ 


IGEGBBBGBBZGEGBBGGB 


CGEBBBZBBGGEZZCCEGBBZB 


BBZSZGZBE ZBZ BB_E~Z 


ZBB_ I BZZZBZZ 


:::■■■■■ c ■■■ ■■ 


e ■■ bbs e be ZB ■ 


BZEGZGBBZZBZZZBZ "E 


BBBZBBGGEGGC 


IZZZBZGBBZ EZZBBGBBB 


E_ZB ■■ E BB fl ■ 


ZZGZEBBBGBBZZEZZ '_ "EZ 


BBZBBBZEZGZB 


1ZZBZZZBZBZZZBGGBBG 


DGBCCCBCGGZEBBB ■■ HZ 


ZZZEZBBZBBBZEZZ- BEZ_ 


B ZBBZEZZZBB 


IZBBGGEZBBZZBZZGBGB 


CBBZZEZZZZH ■■ ■■■ E Z 


BEZ..BZ1 ■■ E BB B 


B 1ZZEBBB 


BBBGEGBBBZBBGGBGBB 


BBBGEZGGBEGCBGGBBGE :c 


BO B B Eflflfl BB 


IZEZI : JHOBBD 


BBGEGZBBZBBBZEZBBB 


BBCEZGGBBZZBGZZBZZZ _ EB 


BBZBBZZECZZGEGBBZBBB 


ZSZZIBEZZflZG 


BZBZZZBZZBBZEZZBBG 


BGGZGEBBBZBBZ^E Z~E B 


BGBBBZEZZZBEGZBGZBB_ 


EZZZBBZZBZZZ 


IGBBGGBZGGBGBGGGB J.Z 


CZGZEZBB ■■■ EZ " BE ■ 


ZZBBGECZZBBGGBZZZBZ'_ 


EBBBZBBZZE 


BBBZBBZZEZBBZZBZ Z 


be zb am E ■■ ZB 


GGEBBBZBfl I E Z_Z 


ZEZBBZBBBZEG 


BBGBBBZSZBBBZBBZGE 


CBB_.ZBZZ_ BZ EBBBZBBZ 


Z EGGGGEZBBZBBBZEGGCB 


EZZBZZBBZEZZ 


BGZBBZEZ ■■ ■■■ .EG 


BBBZBBGZEZZG E_ BBZBBBZEZI GBEZGBGGBBZEGGGBB 


ZZBZZZBZZZZE 


IZZZBZBZZ 3BGGBBGEGG 


BBZBBflCECGCBECCBCCBBGEZGCBBCZBZGGBCZZZEBBB 


ZBBZZEZZZZEG 


DDaDBBZZBZZuBQBrjDa 


1BCGBBCECCCBBCCBGCCBCCCCEBBBDBBGCBCCCGEGBBG 
1 


BBBZEZ__BEZZ 
54 



Fig. 319. Fig. 320. 

These few designs for skip-twills, with a regular exchanging of "take" and "miss," will 
readily establish the rule for finding the number of warp-threads required for one repeat, as 
follows : 

Multiply the number of harness the foundation (or regular) twill contains (this is also equal 
to the number of picks for the repeat of the skip-twill) by the number of warp-threads taken in 
rotation in the skip-draft before missing a certain number of threads; for example : — 

j number of harness 1 q v- / number of warp-threads taken "I o j repeat of warp- 

( in foundation twill J ( in rotation in skip-draft j J 3 "*"\ threads in s. t. 

14 X " ' " 3=42 

" " 8 X " " 4=3 2 " " 

7X " " 2=14 

The next step for figuring skip-twills is that of arranging the skip-effects produced by 
the warp into two or more different sizes. In their general principle of construction these kinds of 
skip-twills are identical with the ones given before. Figs. 321 and 322 are designed as illustrations. 



Fig. 


320 


u 


319 


<< 


317 


(< 


316 


u 


314 



CGGBGBB^BBGB 



CBBZBB 


s 


~ B 


• ■■ B . 


B . 


B J 


BB E 


E 


BB 


■ •:■ 


B fl 


BB! J 


•:• b 


B B 


b •:•. 


B BB 
BB BB 


B B 
E 


B 

b 



BB B JLJDBGBBn 
>B BZDBCBBBG 

Fig. 321. 



CGOGBGBBB 
: B BBB 
BB BB 


B ffl 

bb 
be 


■ 


ZBCBBBB~B 
B " BBB BB 
B BB BB 


BBB B : 
BBBB ■:• 
BBB 


BE' 
B B 


BB 
BB 


B B BB 

B B E 1 

f^f^ B 


BB 


•:••:• b 


B B 


B 


•:■•:• bb 


B 


bb bb 


B fl 




BB BBB 


<■ 
r 


'B BBB 
B BBB 


B S 


B BBBB B 
B BBB 


B 


B BB 


BB 


B 

IBM 


b bb •:••:• 

B B BB 


BBB 


a b 


V ill 


BE. B ; 


BBB 


bb 


B BBB 


B 


BB 
■ 


' ES 1 B 

zee: bb 


B flfl 

B_i B 


*B BB 

BB BBB 


1 


F 


□ 
IG. 3 


22 


-i 



Fig. 321 is derived from the regular 5 6-harness twill. Arrangement of skip-draft is as. 

follows: Take three, skip two, take one, skip two, four times over. 

Repeat: 12 warp-threads, 6 picks. 

Fig. 322 has for its foundation the regular 8-harness twill - v Arrangement of skip-draft: 

Take four, skip three, take two, skip three, four times over. 

Repeat: 12 warp-threads, 8 picks. 

A further process in figuring skip-twill is found in arranging the skipping in the direction of 
the filling. After taking two, three or more picks in rotation from any of the "regular" 45 ° twills, 
miss one, two, three or more picks; then continue again to take an equal number as before, 
again miss a certain number of picks, and proceed in this manner until the repeat is obtained. 



66 



Figs. 323 and 324 are designed for illustrating this sub-division of skip-twills. 

Fig. 323 — repeat: 4-harness, 16 picks — is derived from the regular 4-harness twill - 
the following manner : Take four, miss one, four times over. 

Fig. 324 — repeat: 8-harness, 24 picks — is derived from the regular 8-harness twill — 
as follows : Take three, miss four, eight times over. 



in 



2. 



iOl . 'BB BB 
DUQDHD 
BBGGBBGC 
BGGBBGGB 
[ □■ ■■ 
BBG '■■DO 
■' ii nil ■ 
ggbbggbb 
bb bb 
bggbbggb 

DuMCCM 

gbbggbbg 
■ bb ■ 

ggbbggbb 
gbbggbbg 

IBB BB... 
1 4 

Fig. 323. 



24Bnaoa! ibbbgge ] ■■ 

GCBZOBBB "JQZ iBBB 

DfflaaBBBnaffinaBBB'3 

BBDDfflCDBBBDDfflDCB 
B'jafflD'JBBBDnfflDDBB 
OtDfflBDBBBDDHDDBBB 

■bb * ' ■■■uzsaa 

BB US luBBBZiJSZZB 

■aafflaDBBBDDE8DDBB 
DBBBDaBDDBBBDDBn 

■■■iGGBaaMBGGBGG 
BBaOBDDBBBIZiaEQQB 

ggbbbggsggbbbggb 

DBBBGJfflGaBBBi_affla 
BBBGGffiGGBBBGGffiGQ 

s ■■■ ; •:- bbb r: 

GGBBBGGEaaBBBGGB 
GBBBaGEGGBBBGafflG 
DBGGBBBGGBDDBBBQ 
HaDBBBDDBDDBBBGZ 
1.1 iBBB_ B . BBB B 
DGBQGBBBQOSanBBB 
GBGGBBBGGBGGBBBG 
Xffl'JDBBBGDfflDDBBBaG 
1 8 



Fig. 324. 



The rule for finding the number of picks necessary for one repeat of design is: Multiply the 
number of harness in repeat by number of picks taken in rotation before skipping. The result 
will be the number of picks necessary for one repeat in design ; for example : — 

Fig. 323 — 4 (number of harness) X 4 (picks in rotation) = 16 picks in one repeat. 
« 324—8 " X 3 " " = 24 " 



1BGGGBBBGBBBGDBBGGGB 
GOBBBGBflBOQGflGGGBB 
aBBBGGBB.GaGBGGQBBB 
BBB Zi' JBGL'LIBBGJBBBG 
BB I B D BBB 'BBB ) 
B BB BBB BBB 

DBBBGJBB GGBGGGBBB 
BBB "J B . 1GBBG1. BBB' J 
BBJG B JG jBBBZBBBGG 
BGGQBBGGflBBGBBBOGG 
GGGBBBGBBBGGBBGGGB 
DGBBBaBBBGaCBGnaBB 
BBGG B IG BBB IBBBGG 
■IB BBB BBB _J 
QGGBBB BBB BB B 

DGBBBGBBB ZUGBaGDM 
GBBBGGBBGGGBGGGBBB 
IBBBGaaBQaCBBQaBBBG 
18 



Fig. 325. 



siaaGBBBaBaaaBaaaBBBQBaQGB 

GGBBBGBGaGBBGGBBBGBGGGBB 
GBBB jBGGGBBBGBBBGBGCQBBB 

bse be , bbb .sfflEBi eel j: bbbg 

BB BBB .BBB ' fflffll JBBB BBB ) 

EGBBBGBBBGGGBGEBBGBBB JGJ 
GBQGGBGG ifflBBGBG, GBGGGBBB 
BGGGBBZ ..BBS 1BGC BO "GBBB J 
G I BBB JBBB IBGGi BBB EBB_B 
CGBBBGBEBGEB' 'GBBB BBB BB 
GBBBGGBB IBBB' BBBi II ,BBL BBS) 
ioBBB B iSEBGBBBGI 1 .BZBBBZj 

GGGBBBGB JGGBGGGBBBGB '. -M 
GGBBBGBG_: 1BBGCBBBGBIGGBB 
CBBBZSJGGBBBCBBB ..B.. GGBBB 
BBB BB : BBB .BBS BB . BBB i 
BB fflHSGBBB 3GBBGEBBGBBB.. D 
BGBBBGBBBGG IBOBBEGBBBGCG 
GBGGZBGG 1BBBGBGGI ■GGGBBB 
BGGGBBZ .BBB 1BGGGBBGGBBBG 
GZ.iBBBGBBE 1BGGGBBB BEBGB 
GGBBB ZBBB SB T BBB BEE_EB 
GBBB jJBB .BBB "BBB : 'BBZBES 
lBBBUGGBuBBBGBBBGaGBJBBB 'i 
l 12 21 



Fig. 326. 



The next course in figuring skip-twills is that of combining warp and filling skip-effects in 
the same design. 

Figs. 325, 326 and 327 illustrate this sub-division of the skip-twills. 

Fig, 225 — repeat: 18 warp-threads, 18 picks — has for its foundation the 6-harness 3 

regular twill. Take six, miss two, three times over in one repeat for warp and filling directions. 



24aaoaBaaaBBaaBBBBGBBB : < J_g 
aaaBaaGGBaaGBBBGBBBBggBB 

ZDBBGGGBG ■ ' BB BBBB BBB 

BBB BB B , BBB BJBB 

B BB ■■■■ BIB B . 

IB BBB DBBB BB D 
GGGBGC II BBBB BiB BO 

I BB ■ I III BBBB BBB 

BBGGBBBBGBBB'G . IJ, - B iG'G 
I IN BIBB BB I J 

GGaGBBGGBBBBCBBB BB . B 
ZGGGBGGGBBBCBBBtl^ iflBBXIl 
BBBB BBB B ■ B :„ ".. BB .. 
BBBGBBBB IGBB ' B I ,._ B iGG 
Bl BIBB BIB BBj^.B JGG 
BGGGBBB BBBBlBBB GBBGZ 

[ BBB ■ B BB BBBB 

■BBBGGBBGGGB . . B BBB 1 

BBBBGBBBGGBBG GBGZ. BB I 

BBB BBBB BBB ".i BB »G . B _ I 

' B "HI IB: BB ," BBBB BBB 



bggbbgggi 
Fig. 327, 



BO BBB 
jBGGGBBB 



^[JBBBGGGBGBBBGGGBBBGDGB 

BGBBBGGGBGBBBGGGBBBGGG 
BGGBBBGGBGGBBBGGGBBBGG 
BGGGflBBGBGGGBBBGGGBflBG 
GBGGGBBBGBGGGBBB GGGBBB 
I 'BB ;G BB IBB i: 1 BBBGGGBB 
GBBBGGGB BBB ' - BBBGGGB 
V BBB B BBB BBBG 
GBBB B BBB iGBBfl B 
B BBB . B BBB < BBBGGD 
BGGBBBGGBGGBBBGGGBBBGG 
B BBB B J BBBGGUBBBG 
GBGGGBBB B ' . 'BBB BBB 
GBBG _ BB ~BBGGGBBBGGGBB 
BBS ■ BBB BBB B 
B BBB B BBS ~ BBB 
■GGBBB .IGBGGBBBCGGBBBaa 
B ' V IBBB IB TG BBB BBB 
GBGGGBBB IB GGGBBB Z BBB 
GBBGGGBB Bl BBB 'BB 
GBBBGGGB BBB -BBBGGGB 
1BGGGBBBJBGG_BBBGG^BBBG 



Fig. 328. 



Fig. 326 — repeat: 12 warp-threads, 12 picks, and Fig. 327 — repeat: 24 warp-threads, 24 
picks — are figured skip-twills of a more elaborate design. 

In Fig. 326 6 threads in rotation, warp and filling ways, are used before skipping. In Fig. 
327 4 threads in rotation, warp and filling ways, are used before skipping 3 threads. 



67 

Fig. 328 — repeat: 22 warp-threads, 22 picks — is designed to illustrate skip-effects irregularly- 
arranged, and is derived from the common 5 6-harness twill. Arrangement of drafting for 

this weave is: Take one, miss two, take seven, miss two, take one, miss two, take thirteen, miss two. 



I. 2 3 V 5 6. 7 8. 

8. IE 



D 



-, 






t- 



VI. Combination Steep-Twills (of 63 grading). 

This sub-division of the twill weaves is produced by combining two regular twills (45 °) 
which either have the same number of warp-threads for their repeat, or two regular twills where 
one weave contains one-half, one-third or one-fourth the number of warp-threads in its repeat 
compared to the number of warp-threads found in the 
repeat of the other weave. In designing these com- 
bination twills the two weaves are combined, one 
pick of one twill to alternate with one pick of the 
second twill. Diagram Fig. 329 is designed to give 
a clear illustration of their method of construction. In 
the same 

A represents the regular 8-harness twill s — - — ^ — 1 — 2 - 

Bti a << K 5 
3- 

C " the drafting so as to get 

D = the combination 63 ° steep-twill. 
Repeat: 8 harness and 16 picks. 
Arrangement of drafting: 




_IL 
Ilin 



16. 

15. 
If. 
13. 

12. 



ii.i.1 5. 6. 7. a 

B 



Fig. 



329. 



10 
9. 
8. 
7. 
6. 
5 

5. 

2. 
1 



1st pick of combination twill is 1st pick of regular twill B. 



2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5 th 

6th 

7th 

8th 

9th 

10th 

nth 

1 2th 

13th 

14th 

15th 

1 6th 



1st 

2nd 

2nd 

3rd 

3rd 

4th 

4th 

5th 

5th 

6th 

6th 

7th 

7th 

8th 

8th 



<< 



A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
A. 



hcbg n 



LB ■■ 
■ ■■ 
■ ■ ■ 
■ ■ ■ 1 

'■■ ■ 

1 

Fig. 330. 



■■bbb b 

gh j bb 

g , - GBB 

gggg 

E GBGG .' 

LBBGB I 
lQQQQ-iLjg 

Fig. 331. 



r.r. 


gg 


■ 

■ 


1 ■■ 

GHG 

■■J 
gbbg 


■ 


■■ 


1 : 


'.'y.'.'.'. . 


L, 1 

t b: 

[ ai 




u:jl 


SB 



■ 

D 

t 



■ ■ 

BB B 



:□" ' BB 



:;: 



B 



Fig. 332. 



i bb :: 

HB G 
B B G 

GG 



Fig. 333. 



. BG 
I ■ I 

gb : 
■ ■■ 

G B 



1 n 



B 

■ 

BG 



Fig. 334- 



Fig. 330 illustrates the regular (45 ) 7-harness twill 2 — T - 
Fig. 331 represents the regular 7-harness twill known as - 



_■ 



3' 



Fig. 332 clearly illustrates the combination of these two weaves (Figs. 330 and 331), or its 
"Combination Steep-Twill" of 63 grading. 



7rcn 


~aa^a 


H 


3B 33 


L_H 


ezsee 


:::: 


bee : 


H 


bee a 


r B 


33 33 


1HH 


B^BBZ 



14BHC 


33^3 


■ J 


■ ■ 


aza 


S SE 


. ■ 


MM 


G3E 


DBHE 


am 


■■D 


EH 


BHHG 


■ 


■■3D 


□ HE 


EE E 


DZM 


■ ■ 


DEE 


3 EE 


HI 


bz 


B3E 


BSZ 


am 


H .3 


i 


i 



I2EES" 


jczigebgcz] 
7zzee_zze 
zzb3Z„Z33 

Z33„Z_EE3 

3obaaaa3n 
zz_.SE3_zz 


gzz: 

CZ_I 
CZ3! 
DEE. 
BBZ 

1CESHI 

1 


asagticfjEE 

12 



68 

To simplify the combination each regular twill is shown by a different type and this style 
of type is retained in the combination twill. Repeat of combination twill, Fig. 332, is 7-harness 
and 14 picks. 

Fig. 333 illustrates the regular 45 twill, known as - — ^ — - — g, Avhich, with weave Fig. 330 
(from the previous example), is used in constructing weave Fig. 334. Repeat of the latter : 
7-harness and 14 picks. 

MEHnHHOE 

12bbbzgzjbgbgdb 
bbzzzbzbzzbb 
■czzbzbzzbbb 
gczbzbzzbbbb 
czbzbzzbbbbz 
■ ■ ■■■■ : 

■ ■ 1911 

gbzzbbbbzzzb 
bzzbbbbzzzbz 

■!■■ ■ ■ 

biii ■ a 

1BBBBZGGBGBCD 
1 12 

Fig. 335. Fig. 336. Fig. 337. Fig. 338. 

Fig. 330 is shown combined again with a different weave, Fig. 335, in the 7-harness and 
14-picks combination twill-weave, Fig. 336. 

12-harness weave, Fig. 337, and 12-harness weave, Fig. 338, are illustrated as combined in its 
63 ° combination steep-twill by weave shown in Fig. 339. Repeat of the latter: 12-harness, 24 picks. 

Fig. 341 illustrates another 12-harness combination twill, 63 grading, obtained by combining 
weave, Fig. 337 = 12-harness regular twill ^—3 — - — j — - — - v and weave Fig. 340 = 12-harness 
regular twill - — 3 — — 2 — - — 5 — - — v Repeat for the combination twill-weave: 12-harness, 24 picks. 

Fig. 342 represents the combination steep-twill for 12-harness 24 picks repeat, as produced by 
combining the regular 12-harness twill shown in Fig. 337 (- — ^ — ^— — - — %) with itself, starting 
from two different points. 

The foregoing examples illustrating the construction of the sub-division of twills classified 
in general as "combination twills" indicate that an immense variety of different new weaves can 
be produced. 

MCnGEGGBGCSZa *4EGEGGDEEEEDZ) 

BBBZZZBZBZZB BBBGZZBZBZGB 

JZSZZEZZEZEZ CEZZZBBBBZZa 

c - -■.- bbzcgbzbz.zbb 

bggzbcbzzbbb 
czzeeeezzeze 
cgzbzbzgbbbb 
czBssszzEzaa 

CZBZBZZBBBBZ 
ZB33HZZ3Z3ZZ 

■ ■ ■■!■ 

12ZZZEZZEZZB~a EuZEZEZ B_Z EEEE 3_3_ZQ 

ZZEZZBZZBZBZ BZBZZBBBBZGZ BZBZZBBBBZGZ 

cazzazzazazz DQazBzzzazza bbbzzbzbzzz3 

GBZCBBBBZZZB GBZZBBBBZZZB 

._jh c3zb_zzbzzsg aazzazazzzaa 

_jzzazazzzaz bzzbbbbzzzbg bzzbbbbzzzbg 

BzzazEZZZEzn egscccezzegg azzazazzzaaa 

zzazazzzazza czbbbbzzzbzb aiii izbzb 

gszbzzgegcbg gbcczezzscze czazazz" eseb 

Ezazzzazzazz ■■■■ : ■ ■ nai : di jB "- 

zazzzazzazza Eu_za :a az Z3zb_z_33bbg 

1EZZZEZZEZZSZ 1BBBBZZZBGBZG 1BBBBCCZBZBCG 

1 12 1 12 1 12 

Fig. 339. Fig. 340. Fig. 341. Fig. 342. 

The principle of combining weaves in this manner, or the construction of new designs out 
of one weave, as shown by rules and examples, is of great value to every designer, as it enables 
him to produce a large variety of weaves. 

In addition to the combination steep-twills, constructed out of two twills and in regular 
order, we can vary the order systematically as much as we choose ; again, we may combine three 
four or five regular twills for one combination twill ; in fact, the great variety of new weaves we 
can construct is unlimited. 

VII. Corkscrew Twills. 

This sub-division of the "regular" (45 °) twills is derived from the latter by means of a 
" double draw." This procedure will, to a certain extent, reduce the texture of the warp for the 
face in the fabric, hence a greater number of those threads per inch, compared with the regular 
twill, are required. 



2-^EE 


BZGGZaaGGG 


BB 


BZZZBZBZZB 


HE 






EZ 

BZ 


zzzaaz: ::;- 

ZZBZBZZBBB 




ZZB3ZZZEE3 


cz 


BZBZZBBBB 


cz 


ZEEZZZ3EBG 


c_ 


B BZCBBBBC 






zl 


: ■ : bbbbgz 


: s 


SZZZEEEZZZ 


BZ 


BZZBBBBZGG 


aa 


ZZ: EEEZZZG 


ZB 


ZZBBBBZZZB 


BZ 


~ZEBSZZGGa 


BZ 


ZBBBBZZZBZ 


CZ 


~, n ^ n ~ ~ ~ — 132 


DG 


■hi . " i"i 


G - 




GB 


bbb: ~'b~bz 


za 


BBGZGZBBZZ 


IBB 


BBZZZB_B_ 


1 


12 



GBZ 


Z3GZBZ3GZ 


BZZ 


ZBZBZZBBB 


EZZ 


B HE 1 


czz 


■ ■ ■■■■ 


CZB 


zcazazzza 


ZZB 


ZBZZBBBBG 


GBZ 




GBZ 


iz iii'i" : 


*li-~J I 




BZB 

CZ'B 
GBZ 


Z^BBBBCjZ 

. ' ■■■■": ■ 


GBZ 


B_ZZBZZEZ 


BZZ 


BBBBZZZBZ 


3^3 


rzazzazz 


CZB 


BBBZZZBZB 


GBZ 


ZZBZZBZZa 


GBB 


BBZZZBZBZ 


BZZ 


zazzazzaz 


*■■■ 


BCZZBZBZZ 


1 


12 



69 

A. Corkscrew Twills having for their Foiindation One of the Regular Twills. 

This sub-division of the corkscrew twills commences with 5-harness, after which they can 
be made on any number of harness desired. 

Figs. 343, 344, 345, 346 are designed to illustrate the method of operation for drafting the 

5-harness corkscrew twill from its foundation weave, the regular 5-harness twill known as ^, 

and which is represented in Fig. 343. 



DGHi Fig. 344 shows the double draw as required for drafting 1 _ s_ 10 

■■■33 from Fig. 343. 5=k"Fi2l 



1«DDI 



D 



Weave Fig. 345 shows 5-harness corkscrew (with 5 picks 5?l-|i?B=Ba Fig. 345- 

F Tr ,,,, ° %J ^ J J \ J f cbbzbibszs 

t IG. 343- in j ts re t) .- Sa .a . a B a 

* J Baia:agrwj 

sannHnanaBo Drawing-in draft for practical work, will call for a 5- 

65k' =53=1 harness " straight draw," as illustrated in Fig. 346. The pres- 5 BddBBI m* FiG- 346- 
1 b ent system 01 treating corkscrew twills will always be more mzsizmzz-zi 

advantageous on an uneven number of harnesses, as only such 
a number will allow an equal breaking off for the two twill-effects as visible on the face of 

the fabric. 

«4nnna~aBZB-B3Ba 
::a ■ ■ .as a 

CHBZB^BZBECIEJZG: 
BZBZBZBaZBZBZB 
BOBGBaZBDSZGBZi 

i:is:s b:si:i : 
_,„„„ aa. a a -.aa ■ ■ ] 

^DDDBBBB 7_3 a SB : B B IBS 

CZZZBBB 6 S .3 B B BS DGBBBBG 



03~3ZrMHB~Ba 


CS £ 


B 


IB B3 S 


r~ 


B 


_B 


BS 3 3 


B 


B 


;bs .3 is_n 


B 


jb: 


2G» 


3 ;s :„bh 


b: 


1 a 


B. B 


e : 


^ r 




B B BS 


I 1; 




B 


_B BSjB 




B 


B 


BS 3 3 


B 


B. 


-.BS h:b-> 


BL 


JHHjHT 


las : 


1 






6 12 



L3 .■ :b3Z3 csbjb: bs^bzS 

CBBBZZ! CZBZBTBS 3 3 BBBBGZ3 BIB B BS :: li 

B B BS S S BBBQaOB B .B_B3Z3J3T.SBH 

jlii bibs 3.:s _ :b .bbzczbb bzbsts aoHBCwa 

1BZZZBB 1BBZ3ZGZL.BZBZI lBZZZ'BBB l«HDHaHDBBDBD«P 

16 i 6 12 17 7 14 

Fig. 347. Fig. 348. Fig. 349. Fig. 350. 

Fig. 347 shows the regular 6-harness 3 twill. By means of double drafting, 1-4, 2-5, 

3-6, 4-1, 5-2, 6-3, we derive Fig. 348, the 12-harness corkscrew. Drawing-in: "Straight draw," 
12-harness. 

Fig. 349 illustrates the 7-harness twill. By double drafting (1-5, 2-6, 3-7, 4-1, 5-2, 

6-3, 7-4) we derive weave Fig. 350, the 7-harness corkscrew. Drawing-in: "Straight draw," 
for 7-harness. 

«6DHnHaHBH«nBO«DBt3 
i 3 BB3B B ■ B3 3 
C3B3B B B BS S 3 
B3B B B. BS 3 3 3 
B.IB B B3 3 3 3B3 

B fl bs s 3. ::■::■ i 

IZIB .3 3 3B3B B 

BS SB3B B B till! 

cjoommm szszs. sbsb b b bs ddobbbbbd 

□ZBBBBBZ SB3B B B BS ■ ■■■■ 

DBBBBBZC SBSB fl B B3 ■■■■■ 

■BBBBZZZ B3B B B BS ". SDH 3 lllll 

■III jGI B B B B3 B~B_SB3 BBBB B 
■BB.Z.LDBB 



b bs.s'b aaaa a bbq: hi 

IflDQOBBBB IBa 3 3 3BSB_fl B 1BDZGCBBBB 

18 18 1U 1 U 





SB B 


■ 


a 


■a 3 


US 3 


b a a 


■ 


a b 


3 3 

a a 

■a a 


B B. 

B. B 
B3BE 

'•' 3 E 
3 E 

i a a 


BB BB 

BBB B 
33333 

BBBB 

3333 


B 
B 


a" 
a 

aa 


3B 

a a 

a a i 
a b . 

a 3 
a a 


B B 


B3 3 


E 


a 


a a 
a a 


B B 






a b i 


B B3 

IBS 3 


a be 


a" 


a 
a 


B B i 
B ■ J 
IS 



Fig. 351. Fig. 352. Fig. 353. Fig. 354. 

Fig. 351 represents the 8-harness r twill, anc * Fig- 352 illustrates the latter arranged for 

the corkscrew weave, which is derived by means of double drafting the regular twill. (1, 6, 2, 

7, 3, 8, 4, i, 5, 2,6, 3, 7, 4, 8, 5.) Drawing-in: Straight draw 16- 

harness or double draw on 8-harness only. ~ |Jih"b sV'b SsS"" Bs'II 

B3 3 3B B B3B B B3 

Fig. 353 illustrates the 9-harness twill known as - 5. | >i B :; 5 Sal 1 "! 5a B s aaa"! 

Fig- 354 represents the corresponding corkscrew, derived from the SaS"!"!::"!! bbcHJ bb°! i 

former by means of double draw (1, 6, 2, 7, etc.). In corkscrew weaves ■..■:j jj B jf|_[j B "lBaB : 

for a high number of harness in their repeat, as n, 13, 15, etc., the inter- B jj"jj 

lacing of the warp and filling is very loose ; so the fabric may get too l^j" 

spongy in handling. To remedy this, without changing the face of the ■-■" 

fabric, the floating of the warp upon the back of the fabric must be '■ b.jb :aBa"a $■"■ 5::b"b, 
reduced, which is accomplished by adding one or more places of inter- Fig. 355- 

lacing for the float. For example, Fig. 355, represents the n-harness corkscrew weave, which 



aa 



3BS SB b aa 
-::r 



70 



should require the n -harness 



twill, but where is found in the present example a change 



of the 5 down in rotation, to 2 down, I up, 2 down. 

Thus the actual foundation for the present weave is the regular n-harness 



twill. 



B. Corkscrew Weaves Derived by Combining Two Regular Twills. 

This sub-division of corkscrews has for its object the forming of different sized twill lines upon 
the face of the fabric, which is obtained by combining two different twills of an equal repeat. In con- 
structing the corkscrew use alternately one warp-thread from one twill, one warp-thread from the 
other twill, until all the harnesses are taken up. For example, Fig. 356, a 12-harness corkscrew- 
weave, which is designed from the 6-harness twill * 2 (see Fig. 357) and the 6-harness twill 

3 1 ( see Fi g- 358). 

Drawing-in draft : 12-harness " straight draw." 
Repeat : 1 2 harness and 6 picks. 

nHDHDHnnBDBDBDBn 

aanaaamDmamamoaa 
onnamamamomaoacn 
naanmnmomaaanaaa 

BGBGBaBaaECBCEGa 

■DBnaaaHDHnaDDBD 
■ :■:.. :a a. e ._:■ wj 

■DDHDHDaDDHCBDHD 

saaDaaaaDmamamama 

GBGBQaBaBaBOBaCE 

aanamamnmamaoaaa 

DDBDBQBQBDnQGHOH 
BGBGBQBDI iEGEDHGa 
■CBDBDDHDHDHDCBa 
BGBQOHL IHDHDDBDBD 
IBanaDHDanDBDBDBD 

i 16 

Fig. 359. 



GBGEBGBGBaBB 






GEJBGBGBGBSG3 






d a ■ ■:: :■;:■: 






BGBGBBQBGBBG 






BaBBOBGEBGBG 






BEGEGEBaBGBG 






ogegebzbzbzbe 


6GGBBBB 


gebgggh 


DHBGBGB ~BBJE 


■ ■■■ 


HDQDHH 


BDB'.IB BBJBGE 


■ ■■■ 


GGGEEa 


BGBGBBG3ZBBG 


BBBGUB 


DDHHHD 


■ jbbgegbb a i 


BBGGB9 


aaaaaa 


IBBGEZBBaBGBG 


■ BBB 


iBBaaaa 


1 12 


1 


1 6 



■■■■ 


fBBBaaaaa 


O - ZBBBBD 


BBGCGCGB 


■ ■■■ 


EGGODGHH 


: ■■■■ 


CliGCHHa 


BBBBGGGG 


GGGCBBBG 


BBBCGGGB- 


aanaaaaa 


BBGGGGBB 


GCHHBaDG 


1BGGGGBBB 
1 8 


icaaaaccG 

1 8 



Fig. 356. 



Fig. 357. 



Fig. 358. 



Fig. 360. 



Fig. 361. 



In examining the corkscrew weave we find its 

1st warp-thread the same as the 1st warp-thread in Fig. 357 



2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5 th 

6th 

7th 

8th 

9th 

10th 

nth 

1 2th 



U I 


1st 


it 1 


2nd 


a t 


2nd 


tt ( 


3rd 


it t 


3rd 


11 t 


' 4th 


it t 


' 4th 


It t 


< 5 th 


a 1 


' 5 th 


tt 1 


6th 


tt t 


6th 



358. 

357- 
358. 
357- 
358. 
357- 
358. 
357- 
358. 

357- 
358. 



The number of harness required for the corkscrew weave will always equal the combined 
number of harness required for the regular twills. 



GBGBBaBanBGBBGBGflBBGBGBB 
GHBBBBuB "BB "BGBEBGBGBBGB 
BHBEGHGEBGB^BEB B BE a B 
BaGBGBBGBGBaBGBGBBGBGBBa 
GBGBBGBGBaBDBGBBGBGBBBBa 
L.BB ■ BBBGB ZBBGBGEBBBEGB 

b ■ BaBGBGBaaaaaBBBaGBGB 

■ ■::■ ■ ■:: ::■::■:: ::■ 

BBfl[ ! BGBaHBGBBBBBDaGBBGBa 

■ ■ be a bbbbb: bgbb b in 

BCBBGBGBBBBBGBGBBGBGBBBG 
BBGBGBBBBBL ;BGBBGBGBBflGBG 

12ghgebsbe jbzbbzb "bebzbgbb 
gebbbbgb^ebgbgbebgb bb b 
bbbbgenbbcbgbsbgbgbbgs b 

BBnaGBBGBGBBBGBGBBGBGBBB 
CBGEBGBGBBBGBGBECEGEBHBH 

GBB B ;bbbobgbbgbgbbbbbgb 

B B BBB B BB B EBBBBGBG3 
B BBB B BB B BBBBBGB~BB i 
BBB'. B BE "B BBBBBGBGBB B ! 
BGB^BB ^BGBBBBBGaGBBGflGBa 
BGBaGBGBBBBB^E^BB! "BGBEBG 
1 BB B BBEBB B BB B BBB B 
1 24 



Fig. 362. 



BB ' BBBBBB 
DBBUI BBBBBBG 
BB ■■■■■■ 

a iiiiii a 

BBBBBB BB 
LBBBBBB HBBG 
BBBBBBGGBBGG 
BBBBB T'. BBGGB 
111! BB BB 
BBB BB BBB 
BB BB' ■■■■ 
1BZGBBGCBBBBB 

1 12 

Fig. 363. 



l2EEEBEBGZBGaB 
BBEEBaaEaGEB 

ebbbg a :aaa 

BBBGGBG jBBBE 
EEGGBaaEBBBE 
EGGBaaBBBBBB 
GaBGGBBBBBBB 
GEGGBBEEBBEG 
EGaBBBBEEBaG 
GGBBEBBSBGaB 
GBBBEBBBaaBG 
lEEEBBEEaaEGG 
1 12 

Fig. 364. 



^GHGHBCEGaaBQEBaBaBaBaBGBB 

GWEGEaBcaaaBnBGBDBaBDBBaa 

BGEZEGBaEBCBaBGBnBaBHaBDB 
B 'B B"'.'BB'...B B~BZB'"Br= ITCE1 
E..B EB/B B B B B -i E 'EG 
EGEB B M B B ;BHQBDH0O0CIHa 
BB B BB B B "E "E E EG 
DBGBGBGBaBBnBDSHDHGEDHDHB 
GBaBaBaBBaBaBEaBaBGBGBBaB 
DBDBDBBDHGHB'JBGEaaZBBGBaB 
DBOBBQMrMBGEGEGEGHBOBDBaB 
GBBGaGaEGEGEGEGEBGBQBGBGB 
m '■ i'E E E E 'BBGBi BGB~B" B 
■GBHOHnHGHGHBDBDBDBnBDBBn 
BHDHDBDHDHBGBDBDBDBDBBaHn 
GE :E_B "EBGBaBaBGBGBSiicWGHE 
CHlE .BB BGBGBaBDBBDBDBHDH 
GEGEBGBGBaBGBDBMGi »Zt 'EZBGa 
GBBGBZBZBZB B r i iBZBI BGB 
BQBGBCBGBCB 1 J » n IE~EGSGBGS 
BDBDBaBGBBOBG«S~EGE~_EGaBa 
BCBCBGBBaHGHBZBZBC BZEBGBG 
B'~B B ■->-■! MB B BGB^BBGBGBG 
BGBBGPGBBGE ]BGE TiBBGBGBGBG 
IBBLfc'Zt IBC" BZB ZBGEBGBGBGBGBG 
1 25 



Fig. 365. 



In Fig. 359 we illustrate a 1 6-harness corkscrew, composed out of the regular twill - 



(Fig. 360) and 



(Fig. 361). 



Drawing-in draft 



16 harness "straight draw." 



Repeat: 16 harness and 8 picks. 



71 

In Fig. 362, we illustrate a 24-harness corkscrew obtained from the regular twill 



6 



2' 



shown in Fig. 363, and 7 —^ — - — 2 , shown in Fig. 364 

Drawing-in draft: 24 harness " straight draw." Repeat: 24 harness and 12 picks. 

This corkscrew weave will also illustrate the arranging of a loose to a closer interlacing. 

For example : Suppose we constructed a corkscrew of the two regular twills - 3 and - 5 , 

and found the fabric to be perfect as to size of twill lines upon its face, yet too spongy in 
structure. In this instance, the weave Fig. 362 would readily dispense with the obstacle without 
changing the appearance of its face. 

The next step for figuring in corkscrews is the production of three different-sized twill 
lines, as in weave Fig. 365, which shows one twill of 6 picks, a second twill of 5 picks and a 
third twill of 3 picks connected uninterruptedly with each other. 

C. Figuring with the Filling upon the Face of Corkscrew Weaves. 

Any of the different corkscrew weaves illustrated and explained in their construction 
under sub-divisions A and B (also any- other corkscrew derived from the principles given) can be 
arranged for the third sub-division of corkscrews. As mentioned, the object is to form 
figures of different size, design and combination upon the face of a corkscrew weave by floating 
the filling, which otherwise rests imbedded between the warp-threads that form either face or 
back of the fabric, at certain spaces, and this in regular distances after a given arrangement. 
These spots, obtained upon the face of any corkscrew, will appear distinctly in piece-dyed fabrics 
if a single yarn for filling is used and a double 01 twist for warp; again, by using lustre yarn for 
warp and common for filling. 

In fancy corkscrews, where we use a different colored yarn for warp and filling, these spots 
(floating the filling upon the face of the fabric) will readily be visible. Silk filling may also be in- 
troduced, at certain of these floating picks, which will greatly assist (■■-■-■■"■-■n» MH n B n B HnBDHBgB 

, . r rr _ _■! ■ ■ be ■ ■■ ■ ■ ti a 

in producing lancy effects. 

To give a clearer understanding of the nature of this floating 
Figs. 366 and 367 are arranged. 

Fig. 366 has for its foundation the 7-harness corkscrew shown g B "J J g B "g J g B "g J S«"ti 



■■ ■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■■ ■ 
■ ■ ■■ ^ 

I ■■ ■ ■ M 

■■ ■ ■ icn 



cmm ■■■■■■■■■■ ■■ ■ ■ 



before in Fig. 350. We illustrate the new weave by three different "■ 

characters of types: 

■ lor raisers I ■■ ■ ■ ■■■■■■■■: 

. >from common corkscrew. [g g^ "J|ffl,-B«"B S Sa ■ m ■■'■ 

o for sinkers J £"g g g B «g g g B "g ■ g B "g ■ 

b for sinker for floating the filling upon the face of the fabric. *,*m S ■■" ■ * 'Z ■ ■■"■ S 

Repeat: 14 warp-threads, 14 picks. p IG 66 

Motive for arranging spots: 52. 
■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■ Fig. 367 illustrates the forming of filling spots upon the 

■■ ■ mm" ! 5 !■" ■ !■"! B S regular 9-harness corkscrew (see fig 354). 



Motive for arranging these spots is the 4-harness 
... ■ 



broken-twill ' ■ m ] 

■ ■ ■ 1 



■ ■ for raisers 1 r , 

> lrom common corkscrew. 

□ for sinkers J 



; ■■ » □ for sinkers for floating the filling upon the face of the 

■ ■■ ■ ■ r 1 • 

.■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ fabric. 



■ ■■ ■ 
■■ maSt 



iflai 



Repeat: 36 warp-threads, 36 picks. 

Drawing-in draft will reduce the 36 warp-threads upon 
15-harness as follows: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 2, 3,10,11, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 2, 3. 14, 15, 6, 

Fig. 367. 7. 8 > 9- 



IQBUB ■■ ■ ■ ■ 



72 



D. Curved Corkscrew Twills. 

This sub-division of the corkscrew weaves is derived from the regular twills by drafting 
in both directions, according to the same rules given in constructing the corkscrew under sub-divis- 
ions A and B. After starting to draft from left to right for a certain number of threads, reverse 
the direction of drafting until the starting point is reached. 



Front. 

JnnunaHcicnaQannaa 
□ooaaaaaancDDHCD 
DSjaaaarjBDDnanaa 
maaaQBonaBuDQaa 

aGGGBGC HOGGOBDDa 

QQBoacncracoaaBa 
iBaaaaaaaaBGGaaaa 

1 16 



Q3G3GaBGBGB3G3G3 ib ;bg3b, ■ aa ;a::a 
DaaaBJBJBJBjBajaja. ma jb a b b:<; a 

aaBGBGBGBGB_.B..B3_.3B_B ■ BGBGBGBB 

a ■ a aa jbb ■ ■ ■ ■ b ib ;:■ ■ ■ . 
bgbgbb jajaDaBaBjBjBziBaaaaaaHBDBa 
bgbb :a a jBGBGBBGB^BBGaGBGBGaGaBG 
bbgbjb JBBBGBGBGaBa jb jbgbbb ja jaja 

7G3J3Gbb. ■ laaGaGa laaajaBJBJBaja :a 
aaGBBGBJB a mbgbgb aa ■ ■ a aa a 
i::aa a a a a a aa aa a a a a a aa 
a a a aa aa a a a a a a:: aa a ■ 
a a aa a 'a bb jbjbgb jbbjbjbjbbgbg 
b ,aa ja .a b_,3_bb a aa a ja a .a .aa i 

laaaa jajaaaoa jaaaaa . ia ja jaaa jaua ja 
i m 



Fig. 368. 



Fig. 369. 



Front. 

TnapDannannDaDnnDnnBannnnnDDnnaDnnaDD 
nagBDHannDDaaGBuBG.j^iBUBGLiGjGDoaHUHna 
caqLjyGGGGaGGBGGGaaaaaaGGBGGGGaGaaaaa 
GaggaaaGB.jBGuGaaQaaQaaaaGaBGBaaaGaGa 
QGaaGGBGGGGGG''jGaGaGajaGGGGaGaaBaaGaa 
DgBDBqDDDnGDDHaanaDaaDDHnaaaaDDDBaBa 

iBaaG^uuGGaGaGGGGGGGaaaGGGaaaaaQGcaQG 

1 36 

Fig. 370. 
:, from which commence to draft as 



For example : Take the 7-harness regular twill — 
follows : 1, 5, 2, 6, 3, 7, 4, 1,5,1, 4, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, as represented in double draw Fig. 368. 

Fig. 369 illustrates the "curved" (wavy) corkscrew derived by means of this double 

draft from the 7-harness (- f ) twill. Repeat: 16 warp-threads, 7 picks. Drawmg-in draft: 

16-harness "straight" draw and one repeat of corkscrew weave from Fig. 369 for harness chain; 



or 7-harness double draw, Fig. 368, and " regular " twill 



for harness chain. 



HaaaaaaGaBaBGBaBGBGBGBGBGBGBGBaGaGaGaGaGaaHQBBGBaBaBGBaBaBaBDBQBaBacaaaGa 
GaGaGaBGBGBGBGBafla.iaaaBGBGBGBGBa ja.iaGaGaGaB. a a jaaBBBBGBBBBJBGB.jB aa sa 

GaBGBGBGBGBGBa-iaGaGaGaGaBGBGBGBGBJBaGaBGBaBGBGBGBBaaaaaaaaaaBGBaBCBGBGBa 

BQBGBGBGBaaajaGa jajaGaGaGaBaBGBGBGBGBGBGBaBQBaBaGa ;a a la :;a jbubbbb a a .bg 
m a a_aa a a a a aaaGa a ibgbjbb a 'a iBjaGBOBEGBGaGa isGaBBGaaaaa-jBGEB a bg 
BGBaBaaaGaGazaBGBGBGBGaaGa laGaGaBaBGBGBaBHaBaaaBaaBGBDBi :BCBaG3_a-B^3BBBG 
naaaGBJBJa .aa a jbgbgbjbgbbgb jaja laGaBaGaaaGaaaaaBGBGBaBaBaBGBBGaGaaBDHGH 
7GBGBG3 :bb_b a a a 'a a a a jbgbb ibgbgbgb :a :a aBQBDBGBaBaBaBGBCBGBGBaaaGaGa 

GBGBGBBGBGBGB ]BaB3J3B3B BGBGB JBB j3 J3 13 j3 33B JB .;B_ B JB3B3_.3BBB_.B_B JB JB3GBG3 

raa a a~a :bgb3G3 ib ibgbjbb iBGBGBGBGBaGaBaBaBaBGBaBaaaaaaaGaGBBGBGBGBGBGBa 

BGBGBGBGBaBBGBja :3 3 ;3GaG3BBBGBGBGB. IBGBGBGBGBBBB JB JB^B J3G3G3 .SB3B JBGBGBG 
BGBGBGBBGaG3 J3 '3 J3B3 JBGBGBJ3 'SB JBGBGBGBGBGB3G3GBGa^a JBBEGHGaJBGBJBB JBGBG 
BGB3B3 3 j3J3G3BJB_jB-BGB3 JB J3 J3 J3B3BGBGB3B3: ]3' J3G3 .JBBuBGBGBGBBGB JB-jBGBBBBG ' 
lBBG3GBaBaaj3BJBJjBGBGBGBGBaGaGaGaGaGaB3GBG3GEGBaBBGBGBGBGBGB_JBaG3_EGBGaGa 
1 30 r ,y 

Fig. 371. 

If the twill lines upon the face of the fabric are not required so steep, draft every one 
or every second, third, or fourth, etc., warp-thread for each twill twice or three times, or oftener, 
upon the same harness. Figs. 370, 371, 372, 373 are illustrations of this kind. 

Fig. 370 illustrates a double-draw, which has for its principle of construction, 2 warp-threads 
upon 1 harness, and 1 warp-thread upon the next. 

On points where the twill changes its direction, judgment must be used so as to prevent 
the last pick floating too far. 

Fig- 371 illustrates the curved corkscrew as 

derived from the " regular " 7-harness twill by 

means of drawing-in draft, Fig. 370. Repeat: 36 



igGcnGaBanaaGBaaaaaaGaaBaaaGaaaGGGaaGGGaG 

DGGaGGGGGGBGGGGGGGGaGGGGBaaGGGGaaGGGGGGG 
GSnGGGJGBGGGGGJaGJjJBJJGGGGBGJGGGGBGGGaGG 
GGGGGGaGGGGGGEGGGB J JGBGGG JGGBG JGGGGBGGGB 
QGaGBGaGGGGEGaGGGGGGGGGSGGGGGGBGGJJGGGGGG 
OaBaGGaGaBGGQaGGaaUGGGGGGBGGJGGGBGGGGGGG 
IBaGGGGGS'GGaGG^B^B^B^BGGGGGGEGGGGGGBGBGBJ 
1 40 



Fig. 372. 



warp-threads, 7 picks. For drawing-in draft use Fig. 
370 ; for harness chain the regular twill. 



A double-draw in which the point of reversing the twill is more balanced, to give a 
more wavy appearance when applied to a fabric, is shown in Fig. 372. The point harness of 
the one twill shown in b type is drawn in four times in rotation, whereas its corresponding point 



i4aaaaaaBaBaBaBaaaGaaaGBBGBaBGBaGaGa .ib jbgb _bgb ibbgbgi 
La 3B a b_,bb a a a bjb ibb b a aa : a .a a a .a ibb. a a jbb 
raa a a aa ;a ia .13 :a 1a ,a 1a ibb ia a ;aa. 13 13 ibgbb <b a ibbjb 

■OBGBGBBGBGaG3BJB3B JB3 13 JBGBB JB B JBBB !B3B IBJB jB3 13 JB 
BGBGBBGBGBjaBGBGBGBJBJBa ,3J3 JBBJiB .IB B B B B Ba 3 a a 

a aa a a aa a a a a a a >aa a ; a aa a a a :bgbb _b a aa 

BBGBGBGBBGB JBGBBB B3B B B B3 3.3 3B B3B B3 3 BGBB B 

" 3 '3 3B a a jaa a a a aa a .a bb a a a a_ia a ,a ,bb a a 

GBG3B B B B3 ,3 " 3 JB 3 3J3B B B .BB ja"B_BJB J3 BB JB B B3 

■ bb b a aa a a 3 a .a .a .3 3a a a aa 13 a a aa a a aa a 
a a ia 'aa a '3 ibb bbb aa a a as a a ■:;■ aaa a b aa a a 

BGBGB3J3 3 3B B B B B BB B_iB BBjB.B.ifl B B ,BJB3 iB_iBGB 

BJB3G3G3 aa a a a a a a bb 3 .bb a b a a aa a a .aa 

1 BBGBGB JBBGBGBGBBBGBaBGBaBGBBGBGaGBBGBaBGBBGaGa. ,BB JB Jl 

1 40 



B3 3 B 3 3B B JBGBB 3 "B__E. 3.J3 

' ib ib b a a bb a a aa a a a a 

GB 3 'B~B7BGBGBBGB B_B3.B 3 3 

bb.bbb aa a 3 3B...B a aaa aa 

b a a b jb b"bb a a aa a a a 
a aaa bbb a a aa 3 a aa ■::■ i 
B3 3 a. BGBB a a :bb.b_b_b b a 

JB 3 3 3. B BB, B B BB 3 3 3 3 
.3 .3 3 B ,3_3J3B_.B B BBG3GB 3 

aa aaa Ba 3 a aa a a bbbgbb 
a a b_b a aa a a aa a a_ a_a i 
a a b a a a aa 3 a aa aaa ; 

BGBBBGBaflGBGBGBaGBGBGBBGBBBG 



Fig. 373. 

tor the other twill is arranged to correspond as nearly as possible, without producing any place 
for filling-floats on rear of fabric. 



73 

Fig. 373 illustrates the corkscrew weave as derived from the 7-harness twill j when 

using double draw given under Fig. 372. Repeat: 40 warp-threads 7 picks. 

Double draw : requiring 7-harness for the 40 warp-threads in repeat of weave. 

The next step in figuring in this division of corkscrew weaves is the use of filling-float 
effects as explained under sub-division C. 



■cm~m~m - 

■ ■ ■■ 

cb jbbgb 

giigigi 



BaDBxaairiniDmiBiiaiDiQigiDKiEioiiBaiiGiDiDiainiDiomMHiDinininKi 



■■■iiiizi: 



■ ■ ■ . 



■■ ■ 



BBGBJBMs 

lSGBGBGBSBa 

■ ■ IB ~ 

cbzbbgbz1 
obbgbzbg1 
bzbgbzbzi 

bgbdbgbb.' 
bgbgbbgbt 
bgbbgbgb: 



ri:i_i-ii 1: 

IGBGBGBGBGBBI 
IGBOBGBZBZBSi 



jBZBZBZBZBI 

:bgbgbgbgb: 

IBB II I I 



.BZBI 



■ ■ 



li :b :bb 

[ ■ ■■ ■ 

Dili I 

bgbzbgb: 
bgbzbzbi 
bgbgbbgi 

■ ■■ ■ ■ 

01 ■ ■ 



:bgbgbgb; 
■■■ ■■■ 



IB=H*BGBGI 
IUBBBBZBZI 



;bgbzbzb: 



■■ ■ 

■ M 



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IZBZBZBG 
IGBZBZBG 
IGBZBZBG 

■ ■ ■■■ 
IBZBZBZB 

B B B. ■ 

■ B ■ B 



I 

iz 
1 

■ ; 



■1 i:i:i:i ■ 11 ■ ■ ■ 11 

i bzbzbzbgbzbzbzbbzbgbgb .1 
idbgbgbgb ■ lb zbgbgbbgbgbgi.___ 
ii ii in ii ■:■:■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ 

igbbzbzbzbzbzbbzbzb ■ ■■ ■ ■ : 
ibjbgbgbgbgbgbgbbasbbgbgbbgi 



I I 

~0I 
I 

40 



IGIGII 
IGBBGI 
IBGBGI 



I I I 

i :■ i 

IMULII 



IGBGBI 
I ■■ I 

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I I 

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I II I 

i ■ ■■ 
I I II 



IBBIBZBZBGBG 

■ ii i :■: ia 

1BGBGBBGBBBG 



Fig. 374. 

Corkscrew weave Fig. 374, is designed to clearly illustrate this point. Repeat : 40 warp- 
threads and 9 picks. 

The regular twill, which is used for the construction of the curved corkscrew, is the - 4 

9-harness twill. ■ for raisers, □ for sinkers, from curved corkscrew ; ■ for sinkers for floating the 
filling upon the face of the fabric. 



E. Corkscrew Weaves Composed of Warp and Filling Twills. 

If all the different divisions of corkscrew weaves, thus far explained, are used in practical 
work, the warp will form the face and back of the fabric, whereas the filling will rest imbedded 



GHGHGEaaaGBaBai 

'□ IE ■ ■ II 



9ZGGZZBBBB 
GGGGBBBBG 
OGGBBBBOG 
ZZBBBB HOG 

GBBBBGZCG 

BBBBzaaaa 

BBBZGGCZB 

BBZGGGGBB 

1BZZZZZBBB 



OGGGGEGGGGGGGGGGBG 
DDDHaOOGQGGGGGBGGa 
GBjGZZGGGZZZBGGaGU 
GGGGGGGGGGBGaaaDaH 

aOOOBDDDGGr E' 
DGGZGZB ZGGGGGHGQDQ 
DGGGBZGZGGGBGC 
ZGBGGGGaGHGGGZGZaa 

iBGaaaGGHCQGGOGGaag 

13 



BE E 

'J IE B 
I E E 

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GGBGI 



e: 



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El B 
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Fig. 375- Fig. 376. Fig. 377. 

between the warp (except in the few floating spots used in Figs. 374, 367, 366). In the present 
division of corkscrews the filling is used to show a third line besides the two lines produced by 
the warp. 

To give a thorough understanding Figs. 375, 376, 377, 378, 379 and 380 have been designed. 



12 ■ 

■■ 
■■■ 



■■■ 
■■ 
■ 1 

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.._: g 



12 

E 

I IE 
IB 

i 

■ 
■ 

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-•1 B B S (B 1 

IB E iB IG ' I 

I IB IB J 1 I J 

III 
I I I I 
II! ■ ■ ■ ■ I 
I I I I ■ IE 
I I I I IE 
■■■■BE E 
I ■ IE B .B iB 

■ he e a e :: 

IE IE E E E 
15 IE E E B 



B B 



IB 
Bl E 

Bi B 

Bi a 
bi a 

ai : 1 

1 1 1 



1 



1 



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■ ■ ii 



B IB I IE E 

I IB ■:: B E E E 

■ IE E E E E I 

IBB ■ ■ 



1 II I' 1 

■ I I' II I 

■ ■ ■ : 

■ ■ IB 

■ BE 

■a e a 
: B a a 
3 a a a 

3 E .Bi 1 ! 

: a ) ii 11 1 
in 



F 



» 



I' ■> i 



Fig. 378. 



Fig. 379. 

Fig. 375 represents the 9-harncss twill known as 

Fig. 377 is produced. Repeat for the latter: 18 warp-threads and 9 picks For drawing-in use 



Fig. 380. 
Fig. 376 the drafting by which weave 



either iS-harness straight draw, and for harness chain one repeat of corkscrew; or, 9-harness 

double draw (Fig. 376), and for harness chain the 5 twill (Fig. 375). 

Fig. 378 represents the 12-harness 5 ? twill. Fig. 379 the drafting by which corkscrew 

weave Fig. 380 is derived. Repeat for the latter: 24 warp-threads and 12 picks. For drawing- 

in use either 12-harness double draw (Fig. 379), and for harness chain the '- 1 twill (Fig. 378); 

or, 24-harness straight draw, and for harness chain one repeat of corkscrew weave, 24-harness 
and 12 picks (Fig. 380). 

F. Corkscrezu Weaves Figured by the Warp. 

In this division of corkscrew weaves, figures of any size or form are produced by arranging 
a corresponding floating of alternate warp-threads. Every uneven numbered warp-thread (1, 3,. 



C3~ a~ a^a~a~~i 


i~a~ 


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a 


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a i 


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fl[ 


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a 


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32 



■ZBL]B~'B~B I 

cbbgbgbgb ii 
cb__kb :■:■ . 
ck a bblb 1 

CB-KGKGKB 1 
CHGBGEGK 1HI 
B B B B B .1 
B B B B BB 

b a a an a 



ia a a bmb~bb b;b::b" 



mkgk 



3BQBL" 



aa : a .ma'jH bbgi _ _ 
wbgbgbgbqB' aa "a "a_ a jK . 
naB'L'BDBaBLJB ,bk ia .a jar 
ck ckbgbgbgbgb lbb a "a: 
ca lb . ".bbgbgb gb _a aa lb . 
ca blkgbbmb bmblb aa. 

Ca a E^B "KB B..B B HI 

a b a :bcb aa a a a a: 
a "B "b.jbcbk blblkgb ai 
b b a aa a 'BGB a. kb ■ 

■ ".BDBHCBCia-'.K B BB B I 
" "~~;)CBGEGaCKG£~ _ " "" ' 



1HDHDHC 

JBB jBLJI 

1 ■ a 1 

IB HI 

I III 

IDBDBHC 



■:3a, 

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1 



Fig. 381. 



icbcbkgkl 



Fig. 382. 



BaBKaBDncBcacn 

■ BLflBCBGECECH 

■ HCBGBKCKCB CK 

■ I 111 flK LB K 

■ B B B BLBE B 

KB LB B B "fl BB 

aaBBDBija b_bgk 

BEOEQE. .'KZKCHBa 

ZKCKLKJK ;BBDBD 

B B B BB^BCB "I 

BLiBCBB BCBCBC 

B KB B B_.B7B 

BK B B KCHCK 

M BB K ^BJKLLIK 

DBDBCBB 'KL'KGK 

■ ■ ■ 9 r ' t '"' r j 

CBCBCB . BCBECB 
BB 9 B B B BB 

'LBBCBCB"L'BC:-3LK 
B B BLBLBZHBU 

DBB' _ K'L"kl:b._. kckbcbc 

3CH__KCK_. K . BBCBLLBQ 
3__K KCKLKB^BCBDBQ 

:^a_K_KB_B_a_BCB j 



5, 7, etc.,) is used for producing the figure, while the ground is produced by the even numbered 
warp-threads. Figs. 381 to 383 are designs illustrating this method of figuring. 

Fig. 381. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 10 

66DKDHBGBDBn«CBDBCIBnBHCHDKBDBaBDBaBnBDBaBK ° 

BB ",B B B B B B BKJK BB B B ■ B B B BB B ,-mVI-c 
B~B""BK"K KB B B^3 KB BLBB K K "K K K . KCH plCKS. 

■§3k _ 3 B ^ 3 B s B " B jb S -; H B g -ga a B^Bii H B a Bj5cBK Fig. 382 Repeat: 22 warp-threads and 12 

CKB"".B"bJb"Bl!b JB""BK K BBLBCiBDBC'BCBGBaBKGH 

■Ll'~l":i"«Ll B BK ,3 1KB .IL'BJBi IB B MB jBKLMHGK m'r.l'C 

BCBCB B MB IB BKMKGKB B _.,BGBGB' B . B IBKGH "KBG plCKS. 

■GBGBLB B BK S HBGBGBGBGBDBCB BK'KMKBGBG „ „ 

BCB"BGB BBB BBGBLB B Bjb b BBGB BBJB^B ] Tttcr -2^-2 T?pnf»p1- ■ ?n \A/arn-1-hr<=arlQ anrl C " 

I IMI IS B BB B BGBJBGBLjB BB B GB B MB LB 1 r, S- 3°3' IXCpCdL . ZO Wdl p-LIireaUS ailO S^ 

■ = B^BB K ,KB B fl BLB JBLBGBK MK :KBLB B B7BG 

CK B K "KBGB BK K K ,K GHGKGHGaB B BB K B MK TilVlrC 

CK'K BB fl flK ;H ;KGBJK MK MKL1KB JBLJBK K .K MKGK piCKb. 

PK'LKB B ,BK"MK K K B KGKGKBGB 1BKJK :K IB K LK 

■ 3k"k kb h S ' r : : \ j bb"b kb k S c lm c Before closing the lecture on the corkscrew weaves 

lP1b§bgSdb : b B \ : ia^^Kfl^fl"B -?■■ T; :-Sk we shall briefly refer to division G of the latter, or 

L"BB"'B B :■'■_■ ■ ■ BB^K jBBMBjB jfl M B.jfl IBKGK . . 

J r S g S Ba*K J KB a B":BGB i! != "jBkgk ^kb g corkscrew zveaves in zvliick Hie face and back of the fabric 
r-l^l-K 1 ; k 'kS"S flHGK^K^HJK l iK^Kfl^B jbk*k is produced by the filling; the warp resting between 

BGBLMfl' ■'■'"''■"b BK K KB B B B <B B ifl BK ,KGH , _,,. 

BGBGB fl ■ B BK H Bfl B fl MB. B'JB B BB K 1KBILM fVip flllinP - 

BGB B B ■ flK K "KB..B- B ~BGB MB ■ BB B 3fl MBG Lllc Ulllllg. 

BCBLB fl BB B BB "fl "BGB BGB MB BB B KB ■ LBG 

■c! = B*"^ "-B a fl SS 1 S^iB 3 " S gbH J- "is arrangement for corkscrews is very little used, 

ilGBK B .Bfl^flGflGfl BGB. Jfl !flB ;K .Hfl^BGB IMIMIM - , . . , , . . . . , 

ra-KB-jS k'hjh'b m a 'kb h b :, SdjH lB B"a'nGH on account of the high number of picks required to 
B3pB"a"BB^B°fl^fl^fl b fl"fl"BB"a"lfl^fl"B"fl^flj produce a. close face in the fabric. 
fPalllJ-ii'id'gl-^lSJi i-Bi In Fi S- 3^4 we give an illustration H ?gg3gSBg5gSSg9 

BLB_BMBGBGfl"B "BKLB"BB BLMB.BMBLB B "BK .KGK r , ■, , -,,. , t,, . n"222 Q ""*3liS°n 

hVola m % Bi B : : !■■ :-S E "g B^SH ofthe 7- harn ess filling corkscrew. This . .""■■■."^ 

BGBCBDBGBK L.K I KB B B B B-fl"fl"-flB..K Kfl'flMBG ,., , . ., , f ,, -" P1 Bn« Hi BB2 

r -5 : S"Sl-S. H ! B""^ % S-S j a.a|i a !!^ v weave readily explains itself as the mate tbm-™ ■■■g 1 ™ 
■ -i;B [ 'B:B-Sa"a afl^B^B^fl^B^B'MMK^KjBfl'fli to the warp corkscrew illustrated in ■'■'■■ -'■ m m'" : ' 

BGBGfl flK B BB fl fl ■ B BLfl BK K "KB ■ B "B I y^- _ s- ,, , . nmUnPnnPJUUHnri 

B B flK B KB B ■ ■ ■ ■ B BK KKfl ■■ ■ ■ J JblSJ. T.KO. DaP"e OQ. tile raiSCl'S beinP' innnn22«Hnnn222 

B BB B Kfl ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ fl flK K Kfl B B fl ■ ■ fc> JJ ' l^^b^ ^y> L11 ^" ^ciiov-io u ^"'t) 'DaDUBBBaDDaBBB 

lBKGKGKBGBaBGBGBGBGBGBB^KGKBGBGB. B BBB 1 J r • 1 J 

i «> * exchanged lor sinkers and vice versa. Fig. 384. 

1G ' 5 3- Repeat : 7 harness and 7 picks. 

In the same manner any design given under headings' A and B of the sub-divisions of 

corkscrews can be used for filling face by proceeding with it the same as with Fig. 384 
in Fig. 350. 


















7o 



VIII. Entwining Twills. 



This class of the twill weaves (which might also be considered another kind of "broken 
twills") is derived from the regular twill weaves by running one, two, three or more pieces of 
twills parallel to each other in one direction (45 ° grading), and towards these twill lines, at right 
angles, a second system of one, two, three or more pieces of twill lines (generally of equal size and 
construction as the first). This arrangement of twills meeting each other at right angles, the one 
twill continuing where the other stops, and alternately changing between both systems, will give 
the fabric the appearance of entwining twill lines or set of twill lines ; hence the name. 

The following designs, Figs. 385 to 396 readily explain themselves as such twill weaves, 
and also illustrate the manner of constructing similar original weaves. 

Fig- 385 repeat: 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. This design is constructed 
from the 4-harness ^ twill, and has two parallel lines of twills. 



a s a flfl a ■ — ■ 


■■ BB ■■ en 


a ■ SB E H BE 


■■ lb SB ■■ 


■h he ma m m 


flfl KB KE BE " 


e sh mm be b : 


ma ■■ be bb 


oaie so ■ a b 


■E II BB BB 


■ ■ BB. B ■ BE 





1 



■■Da^aopHDari 
Fig. 385. 



Rule for Finding the Number of Harness Required for Entwining 
Twills : — The number of harness required (or warp-threads in one repeat) 
is ascertained by multiplying the repeat of the foundation twill by the 
number of pieces of twills used. 

In the present design this will result in the following multiplication : 
4 X 2=8 

Repeat of foundation twill X pieces of twills used = number of harness required. 
It will be advantageous for the student to construct additional designs of entwining twills 
out of the 4-harness r 2 twill, using 3 pieces of twills = 12-harness ; 

4 " " = 16-harness; 

5 . " " = 20-harness, etc., etc. 

The rule given for ascertaining the repeat of the warp-threads in the design will also apply to 
the repeat of the picks. 

Fig. 386 represents the entwining twill formed with the 6-harness — — 5 twill and four pieces 
of twills. Thus 6 X 4 = 24 warp-threads and picks for repeat. 



Cflfll 
Bl 



I 
Bl 
Bl 
•J 1 



to sea 

! EBB Z 



m 


BB 


m 

BE 


BBB 

BBI 

Bl 

1 


BE 


B 


B 


BB 


B 


BB 1 

Bl 

BBI 


B BflB 


1 BBB 
BBB 


IBB 
1 


. . ..1 



HE BB 

:z.mmm^:vzzm 

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IBB BBB 
IB BBB I 


B 
Bl 
Bl 

1 


BBB . BB 

. BBB BB 


1 

B 


BBB . fl 


El 


BBB BB 
IBB BBB 
IB BBB 


Bl 
. 1 


1 BE 
.III 

BBB 
BB 


BBB 
BB 
... B 
B 


B 
Bl 
Bl 


IB B 
IBB 


BB 
BBB 


1 


BBB 
. .BBB' 
BBB 
IILII 


.BBB 
BB 
B 
B 


B 
Bl 

Bl 


IBBDDB 


BB 




IB 


BBB 




BB 


BBB 





:bd 



1 j 



1 
z 



■ BB 

BBB 



B 
■ 

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IBB 

bb ; 

B 
BB 
BBB 
IBB 

IB 

I 



.BBB 



C~ - ~BBBB 

BBBB 
... BBBB 

BBBB I 

BBBB Bl 

BflB "DBBI 
BB BBBI 

B BBBB 

24C: BBBB 
B BBB 

BB BB 
BBB B 
BBBB Bl 

BBBB Bi 

BBBfl Hi 
BBBB B 
BBBB 



■ BB 
BBBI 
[ BBI 

Bl 
I 

I 
L Bl 
i BBI 



IB 

I I 



□ BBB 

a BBB BBBB J 

BB BB BBBB 
IBB3L. B BBBB 
•BB BBBB 

IB B I BBB ._B 



BBBB 



BBBB 
BBB 1 

DBBna 

B 
■ 

■ fl 
IBB 
BBB* 



BBBB 

■III 
H BBBB 



IDDDai 

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BB i BBBB 

IB I flflflB 



Fig. 386. 



Fig. 387. 



Fig. 387 illustrates the entwining twill produced with the 8-harness 4 ^ twill, having three 

pieces of twills for the construction. 8 X 3 = 24 warp-threads and picks in one repeat. 

In accordance with designs Figs. 386 and 387, and their methods of construction, the fol- 
lowing designs may readily be produced: 

— r 6-harness twill ) X 2 pieces of twills = 12 / repeat of warp-threads 

X 3 " " =Bs 18 I and picks. 

y 2 " " = 16 f repeat of warp-threads 



for foundation weave J 

- ^-8-harness twill ) 

for foundation weave J X 4 



= 32 



I 



and picks. 



76 



A sub-division of these entwining twills is produced by forming squares surrounded by 
parallel twill lines. The squares thus produced may be filled up by other twills, basket-weaves, 
rib- weaves, etc., or they may be left empty. In this manner designs Figs. 388 to 395 are formed. 



■□qcddmbgoddom 

■■ucdi . bbbzgzbzb 

Oil RSI ifil 111 ] 

CBZBBBJGGBCBBBGG 

!__■■■.. <_■■■ : . j 

GBBBZB, . Z ' 1 IBBZBGG 

bbbzbbb en . ■■■a 

_■■■■■ EBB 

f BZZCZZBBBZZZ ."'■■ 
BBDZZB-BBBZ "._BZB 
HBB BBB IBB .■■HZ 

ZBZBBBZZ„BiZBBBZG 
COBBBGCaaGBBBGGG 
GBBBZB ".BBBGBGG 
BBBZBBB BBBZBBBG 
1ZBCGGBBBGBGGGBB1. 
1 a 

Fig. 388. 



[ aaHaaGBBaaHEGOBB 

B :; BGBBi HGQBQB 
IBB_ II BB El 
CBZBB EZZB .BBGBG 

Cl-BB a DHHO : bbggeb 

■bb 3 ma a a 

BB BB BB BB. 
BZZHGBBZBZ ZBCBBG 
SCGBBaGBBQGBBGjBB 
BnHQDBOBBOHDDBGB 
BBGGBBGGBBGDBBGG 
11.11 3 B BBGHQ 
GGBB GaBGCBBCZBB 
CBB_BGGHZBB_BZGa 



I 



luuau 



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Fig. 389 



Fig. 388. Repeat: 8 warp-threads, 8 picks. In this design, which is constructed from the 
3 8-harness twill, the squares produced by the twill lines is left empty. 

Fig. 389 — repeat: 8 warp-threads, 8 picks — is produced from the - ^ 8-harness twill; the 

squares produced by the twill lines entwining each other at right angles, is filled out by the two 
centre warp-threads interlacing with the filling in the shape of a 4-harness twill. 



■GDZEZSZBBBGBGZZa "BZBBBO 
DGljEGE__ZBBBZGGEGEGZGBBB 
B^EZ3_,ZZBZBBHZEZEZGZBZBB 
BB "3_.Z._BBBGBBI...3 '". "BBBZB 
BBB BBB BBB BBB 
LBBBuBBBaBQQGBBBGBBBZBZ 3 
anBDBBBGSaEanGBZBBBCBGBG 

lz^bbbzj :zaGanzzBBB:zzaza 

GZBBBZBZZGBGBZBBBZB ZZZBZ 
CBBBGBBBGGGBZBBBGBBBCCCB 

bbbzgzbbbzgzbbQgz BBB 

BBGGGBZBBBZBBK'ZGZaZflBBGB 
1-BZZZHZa ZBBBDBGDDBZH IBBBG 

C BZa GBBBGGCBGBZGZBBB 

B^BZB^.J^BZBBBGGGBZZZBGBB 
BBGEZjZZBBBGBBBCBZZ: BBBGB 

boib . :.. saa an . ■■■ 1 

GflBBGBflflGBGGGBBBDBBBZBZG 
DQBDBBBDBDBnaaBDBBBGSGBG 
C j_BBB.-" .iE.EGZGBBBCC'EjB 

e ssi ■ zb bzbbb bzz" a ] 

GBBBZBBBZZZB 'BBBZBBBZGZB 

BBBZGZBBBZGGBBBZGGBBBZ'ZG 

1BBZGGBGBBBGBBBGGGBGBBBGJ 



Fig. 390. 



GGBBaaaBBaaBBaBBaaBBaGaB 

BGGBBGBBGGBBGGGEEGGBBGBfl 
EE_ZZBB_ ..BB_EEZ^ESGGQBBG 
QBBGBBZZBBGZGEBZ: .EEGBBGC 
aaGBBZZBBZBBGGBB: .ZBBGGB 
BDBB ^ZBBZZ-BBGZEBZBBGGBB 
GBBZGBB BB J .BBC. _BBGCBBG 
BBZGBBZZZBBZjBBZBBZZBBGG 
lOGaaBBGGBBGBBGGBBZZZBBZZB 
B BB . 33ZZ.IIZ..II BB_ _3B 
BBGZZEE :gBBGBBCGBBGZZBBJ 
ZBBZEE. iZEEZuQBB'J. .BBZB3G J 
GGBBG^GEEGCBBZBB ,BBZGZB 
BGGBBGBBGGBBGGGBB.: ..BB..BB 
BflGGBBGGGBBGGBBZBBZZBBGG 
GBBGGBBGBBGGBBZZ _:BBZZBBG 
I BB - J. BBZ II ZBE _BBZ _ ZB 

e bb ■■ ! ■■ :::: njii 

EBGZZBBZZBB jBBZCEBCCaBBO 
DBBGBBGGBB. rZEEZZEBZBBGG 
CZZBBGZBBZBB"_ZBB "JZBB . ..B 
3 BB " BB1 " BBTZBBZBBZZBB 
I BB 11.11 BB:. . BB BB 1 
1BBGGBBGGGBBGGBBGBBGGBBGO 
1 10 



Fig. 391. 



BZBBGGBBGBBGGBGflBGflBGGBG 


BBGQGBBGBBGGBB 


_ :bb"Zi1bb.) 


GBGGBBGBB_ 33 


BZ..BZZBBZB 


BGZBBZBBGZEE : 


ZB3ZZBBZBB 


GGBBGBBZG3E. Z 


BSZCBBCBBO 


DBBZBBZZB^ EZ3 


::: 11 11 j 


BBGBBZCZBBQ..33 


GGBBCBBZ.ZG 


■:gg ■■ ii :: 


. BB BB _" . BB 


16QBBZ3ZZBBGBBGG 


■BQBBZBZZB 


BBZZ33ZZBBGBBG 


GZBBZZBEZG 


BGZEGEBGGBBGBB 


ZGBZ ".3Z33G 


QBBZaZBBGQBBGBBCCBB.Z 33 


C :33Z CEEGGBBaBBG 33 Z" 3 


BZZE3".:3ZZBGZBBZBBZ_33 .EG 


BBZZEBZCBBaaaBBCBBCZEEZC 


CBBZ_BZBBZBBGG 


BB BBZ. 3_B 


BZBB.ZGBBZBBGGB 


ZBB BB Bl 


BBGGGBfl ZBBGGBS 


_ IB ZH 


GBZZBBZBBZZBBZ 


3 BZZBBZB 


BGGBBGBBGZBBZZ 


BE IB ID 


CGBBGBBGZBE 


33 BB BB : 


CBBZBBZGBZZBZE 


SGGBBGBBGJ 


BflnBBGGOBBZZ EE 


. - bbzbb.::z 


IB BB__BBZBB_3 


ZBBGBBGGBB 



Fig. 392. 



Fig. 



390 — repeat: 12 warp-threads, 12 picks — is produced from the — 
the squares in this weave being filled out by the motive g — - — T — * — ^ twill. 
Fig- 39 l — repeat: 16 warp-threads, 16 picks — is produced from the — - 
Fig- 392 — repeat: 16 warp-threads, 16 picks — is produced from the - — - t 



in 



11 



12-harness twill; 



16-harness twill. 
16-harness twill. 



GGBEGGBBGai 
E 3 Ii SI, 

BEGGBBZZBB . 

CB_BB_ Bi"E J BBZZ.BB__ 

czbbzzbb" bbzgbb".gbbz 
gbbz.zbb zb" jEeggbbi :zbb 

BB_ZBBZ. :EaZZEBGQBBaaB 
„ !-._BE. 3 .33 II "JEZE JMCC 
2-iLZBBZ E3Z EEGGBBZZBBC 



BZZBBZZEEZZE3ZZB3ZZBB 
1BGGBB "3. BjaBBaBiGGBBG 
"BBZ. BBZZE3 ZEEZCBBCG 



I I 

C_ 



DB 

CZ 

EG 

EE 

[ 3 

CZ 

CE 

EE 

3 

I 33 IB 

e s_gbbg: 
eezzbbggi 

CG_BB_i Bl 
L". BB.. HI " 
CBBZ BB : 
BBGCBBZZE 
1BGCBBZZB. 
1 



.:bb[ 



_ZBB_ :33 .Z3ZBB 
B BB ZB3Z3BBGZ 
BB 19 3 .BB., E 
B9 IB BB Kl 
3ZBB B BO IB 
3. II. II Ii! 
Z..3ZBZBB ." BB E 
_33 19 DO .BE 



33ZZBBZGBB 
. EZBBZZBBG 
aGBBGQBBGC 
■GBGGBBGGB 
JL.BBGGBBCGBB 
BGGBBZBzZBBG 
BB BB" :EEZG 

BZ.BB 3 B 

CZBB~„BB : .33 
CIZBBZ BB H J 

B 3 BB BB 
...33 BB IB 
3 33 liJ_l 
BB .S3 BBZ3 
r1 E "~B E_ BBG 
%BB^ EB^BB 



B_ZIZIIZZIBZZE~ZE3^ES"Z3~~HZBB _ G 
33. BB... _BB _ . S3 33 BBZ. "33 _BB "B 
E. BB_ _BB_:BZ..B 33 33 ZEZZBBCZBB 
Cl.BBZZBBGCBBCZBB.Z3 33 "BBZZBBG 
CBBZZBBZBZZBBZBBZ 3 ""BBZBBZZBBZB 



JBBGGE 
11 

IGGBBC 



■ J 

J 
_J 





B 


B ■BZBaZBB__BB"~BB I33.BB .zbbgb 


3D 


CzBBZZBBZZBBC HI ZB BB^rBBGGB 


3Z 


CBB :33Z_BB 11 . BBZ "~BB i_ HI "33" 


:e 


•3BB zee: zbbzzbbzzbbzbbzzbb zebz 


a 


■ ZBB 'ZBB BB_.BBZZBB ~Z~IB_BB_ 3 


3 


L.B3 33 BE".". . BBGZBBZBBZ 33 _" 3 


3.J 


EE . 33 E3ZZBBZBHGGBBZL.SB "33.. 


3 


B3 BE ,33 "ZBBjZBBZZBIZBB" ZEE 


3 


Z EE ZEBZ EBGGBBGBBGCBBZ-.EEZ..E 


3 _ 


■ BE. BBZ .EEZBBZGjBBZZBBZEE__E 


3 


BB'.,..B3.._EEZZBBZ,ZBGZBBZZBBZ_33 


3 


LBB. B3_. 3EZBBZGBBGQGBBZ. BB..33 


3 


C.BB _E3 Z.BBZZBBZ" ,3""'"IH' "' BB'_ .3 


3 j 


BZ_BB_B3 BBZZBBZ33 BEZBBZBBZB 


3 J 




B 


CBB_..B_BBj~BB 33" 3 EE. BBGGBG 


BB 


rZBBZZBB "BB 33 3 33" BB. BBZ 


3 IZIB , BBZ B 33 33 "E BZBB 


GO 


E3 BB Bl 33 Z33 BB " "BB "IIZ 


■ 


E.ZBBZZBB. BZ ,E "33 33 "3 BB__ 


BB 




i II _ IB I HI BE 3 "' 33 BB_.II 


■ 


BB BB BB BB EE" BE BB BB 


B 


■GGBB_B3_BB BB 33 33 BS BB.3 


B J 


CCBBZZ33 _BB" BB~". GZZ BB Z~Bi: 3 


3 ] 


1CBBCBEZ._EB^BB__BB__ZBBZ_BB_33_ 
1 _3 


_B 



Fig. 393. 



Fig. 394. 



Figs. 389, 390, 391, 392, as well as the following three weaves, Figs. 393, 394 and 395, show 
the twills interlacing each other thus ■, while the weave used for filling out the squares, produced 
by means of the latter, is shown thus a. 

Fig. 393, repeat: 24 warp-threads, 24 picks. In this design an additional entwining arrange- 
ment of twills is used for filling out the squares produced by the main entwining twill lines. 

Fig. 394, repeat: 23 warp-threads, 23 picks. In this design two kinds of basket-weaves are 



77 

used (alternately) for interlacing warp and rilling in the places of squares produced by the main 
entwining twill lines. 

Fig- 395. repeat: 24 warp-threads, 24 picks. In this design a pointed twill is used for filling 
out the squares produced by the entwining twill lines. 



nnaoDDMHcnoMKXLHnnHns^ — hgddbb 
"e a bob .ggbbbgggb. a ,a rBVGGiM 

EDGCBBBGaGBBBGCBB "" B B. BBBG 
GGaBBBGaaBBBGGQBBB' i E E ■■■ 1 
QaBBBaaGBBBaaGGL.BBB '...a GGBBBQGG 

:■■■ i': ~ ■!■■;:: ■■ bbb b e bbb ■ 

BBBODDBBBGDOBBB! lji ■■■ BBB BB 
BBGGGBBB E in BBB BBB BB GCBBB 

24DacjDBBBaaDaaaaBBB' :at ,BBnaaaaaBBBG 

DDDBBBnnnHDHnDuBBBGiJ'JBBBDDOBBBDn 
BGGBBGGGBG. ,3.. BBB J BBB " BBDGG 
BBGQnBDHQaHGaHCH BBB GCBBBGCCaCa 
BBB. E BEE ""GBaGGBBBGCGBBBGCGBG 
GBBBaBaBaGBaaEQEGGGBBBGJGCBBBGBGB 
GGBBBGGGB" : ". a BB BBB_.:_G BBBGCG 
QGGBBBGGGBGB 7GGBBB'. GBBB~G" BBBGG 
B BBB BBB GCBBBCCGBBBG 
BB BBB :: a BBB BB BBB. BBB 
BBB BBB BBB ! BBB BBB BB 
GBBBGCGBB _BBBGCCBBB E E BBB B 
GCBBBGGGG-BBB GGBBB E . BBBGGG 
L III III BBB KB BBBGG 
B BB BBB BBB B BB 

LB._BGGDBBBGGuBBBCBGBGGE .. ,B~3GCGB 
B. GBBBGG BBB ~GS'_ '.BB3__BJ BB 
t'B_B "BBBGG ""BBB B B E. H ..B.BBB 
EGGGBBBaG BBB BB B bbb: 
L GBBB ". BBB BBB :■ B _E. '.. BBB "G 
GCBBBGG.BBB BBB , BG .BBB G 
GBBB G GBBB BB '". BBB E_.E BBB B 
" "" III III III G BB 



CGI 
GBI 



BGGI 
I SI 

cbb: 



ii 



i 



IGuuBBBuljliBG 



BBB 



24 



dbb: 

■ 31 



: 

[ ■ 



BB 

bb : 

1BBGGI 
1 



BB -BBGGIBDDBCCB 
BB _ BB BBB BB 

_CBBC_BB__B__BB 1 
BGGBB BBB BB 

BBGGBB GB GBBGGB 

GBBGDBBBGGBG "" 



■BG 
I 



:bb 



GBBGGBBG 
3B BB 
BB L BB B 



IB ■ HH IIJ 

SB BBB BBGG 
BG .BB B . BBGGB 
BB BB EBB BB 
""BBGGBB JG_«3 

II BB BBB "G 
B .'. BB' BB B .GB 
■ B BB BK BBB 
-BB . .BB " .BB B : 

l_Bl BB_..BB_GBBB.. J 

i3 



Fig. 395. 



Fig. 396. 



Fig. 396 — repeat: 23 warp-threads, 24 picks — illustrates the novel combination of an entwin- 
ing twill and suggests the great variety of weaves which can be designed for this sub-division of 



the regular twills. 



IX. Twills Having Double Twill Effects. 

These twill weaves are obtained by connecting two, three, four or more parallel twill lines, 
in one repeat, with another twill line (main line) which runs in an opposite direction. 

Rule for Constructing these Weaves. 
Run your main twill at a grading of 45 ° in a direction from left to right over the entire 
repeat of the weave (see ■ in weaves Figs. 397, 398, 399 and 400); next run the other twills at 
right angles to the first mentioned twill (see b in weaves 397 to 400) and stop so as to form a clear 



a b e 



IGEGCB^ 
BE I 



". BB 

BB - 



connecting spot (and without running both twills into each 
other). 

Figs. 397 to 400 are weaves designed in this manner, 
and clearly illustrate this sub-division of twill weaves. 

Fig- 397- Repeat: 8 warp-threads, 8 picks. 'Main 
twill" is ? = 8-harness, "cross-bar twill or double 

8 6 

Fig. 397. twill effect " ? for 2 warp-threads. 

Fig. 398. Repeat: 16 warp-threads, 16 picks. " Main twill" i. 



3D 
H 



BB 

■ B . 

IB J 

■ EG 

; a 



12 



BBBCBnaBEGGEECOB 
BB EB BB B! BB 


B B BB :BEi ' JBBB 


:: mi 


B BB BB 111! 


BE EB E BBBBGG 


BE BE Bill El 1 


E III! EB 


B BB BBII E B 


BE E BBII BE >'. ! 


BE lllfl E be: 


B BBBB BE BB 


B BBBB B . BB ! B 


B BBBB BB BB 1 i 1 


1 BBPB E BB BEG 


BBBB j BB EB 


Fig. 398. 


ness. " Cross- 



bar twill or double twill effect" ? r , for 5 successive warp-threads. 



HI EE[ 

BCB G.GEE 
I EBB . h'. 

"ebb 

EC EEEG 



■ B I 
I B 

BB 

. IB 
I 



E 

BB 

BEE 



■1 .1 BBB 

■:a iBB 

3EBI 1 I a 

EBB J ' J 

■ ■■ ,HHH BBB I 

BB , EBB BEE 

B B BBB 1 EBB 

BBB 3EEGGGBG 



Fig. 399. 



>'B BB B 

BB E EB B BB 
< BB BB EB BB I 
BB E B BB I 
B BB BE BB ■ 
I B BB E BB BB 
> BB BB II II I 
BB 1 3 II II B 
■ I B 

■B a 
a aa i 
a aa 
be a 

BB 

a aa 1 



-1 BEE 
EBB 
BBB 

a Ear 

BB Bf 
EBB a 
. BEE 
I BBC 



BB 

E 



BB 
BB 



B BE BB 
BB IE BB 
I BB I BB 

B BB . B 
B BB BB 
B IB BB 
I BB BB 

mm 



a 

BB 

EBB 



BBB 
BB 

■ a 

■ a 

aaa i 

BEE 
BBB 
} EB 

BEE B 



Fig. 400. 



Fig- 399- Repeat: 18 warp-threads, 18 picks, 
bar twill or double twill effect ? *. 



Main twill L__ = 
15 



E BB BEE 

I BB 'BBB 

I BB B BBt- 

BB EBB BB i 

BB BEE B 

B BEE' B 

■ B EEC: B 

Fig. 401. 
18-harness. 



Cross 



78 

Fig. 400. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

The main twill in the present design is - — ^ — - — n> = 16-harness. The " crossbar twill," or 
double twill effect, is the 2 r, 4-harness twill. 

Twills of a different grading than 45 for the main twill line can also be used. For example, 
steep-twills of 6$°, jo° or 75 ° grading. Again, the cross-bar twill may be changed, if required, 
to a like different grading. 

Fig. 401 illustrates a fancy twill of the present division constructed from the 63 ° steep- 
twill derived from the 4 - = 24-harness foundation-twill for the main twill, and the - 3 

= 6 harness 45 ° twill for the double-twill effect. 



a 



f 

4 


% 

3 


X 


2 

i 



X. Twill Weaves Producing Checkerboard Effects. 

This sub-division of the twill weaves is obtained by combining any of our regular twills, 

warp for face, with the same twill weave, filling for face. 

Rule. — Divide the repeat (equal distance for warp and filling) into four even 

squares (see diagram Fig. 402), and insert the twill weave, warp for face, into 

every uneven numbered (1, 3,) square, and the twill weave, filling for face, into 

every even numbered (2, 4,) square. 

The direction of the twill in the warp effect must be opposite to the twill in 

the filling effect; hence if running' the direction of the twill, in the present 
Fig. 402. 1 

abed repeat of exam pl e > f° r the warp for face effect from the right to the left, we must run the 

weave. direction of the twill in the effect having filling for face from the left to the right. 

This direction of running the twill is illustrated in the diagram Fig. 402 by the four arrows. 

Another point to be kept in mind when designing for this kind of weave is, that in places 
where the warp and filling effect meets, a clear cut must be produced; vice versa, change from 
sinker to raiser or raiser to sinker. 

For illustrating the foregoing rule weaves Figs. 403 to 41 1 have been constructed. 

Design Fig. 403 illustrates the checkerboard effect obtained from combining a double 

repeat of the 3-liarness twill 1 with a double repeat of its corresponding filling effect r z . 

Repeat: 12 warp-threads, 12 picks. 

Design Fig. 404 is constructed from the 4-harness j and 3 twill. Each effect used 

for four successive warp-threads and picks equals one repeat of the weave in the warp and filling 
effect. Complete repeat of the design calls for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 









16-iGaGGGGa~BBBBGBB 








DHGGjjH ■"■■■■■ 








a/ , . a : ■■■■■■ 








a :■■ ■■■■ 


ISGGEGGaGBBuBB 






a a :■ unm 


.:: a a ■■ u 








>l BB 




10DO ]H , mmmm 


Ga... a _ ■■■ ■■ ■ 


OGH ■ a bb ■■ 


" 


l: a b bbb 


.. '■■■■ II G 


Q3lj a ~B ■ ■ ■ 


saaaaoBBB 


a : bx ■ ■ 


11 ins :a : a 


a. j' 'a_„.BB jig 


L~,a iB ■■ 


: a in j 


■ ■■ ■■■ ~~ Ga . a g 


! ■■ sb a . a 


OH ,_ 1'.jBB_i« 


E iaii 




■ ■■ ■ a _ eg 


Gj ■ BBBG 


5 ■■■■ a 


■■■ ■■ ■ a. h:gg 


■flGBB a EG 


OBBfl < a 


B BBB " ■ a j 


■BBfl^BB a 'a _ _ j 


niijii^ aG^a 


BGBB - naG 


■ ■IB 33-jG 


■■■■■■ a 1 a 


a ■■ b 'a .a: j 


BBGBaaaa 


■BBGBGEGGG 


■ ■■■■ ■ a 


1BBGBBG3_j IHDG 


1BBBGEGGG 


IBBBBGE^ _jG 


HIGIIII iQ GJJSJ 1 


1 12 


1 4 8 


1 5 10 


1 8 10 



l=GHGGGaGBB 

BGGGai~BGB 

BBB 

GGGEGGBBG 

Ga""H"ll 

a a b a 
cqbbb: ■ a 
b ■■■ a 


■ • 

■BG 
GBB 
BBB 
B ■ 

BB iV 


■■■ ■■ 

BBGBBBOG 

■■■ ■ a 


" r . 


<■ ■■■ a 

1 (3 


12 



Fig. 403. 



Fig. 404. 



Fig. 405. 



Fig. 406. 



Fig. 407. 



Fig. 405 illustrates a similar arrangement as explained by weave Fig. 404, applied to the 



5-harness twill, 



^ and - 



Repeat: 10 warp-threads and 10 picks. 



Design Fig. 406 illustrates the checkerboard effect derived from combining the 8-harness 
twill ?-^ — i— j or warp face, with 1 — i — - — 5, being the filling for face of the same weave. Repeat : 
16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

Design Fig. 407 represents the checkerboard effect derived by combining the 4-harness 
broken twill, warp for face, with the same w r eave, filling for face. 6 warp-threads and 6 picks or 
equal \]/ 2 repeat are used for each effect. Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. 



79 

Combination of Warp and Filling Effects from a 4.3 Twill Weave after a given Motive. 

The next step towards figuring twill weaves is found in combining the warp and 
filling effect of a regular twill (the same as used in the preceding chapter on checkerboard effects) 
after a given motive (idea of a figure as desired to be made). Weaves Figs. 408^ and 410 
illustrate two examples, which readily explain their construction after the motives given in Figs. 
408 and 409. 



■IDDIIOD 
■DBOBOBD 

dbgbgbgb 

jGBBGGBB 
■ ■ IB 

■GBGBOBG 
QBGBGBDB 
1QCBBDJBB 
1 4 

Fig. 408. 



Motive for weave Fig. 408a 
4 warp and 
4 filling changes. 



CBflBGBBBGGGBGGGBOBBBGBBflGGGBGGGB 


■ ■ ■■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ III DB 


DBcaaBa 


■■■■■■■I ■■ jBBB ■ 


■G_3BGG 


■■a 111 ■ ■ on sua ■ 


izgbggg 


■■■ ijibi :■ in . ■ 


lll__ B 


■:■■::■ 1 mm m m ma m a 


■■: ■ 


BBl.B fl II I B 63 ■ I . ■ 


b ■ ■ : 


BBBLB IBB B _.BBB_BjJ I 


■■DBDC 


2GBGBBB ". ■ BBB ] "_"B BBB 


jGBGBBB 


GGBGBGflfl . B ■ BB : B B flfl 


■ I BB 


GflGGflflGfl B 31 B B 'BB B 


B II ■ 


B BBB B BBB B BBB ■ 


■ ■■ 


GGGfl.. B BBB BBB fl ■ 


■II BIB 


~~~B B B .BBB BB ■ a 9 


bbb am 


■:::■ ii m i a a i in s 


b: ~b_.:~jbbb hi i i_ hi hi 



Fig. 408a. 

Weave derived out of motive Fig. 408. 
Repeat : 16 warp-threads, 16 picks. 



Fig. 408 represents a motive after which weave Fig. 408a is constructed. The motive 
calls for four changes in effect in each direction, which equals (4X4 =) 16 possible changes 
over the entire surface of one repeat in the motive. In the design (weave) Fig. 408*?, 
4 warp-threads and 4 picks are used for each change in the motive, and the 4 harness twills 

1 — —j and 3 j (warp and filling effect of the same regular twill) are used for interlacing 

warp and filling. 

The rules given under the head of checkerboard effects also apply to this sub-division. 



DC 



■■ a 
:ciijj 



bggbbggb 
obbodbbq 
dobbgobb 
bbggbbgg 
ipmaamo 



Fig. 409. 

Motive for weave Fig. 410 
4 warp and 
8 filling changes. 



GBBBGGGBGGGBGBBBGI 


IBBGG 


GBGGGBGBBBM 


1 II I B fl BBB 


■ fl 


B B ■ B 


BB II I II III 


IGBGI 


B B 


■ ■ 

BAG 


III I I III II 


IB fl 


B fl 


GBBB1BBB * fl 1 


IBB B 


flfl ■ B 


a ■■■ ■■ ■ ■■ 


.flflfl 


flfl ■ ■ 


■ ■GUI II I II 


1 .flflfl 


■ ■ I 'J 


III III I I II 


Ifl flfl 


■ ■ B 


I I ,IBI BBB 


; ■ 


B BBfl BBB 


DGBGGJBJB III ill ; 


jfl 


M B flflfl flfl 


GBGGGB ] BB III .1 1 


1 IGGfl 


flfl BBfl fl 


BGGGIGGGBBfl III ~M 


jam ~ 


flflfl flflfl ] 


GBBBGG B 1 B BBB 1 


■an : 


■ ■ flflfl 


B ■■ ■ ■ B 111 


■■ 


■ flfl flfl 


■ fl ■ ■ ■ flfl flfll 


1 ■ ■ 


3GBGGBB ■ 


■■■ I 1 BBB II 


IB ■ 


■ flflfl ] 


3GBGBBB flflfl . ■ 


■ ■ 


■ fl flflfl ■ 


DGBGfl flflfl flfl ■ 


■ ■ 


■flfl II I 


■ flfl flflfl ■ B 


IJJBI 


■ BB ■ . ■ : : 


I III BBB B B 


■ fl 


■ flflfl ■ 


1 


B B flflfl flflfl 


■ 


■ ■■■ 


■ flfl 


■ ■■ bbb ma 


B 


■ ■ flflfl 


11 


m fl , BB BBfl B J 


■ 


■fl flfl 


B B 


B I BBB flflfl !fl 


■ 


SIM ■ 


flfl 1 


BIB BBB I B 1 


Iflfl ■ 


■ fl I 


■ 


B flflfl II 1 II 


■BB 
1 111 


■ ■ I 


■ I 


■ I III ifl B ■ Bl 


I I 


■ 


BBB BBB fl B Bl 


Ifl flfl 


I ■ ■ 


1 


B flflfl flflfl ■ 


■ ■ 


■ fl flflfl 


■ 


■ ■ flflfl II B 


■ ■ 


■■■ ■■ 


fl ) 


B flfl ■■■ ■ I 


1 flfl BBfl ■ 


■ 


I III III I I 


..BBB flflfl ■ 




. — , — j , — i , — '— » -' 




12 8 4 

10 




Fig. 41 


O. 







Weave derived out of motive Fig. 409. 
Repeat : 16 warp-threads, 32 picks. 



Fig. 409 represents a motive after which weave Fig. 410 is constructed. The motive calls 
for four changes warp, and eight changes filling, ways, which equals (4X8 =) 32 different 
possible changes over the entire surface of one repeat in the motive. In weave Fig. 410, 4 warp- 
threads and 4 picks are used for each change in the motive, with the 4-harness twills 3 - — j and 
1 3 for interlacing warp and filling. 



80 



XI. Fancy Twill Weaves. 



The next . plan for designing twill weaves is that of combining basket weaves, rib weaves, 
etc., arranged in the shape of twills, with any of the regular twills as may be desired. 
Weaves Figs. 411 to 421 illustrate a few such examples: 



SBBGEBGCB 

a aa aa 
[ aa he 

GGGGBBBG 

a bsb a 
a ■■■ a 

: ■■■ aa 
■bb gob ; 

1 8 

Fig. 411. 



Repeat : { jj j^*" 5 **' 



12BBDHDaDHHHDB 
B aa G. BGGBB 

l aaa_ g. a .■■■ 
a aaa ■■■ 

EGGGBGaBBBGE 

gggoecbbb aa 
dqhhdbbbdhdd 

cgggbbbgeegg 

gb SOB EGEGG 

aaa beg i aa 

IBBBDaaaDDDED 
1 12 

Fig. 412. 



Repeat:/ 12 warp-threads, 
r (12 picks. 



leaBBBGBGGBBGGEBGB 

bbbgb sa ' beggbg 
■a a aa eegbgb 

BDBCHH' -GEEG_BGBB 

cbgg.be aa ■ bbb 
b aa aa ■ ebb 
: _bb .. aa ■ sis ■ 

aa. bbggb ■■■ ■ i 
aa aa3BDBBBQBDa 
c aa ■ ■■■ ■ aa 

L GBBGBGBBB' ■ ;ceh 

□a jib aaa b aa _■ i 
eq.i.iii. b . geb_: 
ggbgbbb_bgee_geg 
b bbb b aa aa 
iBGBBB-B^aa __aa_ j 
1 10 



Fig. 413. 



Repeat:/ ^warp-threads, 
r [16 picks. 



iggcgbegeeegggb 
,GEE ggegbeccbb 



ja ^a 



aaa 



:a 



:gbbbg 

■■BGG 
IDD0 

GGB 

aa 1 
aaa 

3QDDD 
3GGQG 
DHDDa 
3QGGG 

a aa 
bb . eel ; ' aa_ j 

g_..bb_g bb_g 

10 



EBB : 

. BBBG 

bbb: a: 

BBB 



■ KB 



Fig. 414. 

Reneaf / 1 6 warp-threads, 
Kepeat.j l6 picks 



KBBGEGGGGG 


GGEGEGB 


BGGEEE _ aa 


GGG'_._BB 


. ..aa .a. . _ 


. a BBB 


_e...e as 


aa ■■■■ 


GEEGE -E . _ 


BBB J 


BGEGG-GGG 


gbbbggg 


COGGGGGGL 


BBB' .a 


HBQGQGB -B 


■b .a 


GGGEGEjBB 


B. BBBEG 


HHBGGGBBB 


- .EBB'.. a 


:: mi« 


I BE ..EG 


Baa aaa 


. -E^e_b 


ssjj . : 


BE E_BG 


CGBBBGGGS 


.G -G .EG 


GBBBGGuEG 


.a a a j 


1BBBGGGGEE 


GBGGGGG 


1 


10 



Fig. 415. 



Repeat:/ ^warp-threads, 
r \ 10 picks. 



1'E rGGBBGBBGGEESG 
EGQZBB. BBGGGBEGB 
EUGBBGBB . _'_ _ B' ]GB 
EGBBGBBl BBBBLBBB 
GBBGBBG. EBBGEGGG 
■BGBBG."j"".ESGEEGDD 
BGBBGI J^EGEEEGGB 
GBBGBaBB . BBBBGBB 
BB iGBSB H'_Gl BBG 

b_ gbb ebgg: KI I 

G .. .3 EGEG_BB._BB 
GEBE_EBEEGBBGBBQ 

EBBGBGG _BBGBBGG 

GGGGGGG .BBGBBGCD 

BDBBBODBBDBBDDaD 

1GBBBBGBBGBBGBBEB 

1 16 



Fig. 416. 



Renear-/ l6 warp-threads, 
Kepeat.j l6 picks _ 



WBGGBB~GGE' > _ B 
GGBB_. .EG- BB 

; ii aaa bb J 

bb: BBE_BB_a 



CGBE' TBI 
CGBE_BBJ 
EEG_BBl._ 

aa bb 1 

BB Bi 

LBB . BB. 
BB BB . 
BGGBB BE 
CGBB BE 
GBB BB _ 



LBBB 
GEBB ■ 

a aa 
a bb 
a bb 

BB .1 



■BO 
I' E 

a 

3BQ 

3SG 

2EG 

. GB 

BB 

■BG 

IGG 



jBBG 

■b a 

I.jGE 

a 

:aa j 
■;aa i 

Xi 



BG _BB 

G ' BB_BBG 
BSE GGBBCQ 

aaa bb m 

BE EH BB 



Repeat 



aa hi 


■ BBG 


[ aa bb. 


.GBBGG . 


a bb 


IB BB 


BGBBGGI 


■b aa 


KB BI 


IGBBGO 


Era BB. 


;caEaa 


m hh 


:gbbgb 


aa a: 


3EGGBB 


£5» a: 


;:; bbg 


2:: aa 


BB I 


b a a 


3BBGGB 


a a 


IB BB 


aaa a 


B BAG 


aaa bb 


GGBBGG 


BB 


bb aa 


[ . BB 


■ B. -BE 


( BB B 


i.. GBB 


BB BB 


EBBGG 


B BB 


BBBGB 


. bb a 


J_'^_BB1 


c bb a 


3 :bbg 


■BGGGE 


J-BBGQ 


b aaa 


BB B 


"■ BBEi. 


IB . BB 


aa a 


I BBG 


aa bb 


GGBBGD 


a a bb 


_ BB-GG'G 


BB _ 


■a. aaa 


DBBQDB 


■■._ - aaa 


1BBGGBB 


_EEGGQ 


1 u 


Fig. 417. 


j 12 warp-threads, 


: 160] 


Dicks. 



-BB BBB~BEBGBBGGH 

b bbb aa a bb 

CGGBBBG-G .BGBBGGBBB 

bbbgeeb- aaa bbb ] 

GBBBGGEB B_ BBB .1 
BBBGGGBgBE< BBB 1 

bb aaa aaa bbb a 



cg: 


a aa bbb_ bbb 


EBB EEEGI GBGGCBBBJ 


be: 


BBB BBB J 


EGBBGGBIi. ! DDn .J 


QBE 


:a bbb ebb aaa 


E 


bbb bbb . aa 1 


eg: 


aaa bbb a a 


E . BBBCGGBBBGBBE -EB 


GBBBGGGBBBGGEEGBGG 


BSB BBB .. jEGEB 


1 


18 



Fig. 418. 



Reoeat-/ l8 war P" 
Kepeat '\ 18 picks 



threads, 



2<BBCaBBGGEGGEEGGBGGGBBCLB 

a an aa aa _ aa. bb kb 

as aa _bbg _eb.._kbggbbb 

L.BBG-.EE . -BE .EG BB BBBG 

bb~bb aa aa bb in 

BGGBB BB EGGBBG- BBB . B 
GEE: BB ...BE Ji. BBG' BBBGQBB 
CEB BB . _BB. JBB'_ ' . BBBGGBBG 
BG_3B BB , BB'.. .BBB' GBBGG 
BGGBB _BE.BB' BBBGGBB B 
CBE . EG -.GBB „ BBBGl..BB_ BEG 
CUE-jBG -BH-i GBB Lll. _ EB J 
BGGBB' ._.BB J.IBBBU BBlGBB, 1 B 
EGGEB .BB J .BBBGGBBG.-GEGDa 

aa bb BBfli.GBB' aa beg 

GEE .BB j. BBB I BB BBG BBG 
B BB GBBB BB BB BE. B 

G -BB . BBB : BB . BB BB' G 
LBB BBB. 1 BB' BE: BBGGBEG 
BBGGBBBGGBB '■ EB' GE-_BEG 
BGGBBBGGBB .BG _ BB -EG ■ 
GGBBB-GBB-. ,GG -GG. -.BEGBB 
GBBBGGBBGaBuGEBQaEGGGBBa 
IBBBGCBBG'GEE^GBBGGEBGBBG 



24 



Fig. 420. 



^Peat :{^ p Tr hreadS ' 



2HGBGBGBBGBBBGBBGEEBBE 


G G Gi BBGBBB._BB _ G 


CGGBBGBBB- BB BBBEB 


a BB BBB as 


DBBGBBBGBB BGB BGGGE 


bb bbb as a a a 


BGBBBGBB-. E EGE Gl 


DBBBGBB- — G EGBGGGBB 


aaa an : g_gggg .bbg 


BB'-GBa : B B-B_BBGfl 


bgbb aaaaa a a bb.bb 


GBB -EG E . BBIBBB 


BB. EEEGB CH IKS 


BG_!GG GG^ E II Eil » 


LB b aaaaa bb ebb kb 


G_G E .GGL 1 BBGBBB-EB J 


EGB "B GGGGBBGBBBG KBGG 


GGB E r.GGBBGBBBGBBuCG 


B _ B G " BB BBB r EBGGaa 


lEGB^E-BBGBBBGBBGGGGa 
1 i0 


Fig. 419. 


Repeat J 20 warp-threads, 
r (20 picks. 



'BBB BBB ■ B G ■ B 
QBGaaBGDGBGGrB'G.BBBGG BBB 
BGDQBGBBBGGGBBB BGGOflGC 
GGGBBBQBaGQBGGJBZG fl BBB 

B .. GB BGBBB G III I 
LIGIIIGGGIIIGI ' GBG~ "BGG 
BBBGBQaaBGGGBG'-.. GBGBBB 

lCaaBaaaBaBBBDGaBBBGBDGGB 

1 -i 



Repeat 



Fig. 421. 

24 warp-threads, 
8 picks. 



81 

XII. Pointed Twills. 

Pointed twills constitute the next sub-division of twills, and are derived from the latter by- 
means of point draws (previously explained and illustrated under the head of drawing in drafts, 
page 33). The plainest "point draw" calls for each harness in rotation (beginning at number 
one, or front) until all harnesses are taken up. Next proceed to draw the rotation of harness 
backwards until you get on to the starting point. The first and last harness of the set (represent- 
ing the front and rear harness), technically known as " point harness," are drafted only once ; thus 
requiring only one-half the number of heddles compared to the others. If using a fancy 
point-draw, use the point harness in the one effect, straight in the next effect, and vice versa. 

2izzbzzbzzbbzzzbbzzbzzbzzzbzzbzzbbzzzbbz - bzzbz 
dbzzbzzbbzzb. ■■ bzzbzbzzb: bb m aa ■__■ 
■ __■'—_■■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ am ma mm es ~bzz 

DCBZZBBZZBZZZBZZBBZZBZZZBZZBBZZBZZZBZ: BBZZfld 



Zl 



IBZZBZZBB^__BI B _.flZZB Z ~BBZZ 

:bbzzzbbzzb.:-b_.zzbz;_bzzbbci i5cgbgzcbzzzizzbbzzbzczbzzcbczbi 



,zbb ll i ■ b_zbbzzbzzbzzbzbzzbbbz 

:bbbzzbzzb__bbbzzbz~bzzb b bbbzzb_zbbzzbzzbbb b ■■■ 

B B B__flBBBB ". B_ZBZZ) Bfl IB BB 15 BUSED BBB B 

i: ■ III HI B B _ B B BBB BBB B flZ ZBB Bfl flfl BZflBB BBB BBB B 

ZBZZBZ BBB BBB BBB ■ EBB ZIBBBZZBZZB BB B BBB I til BBKBB B _ 

ib bib a bbb a a a bbb a aaa :zbzz . _ . 



^■■■~-ZBBBn DZBZZBBB". . B fl - BBB . BZ "B_ BBBZZBZflZZBBBZZBQ 

BB BB BB BB tZIH I ■ III I I III B B BBB B B B fl B .BBB. B B B BB 

■flZZZfliflZZZI ■ BBB B_ B B BBB" B_ BBB_ ■■■__■■■ . a BBB fl ABB ■ fl ■ ■ BB 

*■-—-— -ir fjmUZ flflB B B B fl flflB flflfl ■ ■ ■ B BBB_ """ 



4ZZflBBZ~ZBBBZl CBBBZZBZZB I ■ :BZZBBBZBBBZZBZZBZZ fl~_flZZBBB LBflflZflflflZflflB ■ ZZBBZBB ■■ ■ 

IflB flfl BB BB ■■■ ■ ■ B B B__ZBflflflfl ■ ■ B ■ fl flfl BBB Hill ■ ■■ 10 ■■ I 



aim b ■ BBB 

lBZZBZZBZZflZZ 1B_ZBZ_B BBBBBZZBZZBZZBZZBZZBZZBBBBBCZBDZBDL" 1BCCBGBQGBQCB 

16 1 '» 1 .il 

Fig. 422. Fig. 423. Fig. 424. 

Fig. 422 illustrates a " point twill " composed of the 4-harness twill executed on the 

regular 4-harness point draw, 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2. Repeat: 6-harness and 4 picks. 

Fig. 423 represents a "point twill" composed of the 21-harness 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 , regular twill. 
The point draw required is as follows: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 11 10, g, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. 
Repeat: 22 warp-threads and 21 picks, requiring 12-harness point draw. This will illustrate that 
the entire repeat of a regular twill must not be used in the construction of its " point twill," as 
in the present example only 12 threads of the regular twill, with 21 threads for repeat in weave 
are used, (9 threads being entirely omitted). 

The second kind of " point twills " is designed from the regular twills by means of a "fancy 
point draft." For example, weave Fig. 424, which in its mode of construction is designed from 
the 3 2 * 2 2 ,, x 2 1 5 -harness twill by means of the following fancy point-draft: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,4, 
3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, ii, 10, 9, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. 



b a :a~ZBZBZza a m hzb _ z~ b ■ ■ a 

a ■ ■ a ■ cbzb b ■ ■ ■ :zBzr 



■ ■ :: ■ ■ 

■ B BZH Bfl H 

h: ■ a: a ■ a 
■ ;;■■:;::■■:; 

:: b b a zb ■ 
_za : b a B B BZZBZ 

■ ■ Mecca ::■■;:■■ ■ flfl ■ 

■ ■ BZBO flflfl ■ ■ ■ 

:;■:;■ n ::■■:: ■ ' ■ a a ■ ■ ■ 101 



B 
CZB 


— T< — 


z«:: 
■ 


a ■ 


E 


B 


a 


:■-. 


■ ■ 


e 


B 




■ 


B 


'> . 


B 


B 


K H 


I 


B 
B 


" 


B 
■ 


a 


■ ■ 


„'■ 


a 


B B 


B 


fl 



■ ■ ■ ■! ■ a a b a a ■ ■ ■ b 

b ■ ■ ■ - b :: b ■ :: ■ am ■ :: ■ ■ 

b a b a ■ ■ ■ ■ flfl b b a 

ci BAB a ■■ a ■ ■ i a ■ a a ■ 

:■:■ 1 ■ a b a ■ a La ■ ■ a ■ ■ a 

a ■ a b . a ■■ a ■ ■ a ■ ■ a ■ ■ 

Bfl b a , ■ ■ ■ ■ aaa B ZB ] 

b ■ ■ b b a ■ ■ a fl 





B ■ ■ B 


■ ■ 


a 

■ 


■ ■ a 

flflB B 
B B ■ B B 

■ ABB 


■ ■ 
■ ■ 

■ flfl 

■ 


■ 

B 


a b 

B BBB 


B 

B 














I 


B ■ ■ ■ 


DBCBDC 


a 


■ ■ 


B B 




■ flfl flflfl 









ibdOe ( B a ib a"a a a :,az" '■ acOc-Q db a" "a 1 ■ a ■ ■ a ■ 

Fig. 425. Fig. 426. Fig. 427. Fig. 428. 

The next step for figuring in point twills is to arrange the pointed effect in the direction of 
the filling. Giving Figs. 422, 423 and 424 each one-quarter of a turn, or in other words turning 
them so as to bring the filling into the position of the warp and the warp into the position of the 
filling, will produce weaves for this system. A straight draw for an equal number of harness, 
which is necessary for the foundation twill, is required for this pointed twill (filling ways). Thus, 
weave Fig. 422 will require a 4-harness straight draw with 6 picks; weave Fig. 423 a 21-harness 
"straight draw "with 22 bars in chain; weave Fig. 424 a 1 5 -harness "straight draw " with 31 
bars in chain. 



82 

The next course for figuring in pointed twills is to arrange the pointed effect, warp and filling 
ways; forming in this manner squares standing on one of their corners. These designs offer very 
many fanciful arrangements and are extensively used in the manufacture of fancy cotton fabrics. 

Fig. 425 is derived from the 3-harness j regular twill by means of draft : 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 2. 

-Repeat : 6 warp-threads and 6 picks. 

Fig. 426 represents enlargement of Fig. 425 to 8 warp-threads and 8 picks repeat. 

Fig. 427 shows the same weave enlarged to 10 warp-threads and 10 picks. 



■■GGBGaiBBaQBGai 

■■■ . «: ■■■■■: j. " ■■ 

giiigiiigibigbib 

DDIIIII'jGGIIIIII 
E ■■■ BBB 

GGIIIIIDDDIIHIiG 

oiiijiibzbiigibi 
■■■dooiiiiigcuii 

SMODaOQBMOOHDQB 

bbbjdl bbbbb ' :jii 
iii n iii iii 

dobbbbb ggdbbbbbg 

HnDBBBaDHDCBBBQa 

qgbiiiizgoiiibig 
i bbb :«ri:ihjiii 

1bbbgggbbbbbgggib 

1 5 8 



leGBBGCGGGaaaaDGBB 

b ■■ ~.a a - hj 
bb bb a :: ■■:■ 

GBB ■■ 7.G . ' . BBGBB 
I BB DIE BB BB 

GDaiiniiDiinii j 3 
gzb ■■ ■■■ bb :aj 

DHODHBB ' B MBDDDH 
B"Z"' ■■ II , "iGZG 

LE BB B jBIGGZB 

1 a BB IBB BBGEG 
I BB BB BB BB j 

GGBB.BB . BBGBBO. 

UBBGBB BBGBB 

■IGIIGB^GGEGBIGI 

ib ma jH a bb ; 
1 3 10 



24HHnDBnDanaBnBDBDDannBDDH 

QaaBGBnGDBrB B BZGZIZir. G 
□GBGBGB'' B . B BZBZBGE ]BD 

cizeebgbgi^ z iziqebe B 
ezb..ees::bgz :~z ^bzebeziz 

GGGB ESEZI~_ Z.BZEBE B 

gzg.b".beszb a bgeebgb 
l.g b iieeegi b egbgbgb zg 

GGB B BZEGIGui. B E B B B j 
DBGBGaaBQBDDHDGBaBGDCBDB 

BGBaaauGBG' jBBBCQBaaaa^ bg 
QBaaaaaBDaBaaBEaaBQGDDDB 
■aBaaaaGBG jbeb 1 gigggggig 
gb::b. '"g;bgb " . e zizigzzb b 
cgizigiz3 b i 311 b i ! 
ggub b :ee3 b b bbegbzigg 
dgggb ebegb b b iebegbggg 

( '. B E3BZI J r B BEE ~B 1 

egbjbbb:b_ z, ,-_ bzbgbgbg 
obzbbb.bb: ,__g b ■~"eee_i 
zzbzb bzb b b bzbzegbg 

G.L.B I Jl B..BGBGZGBGBGtn 

EE JZIGGGGG»_IGIZGZZ^I r, GB 

IBaaGGB JGGGGB ZB ZGGGGEG^ BE 

1 13 24 



Fig. 429. 



Fig. 430 



Fig. 431. 



Fig. 428 illustrates a pointed twill derived from the ~ — ~ twill by means of point draft, 
1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. 

Figs. 429 to 435 represent a few novel and interesting designs of "pointed twills," which by 
means of the different styles of type used readily indicate their method of construction. 

Fig. 429. Repeat: 8 warp-threads, 8 picks. Point draw for 5-harness as follows : 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5. 4- 3. 2. 

Fig. 430. Repeat: 16 warp-threads, 16 picks. Point draw for 9-harness as follows : 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. 

Fig. 431. Repeat: 24 warp-threads, 24 picks. Point draw for 1 3-harness as follows: 1,2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. 



BBBBI " GBiGBGGGBBBBB 

B BBBZBBB .fa 'I'lBflJll 

BBGGGaOBBB' GBGBBB 3 G iZ ~ BBBGBDB 

mom: . . Ill IBI BBB BB 

BBBflB BBBBB 

aaGGBaaaaGBBBGaaaGBaaaaaBBBa 
GGaBBBaGaaGBaaaaaBBBaaaaaBaa 

nGBBBBBGGGHGBaoaBBBBBaGGBGHa 
BBB BBB , ._ ; III .III !. . 

, iiBGBGBBBaaaaaBBB jegibiggggg 

'-■■ BBB. BBB i: III III I JJ1 

GGBBBBBGC LjiJ . BBBBB Z, A 

aaaBBBaQGGGB j lu bibgjzojigg 
GGGGBaGaGaBBBaaaaaBaaaaaBBBa 

BBBBBGaGBGBGQGBBBBB 
B 'Z . . BBB .BBB i BBB BB 

BBGGGGC BBBZBGIBB JZZZGBBBGBGB 
■ . BBB BBB . ! -I BBB 'BB 

GGG«a»GG JBBBBBGGGaGBGGGBBBBB 
GGGGBGi: BBB B BBB 1 

BBB B BBB IB'] 

GGBBBBBGGaHGBaaaBBBBBaaaBGBa 
GBBB BBB I BBBGBBBGBGGG3 

IBBBGBaBBBGaGGGBBBJjaZBBB iGGGG 
QBBBGBBBGBGaaBZBBBGBBBGBaaaB 
DDBBBBBiJDawaaLlnaBBBBBQ.ZZ'flZSG 
GDCBBBQaaGDBDCDDDBBBaDanDBDa 

aaaaiaaaaaBi'iacaaaiacaaaMBn 

1 8 14 



W 



■eiii 



3 B 

a r J 

a i 

a . j3 b jbbbbblbdb 

BBB BBB BBB I 

a _ ZB 3BIBGIGIBIQH 

: a iegbbizbbigeg 
:: bbbbb :: 

"AG 



ezbz: 

DBOOE 

bode: 

I E' I 
DBDBI 

ggsgb 
bzjdb: 
: e . c 

EGEGZa _a_B_fc 
l EZ3 ZZ3 3Z3 3 E BZE .3 .3 
EuEZE 3 3ZE E E BE 3 3 J 
GBGB B 3 3 3 .3 3 E E E 
EZ3 BBB E B 3 3 EZ_i3 3 J 
3 BBBBB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
K BBBBBBB B 

'b bbbbb b"'e 3 iii"k 
bbb bbb bbb 3 bbbbb 3 
[ bbb b bbb .3 .3 bbb. 3 3 
e bbb bbbze 3" 3 b e . e "] 
i g bbbbb 3 3 3 3 3 . 3 e 
bgegbiigbzbge.je.. jbzze.jb ] 
iGEaGaBaEaEDaaBDEDDDBaaaH 



Fig. 432. 



Fig. 433. 



" 33SEE~EE BBBBBBB B .IBBIBIBGaB^GEBEEG 
33 33 IIIBIIB B B BBBBBBB 33 

333 EZEEDZBBBBBBCBB. II BBBBBB 33 33 

I 333 33 KBBBB BBB BBB BBBBB 33 333 

EBB 3 33 HDB Bill llll BBB 33 3 33 

33 333 33 BBBBB BBBBB 33 333 3 

3 33 33 33 ..IIBBBZIBIIBD'^ZZBEZ BE BEG 

33 G ..BE EE 7 BBBBB lllll . EEZEE 33 

BE .ZZZZ3B EE Z_ IBBZB.ZBBB _ ZEE ZEE ...E 

E IBfl-J BE 33 . EEBGZ EE 33 .IIIZ 

GIIIIBGGZ33 E3 33 33 33 33 BBBBB 

GIBIIIGGG. EE EE EE E .BE 33_.BB jZl BBBBB 

GIIIBBaGGL .BE" BBB EBEGEE3 33 ZZZ.. BBBBB 

Bill BBB 33 3 33333 3 33 EBB BBBB 

BBB BBBBB BEE . E3 _ BBBIBGBBI 

BB BBBBBB 33333 BBBBBB BB 

L B BBBBBBB EEZ3EEZ 333ZEBE EE BBBBBBBGB 

B BBBBBBB 33 3EEEE. E E3333 EEZBBBIBBIG 

BBZGGLGZZ33..333 333 333 333 33 " Z . "B 

I BBBBBBB 33 33EEE 3 33333 33ZBBBBBBBZ 

GIGBIIIIBB .EEG3EE "333 333 EEiZBBBBBBB ZB 

aiBaillllBCEBGE.3BEEE.EzE3 BBBBBB BB 

GBBBGBBBBB L 33 333 3EB 3E . .'"BBBBB BBB 

BBBB BBB BBB BBBB 

BBBBB 33 333 BEE-EBB 3E GZZGCBBBBB 

BBBBB. 33 33 33 3 33 33 33 BBBBB 

BBBBB 33 33 33 33'" EE B3ZG ~BBBBB 

E ■■■_ EE 33 BBB. Z .BE BEZGZBBBG 

33 C 33 33 Z""BBB. EZBBB.. ,BB "BBZZ-Z 3 

33 3E BBBBB BBBBB ,i_EEZEE_ ■ 33 

3 33 33 EE .GBBIIBGBIIIIGC0GE3CSEZEB "I 

33 333 33 -GGaillBialllllOaaOaBEZBEE B 

B33 3 33 RIB BBBB BBBB BBB 33 

I 333 BBBBB BBB BBB "BBBBBZZZE3 BEE 

333 3 33 BBBBBB BB BB BBBBBB _ 33 3 33 

33 333 33 BBBBBBB B B BBBBBBB BEGEEE E 

B 33333 33 BBBBBBB B ..BBBBBBB 33 33333 

lGBBEGEBBGEaGGaaaaaiiiGaaaaacaBGaBEuBBa 

1 Ui Si 

Fig. 434. 



Fig. 432. Repeat: 14 warp-threads, 14 picks. Point draw for 8-harness : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. ' 

Fig- 433- Repeat: 24 warp-threads, 24 picks. Point draw for 13 harness: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. This design has only the point arrange- 
ment, warp ways. 



83 

Fig. 434- Repeat: 38 warp-threads and 38 picks. Point draw calls for 20-harness. Draw 
harness 1 up to and including 20 from front to rear, then follow by drawing harness 19 to 2 from 
rear to front. 



ejzzzbmbbqesbzzzeeezbbbhbzzze ezzzb^bbbzeeez 
a bbbsize aaa^ :a_B bob a a bbb b_:: a 

■ 1111 :::';:: :;"':: aaa disii bbbbb aaa a 
~3Z__333 b.bbb a bbbbb ■■■■■ :; aaa 



■■zaazzzaazMMSB _ _......... 

■■■ ::;;;::;■»■■ bzbbb _z ..ez«bm_e::z. bbb_b abb a aaa a ■■ 
■■b.bbb:. bzbbbbb_:bz_ bbb.b bbb b.bbb . a ■■■■■ a aaa ■ ■ 
■■■■■3Hsz: ns:in..HHZ_:2H_iii a bsb bb aa ■■■ aa aa ■■■ i 
obbbbbzbz zaaazaiaaa: . a bbbob iieii s aaa ■ aaa a ebbbb 
cbbbbb :aaa :zza a . . aaa .bbbbb ■■■■■.aaa. a azz. sss_hihd 

rz :■■■■■ aa : aaa aa ■■■■■ ■■■■■ aa aaa aa ■■■■■ 

(jzazBBBiBza :::aaa :zszb ■■■ :a .... a bbb ■ a aaa a ■ ■■■ a i 

cszzdisiib^bbb bbb_bbb ■ a a .._■;:■■■ aaa aaa ■■■ ■ a 

ez jzzzbbbbb :aa b3-bbbbb:zz_zbzzzzzbibbi_s3^ aa ■■■■■zzzzu 
za ■ in ;aaa. . bbszbmuzzze-EZZzb ■■■ aaa aaa bbb'-bzzzej 

c_ezbbbbbi3Zzz33b.__.::3Zb-:IBBBZB a ■■■ b..bzzz3bs . : a a ■■■zazi 

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l ■■■■a aaa : a a : aaa bbbbbz_cbbbbbzhhegc:ze .a aaa bbbbbq 

oiBaiaza.z bbbzb .bbbzizbzbiiiizibbbbzb aaa ■ aaa a ■■■■■ 
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bbb a : aaa m ■■■ :b _eee .zzezbbbbb a aaa ■ ■■■ ■ aaa a mm 
■■.h:;:z. : 33 hi ■ iii:a:i ::;: iiB r ::;: aa . ■■■ ■ ■■■ aa :;:;„■ 

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aa aa ■■■■■._■■■■■ aa aaa aa ■■■■■ ■■■■■ aa a 
E3 b:b :■■■ :a .z :3Zbbb--m.:ezz bbezzze ■ bbb:. a a bbb- a a a 

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C.333 BBB'BZZZaZEZZZBSBBB 333 333 ■■■ =BZZ .3 .3 "Z ~B BBB 333 1 

aa a a aaa a a ■■■ a a aaa ..a ■ ■■■ a a bbb a a — _a 

E3 ~] — nn^Bi in - • — ~ — ,,— ll i ~ r ^ r ^ % "^T^'.^n — • f-.T^ ■ _ in r X> C'2 

a : aaa bbbbb ■■■■■ aaa a":: aaa ■■■■■ ■■■■■ aaa a 
a aaa 3 ■■■■■ bbbbb a aaa a aaa a inn inn a aaa i 
■B_.aa aa ■■■ n ■■■ aa 337.11133 aa aaa a aaa aa eegb 
bbb a aaa a -■■■ ■ aaa a ■■■■■ a aaa a aaa ■ aaa a si 

BBBB^aaa :.:33.:bbbbb a: ...aaa a in ■ aaa a ■■■■■ a aaa ■ ■ 
■BBB^BBZ BBZBBB 33 : II ^BBZBBB 4B! BBB _33 ZZE3ZBBB.33 33 BBB I 

dbbbbbje 333ZB aaa :i .a jbbbbb .BBBBBzazz^aBB ■ ebez: 3 bbbbb 
czBBBBB.:aaa z.a a ■ : 333 bbbbb bbbbb aaa aaa bbbbb i 
□azBBBBBZEE.-rzaaa 33 bbbbb bbbbb aaz^sa : he bbbbbzo 
czezbbi b a aaa a ■ .1 ■■ a" a ■■ 1 ■ a - ' aaa 3 ■ bbb az 

DEZZZB1BBB B33 333 BBB B ^3 3 I BBB Baa BE3 B4B B E 

azz bbbbb aa aa bbbbb bbbbb aa aa bbbbb 

DazzzB^aaa aaa 333 aaa iizzza _ 3~""i bbb aaa 333 ■■■qizzzH 

DZBZBBBaB 3 333 3 B BBB 3 3 BBB B 3 BBB 3 B BBB 3 
C BBBBB 33 33 BBBBB BBBBB aZ 333 .33 BBBBBZG 

Q_bbbbb aaa aaa bbbbb bbbbb aaa aa:: bbbbb _ 
i bbbbb a aaa a :::::: a inn iinn a aaa b aaa a bbbbb 
b bbb aa aa in aa aa ■■■ ■ ■■■ aa aa ■■■ aa aa ■■■ 
■b ;b jbbb :~.e ;■■■■■ 3 : :::::: ■ ■■■ ■ 33a a ■■■■■ a aaa ■ ■ 
bbb a aaa a bbb b aaa a bbbbb a aaa ■ bbb a aaa 3 aa 
■a aa zz aa bbb ■ ■■■ aa aa bbb aa aa bbb b bbb aa aa ■ 
b aaa : a bbbbb bbbbb a aaa ■ aaa a bbbbb bbbbb a 

333 BBBBB BBBBB 333 333 BBBBB BBBBB 333 

aa aa bbbbb bbbbb 33 - aaa bb bbbbb bbbbb aa 

BE 3.:B^BBB:3ZZ3.BSB;B 3 EBB: 3 B BBB E 3 HI I 3 E 

czsEB hiii zaiazisiii aaa. bbb: bbb b : 3 3 . ■ bbb 333 

lZ_EB_BBBBBZZZZZSZ^ZZZIBBBBZ3aZZZ3E_BBBBBZZ E :_■■■■■- 33 



1 



Fig. 435. 
a, H , Sinkers ; a , ■ Raisers. 



Fig. 435. Repeat: 30 warp-threads, 30 picks. Point draw requires 16-harness. Draw 
harness 1 up to and including 16 from front to rear, then follow by drawing harness 15 to and 
including 2 from rear to front. 




fc§<^a>o~ 



Derivative Weaves from Satins. 



DOUBLE SATINS. 



These weaves are designed for woolen goods in which we desire to increase the strength and 
yet retain the satin face and finish. They are derived from the regular satins by adding' one 
more intersection of each warp and filling thread in one repeat, either to the right or left, above 
or below, or in a short regular distance from the original point. 



naGBBGGGBB 
CBBGGQBBnQ 



LHB 



nQHBQC 
1BBQCGI 



■■: 

iaaa 



Fig. 436. 
■ and a for Raisers. 



GGBBGGGGaaBBGGGa 
nmjnanMQQoaaDB 

GGGiGBBaaGGaaBBGO 
GBBaGGGGGBBGCGGa 
GGGGGGBBQaaaaaBB 

GGGBBGaaaaaBBaaa 
„BBGaaGaaBBaaaaaa 
saGaaaBBQGGaaGBBa 
DGBBanaanaBBDODD 
BaaaGaaBBaaaaaaB 

GG DGHBGGGaaCBBGa 

1 mm ::; gjgbb ig , ,g 
Daaaaa«BaaaQGGBB 
, a iGBBGQaacGBBaac 
iBBaaaaaaBBaaaaaa 
1 a 

Fig. 437. 
and b for Raisers. 



aDBanBaGGGBncBDG 

DGBGaCGBG DBD DODB 

□□□QBaaBaoonBaaB 

DBaDBDDDDBnDBDaC 

DBDnaDBaDBDnDDBa 

DDDBnaBnaajBaaBa 
BaoBanaDBaaBaDDa 
BaaaGBDDBananBDa 

8aGBQQBaGGGBGGBGG 

DGBaaaaBaaBaaaaB 

DDaDBDQBa DDDBaDB 

omjzm :z BGGHGGG 
DBGDnaBnnBGGGGBG 
D_._B. -O ,_BGGBD 

1: a. jG_B:"_i..j.ja 
1HGGDDBGGBGGGGBGG 
1 8 

Fig. 438. 
o and ■ for Raisers. 



Fig. 436 illustrates the 5 -harness (filling face) double satin. The common 5-harness satin 
we find clearly indicated by ■. One point added (b) to the right has given the double 
satin. An examination of the same will show us a proportionally large float of the filling, thus 
leaving all the advantages of the satin for the face of the fabric. The warp we find changed in 
the new design from x — 



- 4 to - — i — - — 2» or twice as many intersections in the short repeat of 5 
threads, giving the fabric for which this weave is to be used proportionally more strength. 

Fig. 437, representing the 8-harness (filling for face) double satin, is designed upon the same 
principle as that of Fig. 436 ; having a larger repeat it will better demonstrate the purpose than 
the former. 

Fig. 438 illustrates the double satin (filling for face) produced in connection with the 8-harness 
satin, filling face. This time the adding point is found above the one for the regular satin, so the 
filling receives one more point of interlacing in each repeat ; hence more strength in the fabric, 
filling ways. 



DGGBCBnaaaaBaBDn 
BGBaaacDBDBDDaGn 
QaaaaBCBancaoBGB 

DGBGB jli'JGGBGBGGG 

■ B b :b 

nnaaBQBQaaDGBaBa 
DBGBDonaDBDBDnaa 
BGGGijB b jgbd 
8DDDBlMG . LG JBOBQD 
BGBGC ■ ■ 

QQQQGBljsOGCCDBDB 

anBasaaGaaBDBDaa 
dbg:. ::. b bgggggb 
□aaaBaBoaaaaBGBa 
DBDBQDDaaBnBaGaa 
laaaaccBaBaaaaDBa 

Fig. 439. 

■ and n for Raisers. 



II llll II III!.] 

■ ■■■ ■■ »lli ■■ 1 

BGBBGBBBB jBBGBBB 
BGBBBBGBBGBBBBGB 

■■■ ■■ oaaa aa ■ 

■■ III! ■• III! 

fiBBBBlBBCBBBB' BB 

■a aa aaaa aa aa 
aa aaaa aa aaaa i 
aaaa aa aaaa aa i 

■ aa aaaa aa aaa 
a aaaa aa aaaa a 
aaa aa aaaa aa a 
1 aa aaaa aa aaaa 

1 BBBB BB BBBB BB 
1 8 



J an 



Fig. 440. 
d ■ for Sinkers ; b for Raisers. 



Fig. 439 shows another and a different arrangement of the 8-harness double satin (filling 
face), having its added point in an oblique position to the original intersection of the regular satin ; 
consequently increasing the point of interlacing equally for warp and filling. 

Fig. 440 shows the regular 8-harness satin warp for face, arranged for double satin, and in 
its construction will correspond to Fig. 438. Both of the last mentioned designs also demon- 
strate the arrangement of the 8-leaf satin warp for face, after the principle observed either in 
Fig. 437 or 439. 

(84) 



85 

Granite- Weaves. 

Under this system of weaves we classify small broken-up effects, which are derived from the 
foundation weaves in various ways. 

Amongst the effects most frequently used, we find those that are derived from the satin- 
weaves. In this manner Figs. 441 to 469 are designed. 

sdbgbgbbg 

ttjcbgbbg tggbggbb nacic ■GB»ja«~i 

■dcqbob ■■ ■annul bggbgbgb 

CBBGGGB uGBBJDDB GBBGGBB ■..■ "■/-J 

CBGBBGG GBGGBBG ■■□■■GG GBBGGBGB 

IZGBGBB B~. ' ZB X1BBDBB GGBGBGBB 

BBGG-.-. CBBGGBG BBGGBBG GBOBBODB 

1BGBBGGG 1BGGBBGG 1BGBBGGB 1HBGGBGBG 

17 1 i 17 i a 

Fig. 441. Fig. 442. Fig. 443. Fig. 444. 

Figs. 441 to 443 are granite-weaves derived from the /-harness satin. The latter is shown 
in each design by ■. 

Designs Figs. 444 to 447 are derived from the 8-harness satin. The first two weaves are 
obtained by adding three additional points of interlacing to each original satin spot (■). 

8GGBBGBBG SZ~ZflBSBB 8BGBGBBBG 

BGBBGGGB ■■ ■■ GBHGBGB 

BGZGBBGS BBZZ«SBB ■ a ■ ■ j 

CBBCBBGZ ZZBBtJlBG GBGBHBGB 

GBBGGGBB BBBBGGGB BBBZBGBG 

ZZBBZBB BGClBBBB QBGBGBBB 

BBGSBGGG ■■ BO ■ ■ ■ ■ 

1SBGGGBBG 1BBBGGGBB 1BB-BGBGB 

18 la la 

Fig. 445. Fig. 446. Fig. 447 

The last two weaves are obtained by adding four additional points of interlacing to the 
original one. The original 8-harness satin is shown in each design by ■. 

Weaves Figs. 448, 449 and 450 are designs of granites having for their foundation the 12 
harness satin. The latter is again indicated by a different type (a) from that of its addition foi 
producing the granite-weave required. 

12GGOBBGGBGGBB 12QGBBBGGBBGBB l=GBB7uBBBGBGB 

a a eb ■ ■■ ■■■ ■■ '■ ■:■■ : 

BBGGGBBGGBGG ■■ ■■■ ' B r.BZBB ■■ ■ 

BBuDBQaBBODD II B BB B OZBB i ■ ■ BB 

G ! JBBZZZBBGGB BGBB ■■■ :ZS CB_ ■ BB ■■ 

BB BB BBB B BB BB BB B B 

CBGGBBGGGBBG B BB BBB ■ ' ■ B BB B 

BGGGBBGGBGGB B BBB B fl III BB B 

B BB B B B BB BB BB ' B B BB 

GBBGGGBBGGBG GBB III ■ ■ a BB BB 

GBB ' IBBl 1 BBB B BB / BZ BB B B B 

1H_._BBGGGBBGG InBZBB BJBB-D »BGB_B_BB_GBB 

1 12 1 12 1 12 

Fig. 448. Fig. 449. Fig. 450. 

Weaves Figs. 451 and 452 are derived from the 15-harness satin, which is similar to the 
preceding ones indicated by a. 

Weaves Figs. 453, 454 and 455 are granites, constructed in their foundation out of the com- 
mon 1 8-harness satin-weave. 

18 BBB 'BB J BBB 1 

BBB BBB BB i 

BB 'BB BBB ■ 

UGB~7BG7BBBGGgBGQ '•"> B BB BBB 1BGB BB BBB E 

BBB -BBB BB HlJ B fl BJ BB ■■■ 

■ « B B ■■ BB B B B BB B BBB BB 
B B B BBB B B B BB BBB BBB BBI 
B'B BBB B B BB BBB B B i B BB BBI 

BBB BBB B BBB B B B B B BBB Bl 

a a b bbb a a a a 11 aa a ■■> 

B B BBB ' B B a BB BBB B BBB BB 

B BBB B B B BB BBB B B BBB BBB 

BBB BBB BBB B B B BB BB BBB 

ib b a bbb ] a a a ■■ bbb bbb ii bbb 

B B BBB 'B : B B BB BBB B ] BBB BBB BB 

B .BBB B B BB BBB B B B BBB BB BBB 

■ ■ B BBB BBB BBB BB. ) BBB BBB BB 
B B BBB l; IB B B BB BBB J ■■ BBB BBB ! 

\t i re 1 is 

Fig. 451. Fig. 452. Fig. 453. 



1 



1 



Fig. 453 is produced by adding eight additional points of interlacing to the original spot. 
Figs. 454 and 455 are obtained by adding (regular) seven additional points of interlacing to 
the original spot (indicated by n). 

Another method for producing granite-weaves is that of using the common satin- weaves for 



86 

the foundation, but so arranging the latter in their construction as to have every even-numbered 
wai p- thread in the main design (motive) missed, or not taken into consideration at all. Thus the 
5-harness satin will call for 10 warp-threads; 'the 7-harness to be arranged, in the manner above 



ISQGGBBG 


cmmrrrrmmama 


•■BB 


ncGfBBGGF »:a 


■O it IB 


. BBBB. '. B 


BBGGGC 


■■ f a c... ■■ 


■ ■ 


■■■7 ■■ m 


■ ■ 


■ 2 ■ BBBB 1 


BBB 


■ 


... BBI ' : _BBI.,PD 


ci ! m 




111! .MB 


m 


■ 


■ ■ 277BBB 




■ ■ 


BB BB ' ■ 


■■ 




■' ,'■' ■■■■ J J 


1MB 




■1 ■■ GiHBGQGD 


c a 




BIHI BBI 


c... 


KB 


■ ■■■■ 


GGGB 


■a 


B.G_i. ■■27* BG 


■■7.C 


■ 


GGGCBBBBGaaa 


■■a 




■ B r.rBGGGGB 


IBBGG 




■flBfluGGGBBGG 



isaaBBBaGffiaaaHaGBBBG 
BaaBBBaaaBBBQGBaaa 
BaanaaaBaaBBBaaGBB 

BBaaQBBBDDBaaaBGGB 

GQaBaQBHBaGQBBBG 

GBBBaGBQaGBaaBBBGa 

GGBBBaaaBBBaaBnanB 

GGH Is 111 7DBBB 

■77 ■■■acHaaaBGLBB 

77B BBBQQGBBHGCHG 
BBBGGBGGI ■ , BBB 
GBBBGGGBBBi ' f1< . U 

■ nn stmm 1 

GGGBBBG2" ■ >■■ 
CBGGBBBG. 7BBB72WGG 

■ B 1' 7 , ■ . ■■■GGGB 

■ BB BBB 2U . 7BG2 
IBnnaBGDBBBaDDBBBGC 

1 18 



Fig. 454. 



Fig. 455. 



described, for 14-harness, etc., etc. To give a clearer understanding of the method ol procedure, 
Figs. 456 to 465 have been designed. 

Fig. 456 represents the common 5-harness satin designed on every uneven-numbered (1, 3,. 
5» 7> 9) warp-thread. 



5GGaaHaaaaa 

DnrjDQDGDHD 

QGBaaaaaGG 

GGGGaaBaaa 

iBGGaaGaaaa 

1 10 

Fig. 456. 



B77BR77 


b m 


■GBB7- 


■ i 


GB^GGB 1 


.■I 1 


BB Hi 


i ■ B 


fl ■■ 


r "■ 


■'BGGB 7_ 


B7B 


B BM7. 


■ i J 


GBSOGBGBI 


BBGQM 


- fl 


1BGGBGBI 


IGujB 



GGBGHBQBBn 


GBBGaaBr ■■ 


■ 


BOBBGGG 


BGGGB. 


■BC 


BB : BG 


_B 


' B Bfl 


Gflfl 


a ■ 


BGI 


■: CB 7G 


B77 


■ ■ B 


1BB7 


■BGG^BQ 


1 


10 



Fig. 457- 



Fig. 458. 



GGGGEHGGBSi 
G2BBGGQGBB 
DCBBQDBBGG 
■■DDDDBBDD 
BB7 ■■ _ 

^211 BB 

GGBBG ~:~: ■■ 
G2BB27B7GG 

■B7 : : ■■7a 

iBBCwBSGGGG 
1 IP 

Fig. 459. 



Figs. 457, 458 and 459 illustrate granite-weaves obtained from the latter foundation weave 
by means of adding four additional points of interlacing (selected differently in each design) to 
the original spot of the 5-harness satin. 

Granite-weaves Figs. 460, 461 and 462 are obtained, by means similar to the preceding 
cases, from the 7-harness satin. Their repeat is: 14 harness and 7 picks. 



7CGBGG08BDC1MOB 
DGBBGB L B2GGBB 
BCGL '* BBGBDD 
BBGB. E B" 3GBBDG 
L B BB B B I 

a - m • • mm aa 

MBOGBBaBGCBGaa 
1 14 

Fig. 460. 



7GGBBGGHGBGGBB 
GBGGBBGGBBGGBB 
BBGOBBGBGGBBGG 
GGBBGGBBGGBBGB 
B B BB BB 
BBGGBBGGBBGBGG 

1SBGBGGBBGGBBGG 

1 14 



Fig. 461. 



7DBDBBGI B B _ 2 

BGGBaaaBGBBQBG 
DBBDBDBDGBGCGB 
GBQaaBGBBGBl BG 
BGBGBQGBGG7B2B 

GGGBaBBaBaBaaB 

1BGBQQBGGGBUBBG 

1 14 

Fig. 462. 



Designs Figs. 463, 464 and 465 are designed out of the 8-harness satin, and their repeat is 
16 warp-threads and 8 picks. In designs Figs. 457 to 465 the original weave for the foundation 
(or the 5-, 7- or 8-harness satin) is shown by ■. 

In the same manner that we construct granite-weaves out of the 5-, 7- and 8-harness 
satin, we can also construct granite-weaves out of satin-weaves having a higher number of 
harness for their repeat. 



n BGaB"HGnnrBOI 



21 
□■□»r 

B ' r ■ 

BBB I 

I BB B 
1BGGBGI 



17 HG 

■ BB 
BB 



IGBGBBGBG 
16 



*GIGUBGBGG9GBGGB 
n >1 B I I III 

B S ■ BBB M 
GBBB7.B , < B s ■ ■ 

■' , M 'I BLBGBBBGB 

[.II BBB' I II 

BBi ■ ■ ; BGBGB 

'■GB27B7BGBBBGBGG 

1 lis 



saQBaBBaaadBBQBaa 

JBBGBGCaGBQBB 

m m ■■ b 

BGBBGCGCBBGBGGGG 
■ ■ I 117] 

7 GCBDMDDQQBBDB 

BBQGCGBBGBGGCGBa 

IHBGBQGQDBQBBCGGa 

1 16 



Fig. 463. 



Fig. 464. 



Fig. 465. 



By using in this manner the 9-harness satin we will get 1 8-harness for the granite-weave 
and if we use the 10-harness satin-weave we will get 20-harness .'or repeat of its corresponding 
granite-weave, thus always requiring twice as many harnesses in repeat for the granite-weave as. 
for the foundation satin-weave. 



87 

The next step in designing granite-weaves is the use of any satin-weave for foundation on each 
third successive warp-thread, which will equal: "Take one warp-thread, miss two," in the founda- 
tion satin-weave for the new design. 

To give a more perfect illustration of this method of procedure Figs. 466 and 467 have been 
constructed. 

Fig. 466 illustrates the 5-harness satin-weave to be applied for the foundation of a granite under 
the previously explained principle of "take one, miss two," thus calling for warp-threads 1, 4, 7, 
IO, 13 in constructing the satin for foundation. 

z»bbz~bbb-bh~zzbbb:— bbb-bb~~ 
bbb ob bbb bbb bb bbb : 



B_ BBB HBZZZHflBZZZBBB BB BB 

azan bbb: aaa bb hbbzzzbb 

saozcanDDnBonnan >:■■■ BB-iiraB . bbb : bbbzbbzz 

oznszzzzzaDzoan ■■ *■ zbbb ztbbbzbhzzzbbbz: 

DaaanDanDDDnBDn b bbb bb :bb:z: bod bbb « 

oaDQaaezzzzzzzz mc:s bb bbzzzbbbzzzbbbzhbzzzbb 

1BZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ iBDBBZZZBBBZZZBBBZBBZZZBBBZZZBB 

1 15 1 Id 3U 

Fig. 466. Fig. 467. 

Weave Fig. 467 represents a granite-weave as derivea from the foundation, Fig. 466. The 
original satin spots are shown in both designs by the same character of type, thus giving a clearer 
and more perfect illustration of the method of procedure. Any granite-weave, constructed in 
accordance with the present example out of a satin-weave, will always require three times the 
number of harness for its repeat that the satin calls for. Thus, the 5-harness satin requires 
1 5-harness in granite-weave; the 7-harness satin requires 21 -harness in granite-weave; the 
8-harness satin requires 24-harness in granite-weave, etc., etc. 

This will readily explain that when using a high number of repeat in satin for foundation, a 
corresponding increase in the granite-weave will occur. For example, take the 12-harness satin 
which equals 36-harness in granite, a repeat too large for the number of harness operated in the 
loom. To prevent difficulties arising in this manner, we can readily substitute the missings of 
certain warp-threads for the filling, using warp-ways each thread in rotation as in the case of the 
example in the filling. 

The peculiar characteristics of the face of a fabric interlaced on a granite-weave, "small 
broken-up effects," will readily admit this change. The present rule, "take one, skip two," in 
producing the foundation satin can also be extended to "take one, skip three," or "take one, 
skip four." 



i' 1 

ocGanDaowa 
: xi, . i 

ZZOD 
1BDDDDDDDCU 



aaaza" bb bb a : 

BB B BB BB 
CBB BB B BB 

B fl BB BB B B 

BB B BB BB 
BB BB B BB 


BB 
B BB 
BB B 
B B 
B BB 
BB B 


I B BB BB B BB 


BB 


BB B BB BB B 


aa 


B BB B BB B 


BBB 


B BB BB B BB 
■■ B BB BB B 


BB 
BB 


BB BB BB 


B BB 


BB BB B BB 
B BB BB B B 
BB B BB BB 


BB B 
fl ; ■ 
B BB 


'. B BB BB B BB 
1 BB BB BB B 


III 

BB 


B BB B BB B 
BB BB B BB 
10 


BBB 

aa 1 



Fig. 468. Fig. 469. 

Another method of designing granite-weaves having a satin-weave for foundation, is that of 
using the latter in the former, as follows: "Take one thread, miss one" (or two, or three, etc.) in 
the direction of the warp and the filling, thus increasing correspondingly the repeat of the warp- 
threads and picks. To illustrate the present method Figs. 468 and 469 have been designed. 

Weave Fig. 468 illustrates the 5-harness satin arranged in its repeat upon every alternate 
warp-thread and pick. Repeat: 10 threads each system. 

Weave Fig. 469 illustrates the arrangement of above-mentioned satin-weave changed to a 
granite-weave. 



88 

The character of type used in weave Fig. 469, for indicating one repeat of the satin-weave, is 
shown to correspond with that used in Fig. 468. 

It will be seen readily that it is possible to construct an endless variety of granite-weaves in 
this manner, therefore we only give these few examples to indicate the elementary principles of 
their construction. 



Other Methods of Constructing Granite-Weaves. 

Granite-weaves may be produced also by various other methods. Among those most 
advantageously used are those produced by using a suitable effect arranged in the shape of a 
broken twill. 

For example, we have designed weave Fig. 470, which will readily explain the method of 
procedure, as well as indicate how to proceed in constructing similar effects. A further method 
of designing granite-weaves is the using of a certain number of warp-threads and picks on a warp 
effect and exchanging alternately for the same size and figure, filling effect. 



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bghsg hh aa B 

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BBB HH HI IB 1 
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A B 



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•oaaajio a aaa. a 

GGBBGJL IBBUGHBQQBB 
, DDDBnBBBnDDaDBHB 
IDDDDBBBHDDDDI ~ " 

14 8 

C D 



Fig. 470. 



Fig. 471. 



For example, in constructing by this method a granite-weave for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks, 
divide the 8 threads each system contains, thereby getting 4 squares of 4 by 4 threads dimension. 
Next put the effect desired into one of these squares. Into each square connecting with one 
side insert the same effect, exchanging from the breaking-offline, raisers for sinkers and vice versa. 

The fourth square, left unoccupied thus far, will readily appear as the connecting link for 
producing the entire weave. 

Figs. 471, 472 and 473 are constructed in this manner. Fig. 471, repeat: 8 warp-threads 
and 8 picks. 

Effect A for the first square of 4 x 4 threads, is shown by b. 

B represents the square connecting with A on one side, situated on the right hand side. It 
contains the same effect shown in A reversed, raisers exchanged for sinkers. 

C represents the other square connecting with A. It also contains the effect shown in square 
A reversed, raisers exchanged for sinkers. 



BBBBGGGGBBBBGGQa 

GGGGBBBBGaGG 

a ; bbb a 
aa 1 urn : .aa . i 

Gl IBBGGBHUUBB 
T.BBB II S IIO 



BBB 
■ ■ j._ 
DGHE 

i a 
. I 

1GUGGB 



anana. a aa a :■ ' i 
g j 1 ia aaa 1 « ia bbb 

a' 1 ' BBB' a. , BBB J 

H^aaii iB.jHQ-j_ij 
gb.i; iaa ia a 1 ;bbgb 
i bbbi ' 1. a aaa n gb 

BBB a , : BBB, iH._ /. 1 
ILUBJHGBH-jljBJHGBH 
1 8 



Fig. 472. 



Fig. 473. 



GGBGBGBB 
GBGGBBGB 
B BB i. a j 
BB B :H_ 

4| .JJBGBGBB 
GEGGBBQB 

a aa a , 

iBBGBQHQa 

1 8 

Fig. 474. 



Weave in squares B and C is shown by a so as to distinguish it better from A and D\ also 
to indicate more plainly the method of procedure to be observed in the construction of different 
weaves. 

Square D forms the corresponding connection in the design. ■ is used in this square for 
warp up, similar to square A. 

Weaves Figs. 472 and 473 are constructed with different effects, but in their method of 
construction correspond with weave Fig. 471. Repeat in Figs. 472, 473 and 474: 8 harness 
and 8 picks. 



89 



-• ■"■■~~BZZZI 
CI 



jBQBBBG 



IIGIIIDDCK 

■ m _bbm 



OG 



Weave Fig. 474 contains the same method of construction as the foregoing three examples, 
the only difference being that the shape of the square is changed this time to a rectangle 
produced by 2 picks and 4 warp-threads. Repeat of weave : 8 warp-threads and 4 picks. 

Weave Fig. 475 illustrates a granite-weave similar to those already 
explained. Repeat: 20 warp-threads and 20 picks. Four changes in each 
system; thus 4x4= 16 squares (each separated by a break) in complete 
weave. 

As mentioned at the beginning, by granite- weaves we mean those 
weaves which form, when applied for interlacing a fabric (worsted or woolen 
goods), small broken-up effects upon its face. As this indicates to a certain 
extent a regularly distributed arrangement of interlacing, warp and filling, 
it will be seen readily that we can also construct and classify under this 
system of granite-weaves, designs having no real foundation of structure, but in which the method 
of interlacing will produce the small broken-up effect upon the face of the fabric. 

Weaves Figs. 476 to 486 illustrate a few specimen designs constructed in this manner. 



] X 

1 



■ _■■_. LBZZG 

a dob ■■ 

BBBZBGZZBZ 

■ :■_■■■"_] 

■ bb bzzg 



maa 
uilii 



is ■ z: :bg 

t B >BB 

BlZBZBBZZBGZO 

BCBDGGBBBDBB 

1U 14 2J 



III II 



Fro. 475. 



Repeat : 



Repeat : 



1?BBZBBZBZ~3ZG 

in :: hbgjgb 

aZBZZEl BBZBB 
□ ■ .IB BB 
BIB I BB 

□bbzbb ^zk i 
i , j:bj..ii:«d 
hi a sea 

DIKIKjCDH 
Rfl II HZ I 



1" 



SB EB 



Fig. 476. 

f 12 warp-threads, 
I 12 picks. 



■1 1 



:il~riT^I_ . 

■BGGGBGQBBBa 

L W S'J *SB 

I HI II 

I II III 

CBZCBBBZBBZZ 
■B IBB B 

z:bbb_ *b u 
oa 111 ■_: 

BB9 DB B 

in ■ in 

101: ■ ■■ 

1 12 

Fig. 479. 



f 12 warp-threads, 
( 12 picks. 



Ol BB — iDIIDIID 
Bl II II II 

■ II II II ■ 

B BB ,11 ■■ I 

Lll II ■■ II 

H9 II II BB 

■a aa ■■ ia 
■■■■_—.. 

Fig. 482. 

Repeat: / f warp-threads, 

I 8 picks. 



Repeat : 



Repeat : 



isqgbgbbggbgbb 


lj:iii:j:hi 


B BB B " .BB 1 


aa a aa m 


BBBZZZBBBZZ 


BBZBZZBBZB ZZ 


□ZBZBBZ_BZBB 


C_ZBBB_ EBB 


B BB B BB . 


zbb: b bb b 


bbbzzzbbbzgzi 


'■■DBDDBBGBDD 


1 12 


Fig. 477. 


f 12 warp-threads, 


1 12 picks. 


11BBGBGBGBGBG 


■a bb a a 


b a ■ a a a 


B a BO ■ B 


DBGBuB * BB 


II II B B B 


B B I B KB 


■ ■iiii:. 


L I B B Bl I 


LIB. B B K B 


1BGBGBGBBZBZJ 


1 11 


Fig. 4S0. 


f 1 1 warp-threads, 


I 1 1 picks. 


8GGMGBGB 


a bb a 


111 ■ 


I I IB 


BGBGBBGZ 


1 a a bb 


BB IB 


IBB BB 



Repeat : 



Fig. 483. 
f 8 warp threads, 



I 8 picks. 



iscaaroBDi— 

BGGGBBGQBBBG 

11 in : ■:: 

bbb bb izbzjgg 

BB B BBB 

b inn 

LBBBBBGC b 

BBB B BB 

9 BB EBB 

GGBGZZBBBTBB 

BBB KB B 
BOBBB H 

1 12 

Fig. 47S. 



-p, f 12 warp-threads, 

Repeat : < r 

(. 12 picks. 



IB HOI 1 

BB L BB BB 

BBGBBGGOBB 

BZBBBBGGZB 

I BBBB ill J 

BB BBBB 

BB BBBB 

BBBB ' BB , 

III! BB 

'1 BB BBBB 

10 



Fig. 4S1. 

Repeat: .(^ warp-threads, 
I 10 picks. 



I B I 



Cil B BB 
<B B BB 
1 

Fig. 484. 



Repeat: J f warp-threads, 

I 8 picks. 



Fig. 485. 



Reneat ■ / 8 war P"threads 
Kepeat . { g i)icks _ 



■» ":. 

BBB B 
BBB B 
BB B B 

B B BB 

IB BBB 
1 

Fig. 486. 



Reoeaf/ 8 Warp " threadi 
Kcpeat . ^ g p j cks 



Combination of Different Systems of Weaves for one Design, 

As indicated, designs or weaves classified under this head are produced by combining two,, 
three or more weaves from those explained in any of the preceding systems, or divisions 
of it; also any new weaves similarly constructed by any of. the rules given or examples illustrated. 
Thus it may readily be seen that a great number of such combined weaves can be constructed,, 
but practice will teach us to be careful in selecting the weaves for combination, so as to have them 
harmonize in their method of interlacing and to secure perfect work upon the loom, as well as 
the proper finish of the fabric after it has gone through the finishing process. This point must 
especially be taken into consideration in the manufacture of woolen fabrics, as these generally 
require fulling; therefore places more irregularly interlaced in one part of the design than in other 
parts will have a tendency 4x> shrink irregularly in the fulling process. In the manufacture of 
fabrics requiring no finishing at all, or requiring but very little (such as shearing, calendering or 
pressing, etc.), this trouble will be of less consequence than in the case of fabrics requiring a finish. 

Therefore the rule for designing weaves for worsted and woolen fabrics under the present 
system, is as follows: Only combinations of weaves are allowed in which the fabric shrinks regu- 
larly at the loom and during the fulling and scouring process. 

We will introduce a few designs containing the principles of the various combinations 
and thus explam the whole system. 

For example, it may be desire to produce a stripe effect upon a ground interlaced with 
the plain weave, and in addition the stripe be required to stand out more prominently than the 
ground. In this manner design Fig. 487 is constructed. 

! XI Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 4 picks. 

DKtt^oMiicwDBciBDHQMBr-B 8 warp-threads (i — 8) marked I interlace in the regular plain weave. 



■ ■ ■ ijiijiin ■_■■■:■■ 

TMCKJHUHGHBr - 

jdbzbjjbzbbbzj 

4 ■_■_■_:■«■■■ ■ ■ bbb ■ 
bibcbzbcb.jbbi — 

Bin Ban 
i g 12 



B*B B B iS B B MB"B K B B B a, ii"BSiB B 4 warp-threads (9 — 12) marked 11 interlace in the regular 4-harness 

" B SBSB B o ... 

■jB^KBJ j tWlil. 

a 



12 warp-threads repeat. 

Suppose, again, we would use in our present example one kind of yarn (same size, quality,, 
color). A careful examination of the subject by the novice will convince him that the 8 warp- 
threads working with the plain weave must intersect twice as often with the filling as the 4 

threads working with the twill. Practice will readily demonstrate that the 8 warp-threads 

interlacing on plain, will become tighter (take up more) than the 4 warp-threads interlaced in 
twill. The entire warp being a continuous repetition of the 12 warp-threads until taken up, will 
thus have the arrangement of 8 warp-threads interlaced with the plain weave and 4 warp- 
threads interlaced with the r twill taken alternately and repeated over its entire width. This 

in turn will produce a tighter texture in the plain woven part as compared with the twill part. 

A perfect fabric requires an even texture all over its surface, which is not guaranteed in the 
present example because of the vast difference in the result of interlacing of the plain weave 
and the twill weave in the same fabric. 

We will next consider methods to be employed for producing an even texture (or as nearly 
even as possible). Either we must use a heavier size of yarn for those warp-threads which interlace 

on the j- 4-harness twill as compared with the warp-threads woven on plain ; or we must 

use a higher texture (more ends per inch) for the twill part than for the part interlacing 
with the plain weave. 

If we should select the first mentioned point for evening the texture in the present example,, 
we increase the bulk of the fabric, which may be objectionable, whereas if we employ the second 
point this will be to a great extent avoided. This will better explain itself by means of the 

(90) 



91 



following rule as to sizes of threads compared with their diameter : " the weights of threads do 
not change in proportion to their diameters, but vary in the same ratio as the squares of their 
diameters." This will readily demonstrate the second given point as the proper one to be used 
in the present example for producing the required even, or as nearly even as possible, texture. 

In weave Fig. 488 we illustrate the combination of 9 warp-threads interlaced with the 
5 -harness satin, and 10 warp-threads interlaced on a fancy twill; both weaves combined forming 
corresponding stripes in the fabric. On examination the amount of intersections in each weave 
will clearly appear to the student to be even, thus no great trouble can result in combining 
these two weaves into one. It also explains the method of procedure in combining similar 
weaves for the same purpose. 

I II III iv v 

. . < . □aaBBBaaaBBBGBBDGBaaaBGCBBGBZBGBGGZBBO 

^T •■' Z. BBB BBB , BBB BB B B B B BB _BB 

GBBBB^BBBGGGGBBGGGB : BBB : BBB . ' BB .BBB BB ■ .: B B BBB B 

■I III! ■: I ■■ BBB BBB ■ BB BBB BB BBB BBB 

BBBBGBBBBGBBGGGGBBG BB B BBB B BB BBB BB B B BBB 

B ■»■■ BB BB B B BB BBJ B B BB BBB B B BBB 

BBBGBBBBGBGCGBBGGGG BBB BBB BB B D BB B B B BBB 

■ III BBB 111 B ■■■ ■■■ IIB BB B B B B BB BB 

BB_BBBB~B_ B II i BBB BBB IBB BBB BB B B B BBB . J ■ 

■ BBB. IIH III BBG BBB BBB B BB BBB BB B I I III I 

I ■■■■ ■■ II ■ J BBGGGBGGGBBBGGGBGGBBGBBB BB B B BBB 

■BBGBBBBGBGGGBBGQGg lBGGGBHGGGBBBGGBaaGBGGBBGBBBGBGBGG_BBBG 

9 10 1 13 27 31 38 

Fig. 488. Fig, 489. 



Weave Fig. 489 represents a perfect combination of five different weaves produced with a 

repeat of 38 warp-threads and 6 picks. Warp-threads 1 to 6 are interlaced with the regular — ? 

twill. Direction of twill from the left to the right. Warp-threads 7 to 12 are interlaced with the 

common 6-harness 3 basket-weave. Warp-threads 13 to 27 have for their weave the skip 

twill derived from the regular 6-harness twill by means of "take three threads successively 

and skip two." Warp-threads 28 to 31 are interlaced with the common rib-weave warp for 

face. Warp-threads 32 to 38 are interlaced with the filling by means of the 3 6-harness twill. 

Direction of twill from the right to the left. 

Weave Fig. 490 illustrates another perfect combination of two weaves from two different 

— 7, used for 



divisions of weaves. In the same the combination of the regular 8-harness twill — 

six successive warp-threads, and the 16 harness corkscrew, used for 18 successive warp-threads, 

is shown. 



11 



, * , — 

-B" " JGBBG 
BBG' ■ 

■ ■■ ■ 

■ ■■a a 


BGBGBGBBGBGBGBBG 

a b aa a a aa a 

BGBBGB I It IIJ 

BB BIB BBGBGBGBQ 


aaaa aa 

DGBBBBGB 

BBB a 


-■ JB-BB ~B 
B BB BIB 
BB I 


. B JB . BB 
B BB B 
BB I 


1 t> 




24 



I 


II 


8GEEEGGB 
E Efl 


BGBGBGHGBDBGBGHGBGa 
B B BB B B B BB B B B 


Hl_ SB . 








IE ,3_B 

1 5 


Ld 



Dll 

■BG 

BG r 
G^B 


■BGUB 
■ HI 

■ BB 

1 BBB 
B BB 

■ ■ 


BB I B 
IB BB 
IB 11 BBJ 

BB B 


B 
1 
1 

fl 










BBB 


BB I 


IB . BB 




B 


B BB 


BB fl 


B 


B 


B BB 


BB BB 


B 


BB 

B 


GBBGGI 
B BB 


■ II 

" BBB 


■ 


■BG 


aa ■ 


IBB BB 




1 


.- 




lij 



Fig. 490. 



Fig. 491. 



Fig. 492. 



Weave Fig. 491 illustrates the same corkscrew as used in weave Fig. 490 combined with a 
rib-weave, filling for face. Warp-threads I to 5 are required by the rib-weave and warp-threads 
6 to 28 are called for by the corkscrew. Repeat: 28 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

The next step for figuring in this system of weaves is by combining two weaves in the shape 
of alternate squares of any size desired. 

In the construction of these weaves we must be careful in the selection of the places for 
joining the two original weaves in the direction of the warp as well as the filling, so as to omit 
any unnecessarily long floating of either system of threads. 

Fig. 492 illustrates the combination of 

8 threads on 4-harness basket-weave and 
8 threads on the g— - — 5—^ 9-harness twill. 



16 threads repeat, warp and filling ways. 



92 

By carefully examining the combined weave we will find the twill and basket so selected' 
as to form a clear break between. 



32GBBGnBBCGBBnBCCBBGnBBGCBGrBBGDBB 
BI.TJBB BB B II BB ■■ IB III 

fl ■■ BB ■ IBB '.BB BB BBi ,'JBBGG 
I BB « II BB' BB BB i BB BB 1 CBGGB 
B i BB 5 BB I B i BB IBB' » BBI J' BB BBi J 
LI' BB' l IBBI 111 i BBi 1 BB I BB' BBGBGGB 
□BB' BB' BB BB ; BBDDBBDDBBnaBDDB 
BB .!' BB BB , BB. 'i BBI 'l BB '. B II B BB' I 
L BB BB BB " BBI BB IBB BB li'll 
LOBB . BB BB .OBDnBBaaBBDBDDBDGBB 
BB B9 . BBGi MBGGBB "inBBGGBDGBGBBn 
BB BB BB B ' BB BB. B BE BB ' I 
GOBB ' iBBG'.JBBGGBBGLDaBGGBBGBBGBGGB 
□GBB BB I' "BBGBBGGBBQGBBGBQGBGGBB 
BB I' BB BB :i BBI ! BB 1 il BB ,' B I' B ■■ I 
DBG BB ' BB B an SB ■ BB '■■'.» 
GL BB BB iBBGGBBGGBBGGBBGBBGBGGB 
GGBB BB II ■■ : II . II 8 BIJIDBB 
El BB II BB I BBI I BB il BB' II B II IB' IBBI] 

■ IGF IBB !'. .BBGGIGGlin Hi n'.l BIGIIGa 
L BB BB ' BB BBi BB 'I BBI B I 1 BGGBBI 
□BBGGBBGVBB ■ BB BB' i' B: l BBGGBB 
■■□□BBGCBB" 1 N BB BBC'TB BB BIGG 

■ BB : BB , B 'BB » IB BB'. '■■CO 
l II II J HI BB' . BB BB B , ■ ■ ■ 
GBBOGBBl BK ■ B9 II '■■Ml ■ BB ■■ 

■ ■Gl BB MB I' ■' BB II BB' ■ BBGBBl II J 
10 \ MB ' BB B II BB i BB BB » ■■ I I 
□□■■ . II II II II BB B ■GGBB 
DBBG ■■ " BB ■ 1GBBQGBB ■ BBGOBB 

■ ■GGBB ..i: ■■ : B BB. £■■ ■ BB. BB ' I 

iBiJGBH-L.niH_. n ■■_,! inna_HB_ ■■--■■. .1 



Fig. 493. 



4X12. 

Basket. 


4X i2- 
Twill. 


4X4- 
Basket. 


4X4. 
Twill. 


4 X 12. 
Twill. 


4X12. 
Basket. 


4X4. 
Twill. 


4X4. 
Basket. 


- 

12 X 12. 

4-harness 
Basket. 


12 X 12. 

4-harness 

Twill. 


12X4. 
Basket. 


12X4. 
Twill. 


12 X 12. 

4-harness 
Twill. 


12 X 12. 

4-harness 

Basket. 


12X4. 

Twill. 


12X4. 
Basket. 



Fig. 494. 



In weave Fig. 493 we illustrate four different combinations of two weaves in each 
direction of threads. 



The arrangement observed is clearly indicated in diagram Fig. 494. 



12DGBBGDMGGBB 
□BGBGGBBGGBB 
■ ■ BB BB I 

BBCGBBCCBBGC 
GGBBGCBB BH 
GBGBCGBBGGBB 
BGBGBBGGS9GG 
BBGGBBGGBBGG 
GGBBGGBBGGBB 
UBGBGBGBGBGB 
BGBGBGBGBGBG 
lBBGQBBGCBBQG 

Fig. 495. 



isBGBaBaaBBaaBBGn 

■GBGBB .' ■■□□■■□ 
□BGBGBBGGBBGGBB 
GBGB' 1 BH II BBGGB 
Bi ■ B 11 iBBI.JIJBBi I' . 
B B BB BB BB I 
GBGBGBBGGBBGGBB 
□BGBaGBBGaBBGGB 
BGBGBGGBBGQBBGa 
BGBGBBGGBBGGBBG 
□BDBGBBDI iBBGGBB 
BGBGBGGBBGGBBGG 
□BGBGBBGGBBGGBB 

■GBQBaaBBaaBBac 1 

1GBGBGBBGGBBGGBB 
1 15 



IGCGHGGHGGHBGGBfl 
■ mm II III 

■BGCBBGaBBOGBBBG 
BBGBBGGBBGGBBBGG 

a ■■ < ma ibb ■ 

□□■□GBBQDBBBGGBB 
■BGGBBGGBBB'"l'."BBa 
BB BB DGBBBGGBBGG 
□□■■□□■■BDGBBGGB 
□GB BBB j ■■ ji .IBB 
BBGGBBBGGBBGGBBG 
■X BBB BB BB 

1' BIB : BB I BB J' tl 

□'DBBG BH "iCBBGGBB 

■■□□■■GGBHGGBHGD 

1BBCGBBCCMGGHHCG 

1 16 



Fig. 496. 



Fig. 497. 



Another method of figuring in the present system of weaves is the checking off of a weave 
of a given size Cmostly square) with another weave, both weaves to harmonize in their methods. 



of interlacing. 



24COnBBBGGanMGGGBMOCCMB 

□□□bbdddbbbgdgbbbggdbbgb 

CGI ■ BBB " .' BBB il BB ■■ 

■ ■■BBB ' BBB. I BB'. II I 

■ BBGGBBBGGUBBBG'.-.! ■■' BB 1 
■BBGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBGBBGGD 

□□□BBBcaaBBBaaaBBDBBGaaB 

□GGBBIDDGBBB: XI' ■■□■■□□GHB 

naaBaaDBBBnGiDBBfDBBanaBBB] 

BBB : . "BBB .' I ■■ II IIIJ 

BBB I BBB.. i BB' BB .'J BBB □ 

■■■£■■ mm ■■ : ■■■□□a 

GGGBBBGaGBB 1 BBCC ■■■GDGB 
□GCBBIDM! BB IBB :l : BBB '" BB 
□□aBGQCBBGBB! Jl .i_BBBi HDGBBB 
BBBGGGBBGBBLIGIDBBBUGGBBBG 
BBBGGBBGBB .!" BBB ' . ■■■GO 

■ BB BB BB BBB .. ■■■ . '1 
QaaBBGBBGDGBBBDGGBBBGanB 
□□□■□BBDDQBBBDDDBBBnnnBB 
□GGBBBGGGBBBGGGBBBQGQBBB 
BBBGOGBBBaGi. BBB J .IBBBUIJU 
BH III BBB JGBBBDGO 

IBBBQaaBBBGGQBBBLjDJBBBDDg 
1 24 



32CaBBBaaaaGaaBGGBBGaaanCBBGGBEaGH 
■DDDBOUnHHODHHa IBBGGBBGI IBBG jBBGU 

■■□□BBBanBHDnaBGDaannBBnnaBDDBBa 

' ■■■ bb< " ibbc- aai .. .aau aa j aa t ;aa 
□□□■ 'DBaa' luaaci ;bb:x.bb aac .aacca 
■ '..BBB . :aa aa aa : aa ■ aa aa d 
BBBaaBaaaaaDDaaD:aa::_aa : aa bbd 
GQBGGBBa DBBG ,iaa iDaa 'aa Giaaacaa 
bbb i iaa ' .aa igbbggbbg aa.ijaaaaa 

■CGI.IBL aa JD3B. CHB 1 " IBB ' :BB' H ''BB' 1 ] 

■■nrilll ' iBB IBB . IBB> i BB :BB. '. BBG 
■■■■"■LIB iBB".. aa iBB BB BB BB 

■ bbb iaa aa aa bb.-'bb aa 

, aa ^aa/,! iaa jl.bb ig 

•: aa ., aa ;■ .ibbgcbbg 

■3B i BBC. iBBi 1GBB I'DBB 

iaa 



IGaBBBGGBBGGac 

BBBGaBGaL:aaGar 

IDBGGMB' II IBBGi 
aGBBBGGBBI 1GSB 
BGGCB T i'-iBB' i' iBB 
■ ■ i III i .IBB BB 

□■■■□□gbggbb:. ac 

□□□■□□□BB. .BB 
■□□■■■□□BBUI 
"~" IDDBDnDBB' 



'BBI !' IBBI 
BB 



a a 

iBB 

J.iBBi 



JBBI1DB 
D JBBGG 

i3 . aa i 
a a .aa 

jbb : a 

C.BBDG 

ia . aa i 
aa iaa 

dbb ica 



I 



iBB i 
.._ ...BB 
CI ■ " n BBB. '' iBB . BB i JBB' jl !BB' 

BGBBBGnBBn jbb .j . :aau.Daa;.] :ar 

■■□□BDDBBBDQBaGBBBDQBDDBI 

inGBBBaGBGGBBBLJjBnaBBBGl 
□■■■□□■□□■■■□□■□□■■■GGHGaBMCGHG 
■□□■□nBBBGlDBQGBBBGGBGGBBBGaBaQBB 
BGGBBBGGBGGBBBGGBGGBBBGGBGUBBB I I 
BBBQGBGGBBBGGBGGBBBGGBGGBBBGI. B li 
lCGBaQBBBUGBBajBBDCBBGGBBGGKGCBB 
1 3- 



Fig. 498. 



Fig. 499. 



Figs. 495, 496, 497, 498 and 499 are designed to illustrate a few of these combinations. 
Weave Fig. 495. Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. In this weave 8 threads, warp and 



interlaced on the 4-harness basket-weave, are checked off by the (gbgb\ 4-harness 

a 4- 1--\ *-£i *-*/-!<-« +i^\** ciir 1 n cxrc t~c± m 



fillin 

weave, 4 threads for each system. 



granite- 



93 

Fig. 496 represents 1 1 threads, warp and filling, interlaced with the s 4-harness twill and 

overchecked with a common rib-weave. In the place where warp and filling rib meet the inter- 
lacing is done in plain weave. Repeat : 1 5 warp-threads and 1 5 picks. 

Fig. 497 represents 14 warp-threads and 14 picks interlaced in twill and overchecked with 

2 threads of basket- weave. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

Fig. 498 represents 21 warp-threads and 21 picks interlaced in twill and overchecked with 

3 threads basket- weave. Repeat: 24 warp-threads and 24 picks. 

Fig. 499 illustrates 25 warp threads with an equal number of picks, interlaced on the r, 

4-harness twill and overchecked with 7 warp-threads and 7 picks of the granite-weave. Repeat: 
32 warp-threads and 32 picks. 

Figured Effects upon Fabrics interlaced with Derivative-weaves Produced by Arrange- 
ment of Two or More Colors in the Warp or the Filling, 
or in Both at the Same Time. 

Throughout previous lectures explanatory of the plain weave, the twills, the rib-weaves, the 
basket- weaves, and the broken-twill-weaves, the importance of the color arrangement in connection 
with the method of interlacing for producing the effect in a fabric, has been frequently dwelt upon. 
In the manufacture of fabrics known as fancy cassimeres, ladies' dress goods, etc., these are of 
special importance, for the reason that these fabrics are subject to constant changes, both in 
design and effect, by the demands of fashion. A great variety of new styles in such fabrics might 
be designed alone by the different ways of interlacing warp and filling, yet the different color 
arrangements in the warp and filling will always be of great assistance to the designer. 

Therefore, before proceeding with the course of lectures for constructing weaves for single- 
cloth fabrics of a special construction, and double cloth, etc., we will take up the subject of color 
effects in combination with plain weaves, fancy twill-weaves, granite-weaves, etc. Explanations 
accompanied by their respective illustrations of weaves, with resulting effects, will readily 
istset. 2ndset. enable the student to comprehend their principle of construction. 

Design Fig. 500 shows at A 16 warp-threads arranged in two sets. 



1 8 9 16 



"mzmzwru p '^ s i^i^- Each set is interlaced with the filling (same for both sets) on the plain 

: h'h h "n h h s-tiB weave, and the connection between each set arranged so as to have the 

hc: SH a Hnnnnnnacis ^ ast warp-thread of the one set working the same as the first warp-thread 

- :: HI nnnnaHHHa of the second set. B shows the indications for the dressing, arranged for 

:■:: I f: z IshhshseI one thread light to alternate with one end dark, and equal at C, indicated 

....^u^., =,„., ^ ^ e filling. 

(For hair-line and tricot effects combined, thread and thread, con- 
structed on the regular plain weave, and repeated without interruption or change over the entire 
width of the fabric, see Fig. 20, page 15. For producing the change from tricot to hair-line and 
vice versa, the arrangement of two threads of one color is used in one place in the design which 
corresponds with the place in the fabric where the change from tricot to hair-line is required.) 

In the present example, Fig. 500, the dressing is not disturbed, but the weave is arranged so 
as to have (as already mentioned) the first and last warp-thread of each set work equal. 

Warp-threads 1 to 8 = 1st set, shown by ■ type. 
Warp-threads 9 to 16 = 2nd set, shown by a type. 
Warp-threads 8 and 9 are connecting threads, interlacing alike into the filling. 
Warp-threads 16 and I are the second set of connecting threads, interlacing into the filling, 
and arranged to raise and lower on the pick opposite to the first set. 

It will readily be seen that the changing or breaking off of the plain weave, by arranging two 
successive warp-threads to interlace in the same manner, will reverse the tricot effect to a hair- 



94 

line effect, and vice versa (on a regular arrangement in the warp of one end light to alternate with 
one end dark over the entire width of the fabric). See D, Fig. 500 for effect. 

This arrangement of working two successive warp-threads can also be extended to the 
filling, producing some of the most novel effects for ladies' dress goods and similar light-weight 
fabrics. 

Such effects and their construction are illustrated in the following designs, Figs. 501 to 509. 



QBCBZlBHBaBaB 
BBBZZZBBBGDa 

zb a ■ ■ ■ ■ 
■;■ ■ iriaia 

nzzBBBzzzBBB 

BZBZBZBZBZBZi 

ozbzbzbzbzbzb 

BBBZZEBBBQCa 

: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

BIB OB ■ Ij 

qlzzbbbzzzbbb 

IBQBGBZBGBQBa 
3 6 

Fig. 501. 
Motive. 



Mcanamwmmcz-?: 
ocjcmmmmccc 
oaccmmmwccc- 

DC7. ' :-■ 



aczzavamncnc 
czz . i : xnz 
DDDDBSmmOODE. 

acczmmmmczcc 
HBaBapnagBag 

■BlBCDDdBBBl 

E-: ) i-DDJOIili 

oanaaaaaanGa 
OQaznznznaac: 
nzaacDDDcnaa 
DnDaaaaaDDDD 
BBmaoaaaBBB 1 

HBBBCrDDBBBBi 

lBEBB" iz \ ll ] 
1 



aaDDanaDaaaa 

ZZDODaaDDCOZ! 

'oczzzzzaazc 
azazoanoDzizQ 
BSBBnaacBBBB 

; -'-- r m :7( 

11 : 1 : ■ -^ 

~~. ■--•--• I Z- -J 

zzznasBBzazizj 

'zz-zmmmmoaan 

737 r- 7 - 

; : 1 . -1 

1 

.1 i . .;_-. 3 

:~r, --- - : z i 

Z " J 'ZZ J 

.. .■ '77-. 5 J 

anaBSBBaaaz) 

24 



Fig. 502. 
Ground-plan. 



Fig. 501 is designed to illustrate a motive. Suppose the ■ indications in the same to repre- 
sent the hair-line effects and the cj the tricot effects. Again, suppose every square in the motive 
to equal four threads in the warp and filling in the weave and effect. 

An examination of Fig. 501 shows six squares each way for repeat, therefore 6 X 4 = 24 
warp-threads and picks for the repeat of the required weave and effect. 

Fig. 502 illustrates the ground-plan and represents a four-fold enlargement of 501. 

In Fig. 502 those parts of the design requiring hair-line effects (according to the motive) are 
indicated by « type and those requiring tricot effects by □ type. 



nzzzznzznzanazDDDDDDanDa 
□.-"a a a a a n a a a a as j 



DznnaDaznnnnDDnnnDnnnnnn 



HBBHHI 

zaazBZBZtlaftE 

DBBDDBQBEBBI 
DHHQBQBDBBBE 

DBBDDBDBBSE. 

a a 5 a >i * --:- 



Z^B. sb b °»;a ja--i 

BBhSlIZB BBnBiS 
.'?■&' BB B 5 a 7S 

■a: a ■ ishSI 

aB B ■ B ■ B j 



cbbzbbs 1 'anaza'-an ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ i 
caazsaRa'-a-'ffl s: si. ■ b b b bi 

CMGSBBaBKB. Bi ;Bs..B. -B_B :BGB„B 

caazBZB""- ia. :bb: b .he; mm "BZ^BaB 

DBBGZBZBBi3BfiZB "BB*=;Bf1. B " BB- :B4 

CHHZBZB .MS iei_.l„sBE:SI_l."b.B.,B 

Z?CBfl'~ "B~BBBB9CBCBBfJBBZB BE^Ea/- 

A aa -a ebvb bbmsb: ■ siE; ;bb bz 1 - 

; a«Q ■ BB- b; . B BBBBBDBDB 
DHHZSSBHBB B I 36; .SB B BEBBBZBa 
C'BZ 'S"BM B BEBBBZB 'BB' 'E- J ~BZB 

caa a ■ bzb ■:■ :mw <m- b : -a; asa 

C«77i ■ ■ :b"BZBCBBF.B B' S; E 'Bi 

caa_ b b b b:b_b:hb a? a a^a-a 

■ ■ BZB_BZBE=B :B- -S3 iE -EB 
DEHLr«:lEi' B i7lB77iBB B - E- BB .BZ1 
DBB BMB tT'BZBBHBsti.'.B BE B'iZBZB 
[ZaaZHB--1SBIBZ@BSBB B hB; iBBQBD 
DBBDBBBa~BDBBBBn_B_BB:-3BB_jB_ J Bl 

1 24 



Fig. 503. 
Weave. 



G=i3' in-an :arza - a;-:a 
emhue'-iei iaaana; o 
gzzzz : 

C -;■■!"■; 1 13 13 . ' .Hi ;H 

T33 33333 iE 33333 ;Ei 3 

L-: . ; a '3 3 3 

C33 a IH 3 3 IS a 33333 

DBB 3-13 3 3 3 3 • 

C33 3 -3 '3 '3 13' 3 33333 

nam .3H3 : s a a a 

Caa 33333 3 33333 3 3 

C33Z33333- '3 33333 3 3 

Z? :- 3 3 3 3 

-°CEE HflH 33333 3 33333 

L ' 3 ! '3 ■ ".' ■ 3 3 3 

CBH 3 ;H 33333 3 33333 

[ZEE 3333333333333 3 3 
U ■ 3 3 3 

DHH H333H3S333333 3 3 

C"Z 3 3 :. v ^"3 3 IhiIi" IH 
DHH. H .-'3 IHHHHH-.iB '33333 
DflHJHaHaHHaHHBHBBCfJtiGHi 



™ :3' i^ 1 

1 

3 P4 

■taa 



333 



3 I 
i3'4/^ 



3333 

3333 

, , .11 

24 



Fig. 504. 
Effect in Fabric. 



r: 



Fig. 503 illustrates at A the dressing, one end light to alternate with one end dark; B the 
same arrangement for the filling, and at Cthe applying of the plain weave to the ground-plan 502, 
arranged as explained before. The weave for the part of the fabric requiring the hair-line effect 
is represented by a and the weave for the tricot effect by ■. 

Diagram Fig. 504 illustrates the effect visible in the fabric. A, arrangement of 
warp, one end light to alternate with one end dark; B, the same arrangement for 
the filling; C, the effect produced. 

Fig. 505 is a motive for another effect. Use 8 warp threads and the same 
number of picks for each small square in the motive. Type ■ for the tricot effect 
and type a for the hair-line effect. 



-B~BZT 
■ B BB 

_ 'momna 
■■■■■■ 

B II I 'BB 

■ b ' a ■ ' 

B BB B "BB 

■ B LB. iBZa 
B BB I LI 
fl ■■ ■ BB 

1 o 

Fig. 505. 



95 

Fig. 506. A, the indications for the dressing; B, the same for the filling; C, the weave. 
Fig. 507 represents the effect as produced in the fabric. 



OBB 

DEE 
DBB 
GEE 
DBB 
GEE 
□KB 
CHE 
DBB 
TEE 
C^H 
GEE 

cm-: 

DEE 



nn^cnz'GD^nanaDnnDZ) 

PSRE E * E E «E -:E BiiB 
■HHHBHHBBHBaBaHHBH! 

-fflishBrsE: '"'■fl^Klli 
= 1BHB .fflf'-fflB ■_■ ■ -K 

'ess s- s-i m m m bb. 



amomr 



m a b 



Iffis 



BR! 



DE_ 

GEE 

GEE 
G"-4 
GEE 
DBS 

DBS 

GEE 

DEE 
CM I 
LEE 
CaH 
DEE 
C = 
GEE 
C-: ' 

oaa 



-3E - .B ffle-- 

s=bgsmb, 

-'E-ai5sS» ■_■ ■..=!ni 
GB~B B^BB B^EfiSS„B 

B~BGBJB. .mBsBESEHBIJ 
-■GBIBGBE S^BGEi-l„B 

b b b b : e--hb -s' 'sb 
: -Bgb b bbbbbebbbgb 

■ ■ BGBGHEBBBBrrtBBG 

B B B" BB B=E iSBuB 
-■; B "BJBGBBBEBEBBBDI 

EitB-'BqBBDBDBDBDBB' 

3 B ■ :BSBB_ B ^B'GBGBG 
5 =g S :SGGB BGB .BBS 

iffl- B iBBEBDBQBDBDBB 
B^B -B ifflBDBQBDBGiBBF 
■■'ffl :B -E^fflBDBDBDB" s-fi 

e«e '5ai'i"ri"ir 
3 a .a- bb ■ b ■ :he 
b a a be a .a a i c 

b b a B .E ;E! Iffli vl 

a a b BB' a ..ia a ' ■ 
a a a a a a a aa 

a a a aa egbi a ■ 
a a a a .a a a aa 

a a a aa. a a a e 
a a a a . is a a aa 

a a a., aa a a a . ■ 

BGB BGB B B !S BB 

a a a aa a a a ■ 
a a x a - .a <a a bb 

a b a be a a a ■ 
bgb a ■ ■! a a a .aa 

GGB. B B BB E B B . I 

GBDB-B .'.B .' iB SB- IB IBB 
1 



A 

_DDDaDDnaDaaDDDaDDaDDD 

sEaBBaBBBBBSBBBBBBBEiKlB 

a a- a :: :: a e e :: :: :: 

- ig: g_gggg . : . ..g_ 

bbebbhdbgb b .bgbgbgb ■« 

..EaSBEBCB^B ■DBDBCBDBGj 

BnB«lEf1GBGBGBGB:JBDBGB B 

S^EnEB. BGBGBGBGBGBDBG 

B -B--B : B_B BGBG.BGBCBGB 

a- .a. aa. .bgbgbgb^bgbdb j 
BMBsiBi g:bgb.:bgb. a a a a 

,-.Ee-;E- .BB ■ ~BGBGBDBDB~BD 

] ■..■_BSL,afc.Bf :HWSHffiaH»EB 

,BGB„B = .BS=B> 'ffliHRB' iSfiiB: IE 

B BE. •&• IB; IE: jE= >B' iBflBtl 

J ' ifflBiS B' ffl- B IE' -BriB 

■ _BB _ :B-.B E ■ :E- B ffl= Sn 

_ a jB^b 1 B' a a- -a .ebb 

a BBGBs-B-iE -E EGEmBU 

GB ,t;BsS' .B. IB ..B. .Bf.Bi iffl 

_BHHDBDBnBuB_BLB _BGB 

■ : a a aa a a a a a a a 1 
.;•.;->■■ a a a a a ■ 

MEHffl@fflBGBQBGBCBGBGB3Ba 
BMBSBISGBGB. B B B B .'BGB 

a a aa a a a b a a a 1 

B'^E-a'^B^B" a a b a a a 

a: a- aa a a a a a a a 

.bgb aa E' a a a- .a 'Sgs i 

B BGB: .i iBMBi B 'E E :E -S' IB 

a a bb a a a e a a a 1 
a b.b e .a- a Si a a @- isn 

b b bb e a a a a a si i^" 
a a a •:• a a a a a -a a 

B B BE' IB' B B B E :E IBi I 

■obcb iE a a b a a a a 

B B BE' B S :B' B E B W\ 
B B B B IE' J B a B E B' iB 

b a be a- a B a a a a 1 

B B"B E :B B .B B E- E IS 
B B BB B iffl IB E B a IBM 

a a B E-"iE' a a a ■:•■;• a 

B P . BE' IS' iB- IS: IS B B 'B' r 
B B "B. ' IBaBUBLiSySGE'JB-.iBl 



B 



40 



DBBC 
I ES 

I 

I EE 

I ; r- 

i nn 

i 

, EE 

' f 

( .EE 
I --■ 
I EE 
< •■ 
' EE 
Dpi; 
DEE 

D»! 

I EE 

L EE 
CM I 
( EE 
f ■ 

DEE 
I ' 

I EE 
I ■ 

, EE 
DFi' • 
D^E 
I ' : 
DEE 
I I-' 
GEE 
Dm I." 
DEE 
: ■ : ' 

r ee 

I I ■ 

DHEJ 



nDDDDnDDDDDDDDaaDDDaanDDDDnDCDCCDDGlDDDna 

:: E E E":E- E E E E^'E ^E 'E "!E."E?iE- :E^EaEHEHE 

IE :E. IE lEr.-E ;E E E. lE'E E E E E -E E E E E E 

gggdgddddd:: ' • 



.IE! :E -c 

:e ;a a e: 



iEGE 

E' E' 

ia: iei- 



H-tO 

ana 
a e 

_ E'GE 

E E IE a a E E .E-a 
: E a E E E E E - E 
E' E E: E E E E E E 
E . I 

EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEaa 

a- . ■ ■ ■■■■'■ i 

EEESEEEEEEEEEEESa 

EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 
laHBHfflHBHBBBHHHBBB 
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

"■'■ e E- a a a> Si S'cE/7 

ri r. r^, r^ ri r~> '.*■ ',1 r^ 
O' >ti .. l u "' " " «.' 

El E E E E E :: E 

IE. e- e a a a a a <a 

SUM ■ !i IBHHHH 

EEEEEEEEEEEEEEaaa 
E -M , r ,„ r , r ,„„„ r ,^ r ; 

S'"""" '""'"""',dMH 

EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

'E ■ !i li. IHH 

EEEESEEEEEEEEEEE3 



Fig. 506. 



Fig. 507. 



Fig. 508, motive. 

Fig. 509, effect obtained by using 6 warp-threads and 6 picks for one small square in 
motive. Repeat : 36 warp-threads, and the same number of picks. 



dddbbbdddbbb 
a a a a a a 

OODBBBOOOBU 
BBBDDDBBBOGO 
BuBaBGBGBGIBG 
III III 

eClQDBBBQDDBBB 
GBDBDBDBDiBDB 
DDDBBBDDDBBB 

BBBODDBBBaaa 
■GBDBDBDBDBD 
1BBBDDGBBBGGG 
1 6 

Fig. 508. 



naHaaaBaaaBaEEBaBanEnEFianEnEFiERnBCjs™ 1 ' 

I '. , " i; II :. il :i I! 'l 'I 'l II II 'Bi El El IBI ! El IBI- .E" El !□ 
BEEEBBBEBBEBBEBEBBP El O B ! 'El IE! 'El E L Et1H 

II : i ':",.' J I" I I E .BI B 'B' 'El 'E' E El IBi 
BEEEEEEEEEEEEBEEEB' BI IBi E: E' B> El E BI IB) 
rif )'■ I I' li I I li I' I' : if li li li 'I ; i i Ei IBI IBI IBI IBI El Bi El I3 
EEBBEBMEi El IBBBBBBEl Bt iEHBBBBBBEl Ei Ei IB 
till- : 1 . IE' IB' BI !i I Ei IBI IBI II II II 'i I I El : E.IB 
EEEEEEi 'Ei 'EI IBEEBBBE. IBI IBI IHEEEEBE Bi El IB 
fir! i 'Mr 11 IE' IBI 1EI II II II II tell IBI 1EMEI II It 'I I II I 'El S. IB 
BEEBBBI IBi IBI IBBBBBBEl IBI IBMBEEEEEE E Ei :□ 
I ' II I li II IE' IBI IBI II II II II II II IBI IE! IBI II ll-ll II II II El BI IB 
BEEEEEBEEEEEEBEBBBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IB. IBI IB 
I ' I II li I llll iril II II IMr'-l 'El IBI IBI IBI" IBI IBI IE! IBI IB 
EEBSEBEEEEEEBBEEEBI El IE! IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IB 
III, N II li 11 il li II il II II II II II II il II IBI IBI" IBI IBI IBI IBI IE! IBI IB 
BEBEBBEEEEEEBBEEEEI IBI IBI BI El IBI IBI IBI IB] IB 
( II It |! ,1 II II Il II |i II II II II II II II II II IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IBI IE' IB 

c: :; ibi ibi o ibi ibi ibi 11 11 11 11 11 11 u 11 11 11 11 n n i' 11 11 " n 1 

B- IB B B IBI IBI IBI IBI IQL IBBBBBBEBBBBBBBBBBB 

b ib ei ib ei lanai ibi ibi 11 11 11 n n n n 11 h n n n 11 n « " 1 [J 

B IE IBi IB IBI IBI IEI IBI IBI IBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 

B' IB' IE' IB IBI IBI IBi IEI IBI II II II II II II H II" Tl II II II H II II II n II I 

B IB IEI IB IBi IBI IB! IEI IEI IBBBEEBEBBBEBBEBBEB 

B IB IB IBBBBBBBI IB! IBi II II II II H ll II IEI IBI IBI II -in I. n 

B IE IB I I I ' I I IB! !EI IEI IBEEEBBI IBI IBI iBBEEBEB 

B IB IE IBBBBBBBI O'O II I! II II II II II IBI IBI IBI II I' II H III 

:; :: a 1 1 1 1. n n ibi ibi ibi ieebbbbi ibi ibi ibbeebbb 

B IB IB IBEEEEBBI IBI IBI II II II II II II II IBI IBI IB! IHMMI MM 

B IB IB 'il li IBI IBI IBI IEEBBBBI IBI IEI IBBBBEBB 

B IE E IB IE' IBI IBI IEI IEI H II II II II II II II II II II II IL II li II " HI 

B IE IB IB IE! IEI IBI IBI IBI IBEEEEBEBEBBEBEEEBE 

■B IB IB IB IBI IBI IBI IEI IBI II II II II H II II II II H H H I' H H : ' I 

B IB IB IB IB IBi IBI IBi IEI IBEBEBEBBEBEBEBBBBB 

c: :; :; ia a a ib ibi 'ei n 11 11 n 11 11 n 11 n 11 11 n n 11 in i 

B'jajBUBUBUBLIBI IBi IBI IBBaBBBBBBBBaBBaBBCJl 



10,^B _ B~BGE _ EGB~B^B 

e aaa bee :bgbg> 
dbb bb a a a a a 
■b bb a a a a . 
i bb bb b a a a a 
a aaa aaa a a 
cb a b b :b :bgb :b 

ffl ,B E B .BGB _B BI 
DB B .B .BGB IB "B ;B 
E"B .ffl"E B BBB "El 

aaa a aa bb a 
aaa a bb aa 

GBGE a EGBB BB B 

aaa a a aaa b 1 
□bgb B a ::s a .m a 

JBG;B-B_.B_B_a_B_B I 
1 16 



Fie. 510. 
16 harness and 16 picks for repeat. 



BMB' IB' IB' 
B! IE! IBI IBI 
Bi IBEBi IB! 
B' I I I. 11 IB 
Bi IEEE' IB' 
B' IB' IB' iB 1 
Bi IB' IB, IE! 
a IB IBi IB' 
Bi IB IB! IB' 
El IE. IB' IB' 
B! IB' IB' IBI 
ffll IE IB IBI 
Bi IB' IB IB' 
BI IB B IB 
B' IB' IB IB 
Bi IB a a 
iibi ib a a 

Bi IB IE E 
B' IEBB IBI 

bm 1 ■ ■ a 

Bi IEBB! IB' 
BI IB' IBI IBI 
B 1 IB a B 

ai ia a a 
B ib a •:• 
B ib a -:• 

B IB iB' IB 
BI IB a IBI 

B 1 ib a a 
Bi IB ffl ffl 
Bi IB- IBI IB' 

IEI IB :•:• IE 



IBI IBNBI 
IBI IB' IBi 
IBi IBI IBI 
IB1JB1 IBi 
IBi IBI IB! 
IB' IBI IBI 
IBI IBI IBI 
IE! IEI IBi 
IBi IBi IB! 
IB: IBI IBI 

a aaa 

IBI II H I' li 

1 a iaaa 

IBI IBI IB! 
IB' IB 1 IB! 
IB! IBI IB 
IBI IB! IB' 
IE 1 IBI IB! 
IBi IBI IBI 
IB' IBI IB' 

ffl •:• ffl 
IBi IBI IB' 
IBI IB' IBI 
IEI IB 1 IE! 

ffl Iffl ffl 

ffl ffl •:■ 

iffli IEBB' 
ffl 

Iffl HtHHK 

ffl ffl a 

•:• ib ffl 

IB! IBI IBI 



lid 



IB IB- 
IEI IBi 
IB' IBi 
IB' IB! 
IB' IBI 
IB' IBi 
IBI IBI 
IBi IB' 
IBI IBi 
IB- IB! 
IBi IBI 
IB' IB 
IBI IBi 
IB' IBI 
IB 'Bi 
IB! IBI 
IB iffli 
IBi IBi 
IB Bi 
IBi IB! 
IBI IBI 

a a 
IB a 

IB' 'B' 

»:■ a 
a a 

ffl BI 
ffl ffl 

ffl ffl 

a b 

IB IBI 
!., 



IBI IBf 
iBI IBI 

ibbbi 
n 11 11 ii 

IBBBI 

a' a 

IBI IBI' 
IBI IBI 
IBI 'BI 
IBI BI 
IB B' 
B I BI 
IBI IBI 
IBI IBI 
'Bi .BI 
IBI IBI 
B! BI 
IBI IBI 
IBBBI 
|l II II 'I 

; aaa 

ill" B' 

a r.' 

IBI ffll 

ffl ffl 

ffl BI 

IB ffl 

IBI iBI 

B! a 

•:• b 

B •:• 

12 •:• 



■a: iBGiBmsriBn 

IBI IBi IBI IBI IBI I 
IBi IBI IBMffli Iffli I 
IBI IBI IBI IBI Iffln 
IBI IB' IBI IBI IBM 
IBI IBi .BI IBI 'BI I 
IBI IBI IEI IBI 18311 
IBI' IBi IBI IBNBI 1 
IBI IB! IBI iffli IBI I 
IBI IBI IBI IBI IBM 
IBI IEI IBBBI IEI I 
IBI IBI II il il II IBI I 
IBI Iffli IBBBI IBI 1 

a a a ai 'Bi 1 

a a a bi 'B' i 
■B' a a B' 'bi 1 

IBI IBI IBI 'BI IBI I 
Iffli IBI IBI Iffli IBI I 
'ffll Iffli iffli Iffli Iffli I 

a I a a 1 a a 1 
ai a a a •:• 1 

bi •'.' a ai a 1 

ffll IBI BI IBI Iffli I 
Bi iffli IBI IBI IBI 1 
ffl ffll ffll Iffli IBI I 

'BI IBI IBI Iffli IBI I 
ffl ffl EBB! IBI 1 

Iffli 'BI 11 n li II IBI 1 
ffl ffl BBBI a I 
ffl •:• a ffll ibi 1 
a >:• ffl ffl •:• 1 
a •:• •:• ibi ibi 1 



Fig. 509. 



Fig. 511. 



Novel effects are also obtained by figuring upon the plain weave. For example, weave Fig. 
510 produces effect Fig. 511, by means of I end light or color No. I, to alternate with I end 
dark, or color No. 2. 



96 

Effect Fig. 513 is produced upon a fabric interlaced with weave Fig. 512. Arrangement for 
warp and filling : 1 end light, or color No. 1, to alternate with I end dark, or color No. 2. 



HjH_,t)^lijE B E BJE H_E lila.l 
__B BB_E E E B E EGB-BBGH 



HG. 

DE 



E . 

GE BLD, 
B GuHuH 
Bfl E E 

I IBB E B 

:: ii ai s 

LiE BBB E E 
GLIElB ,e e , 
DHGH_E_HjH 
EGEGE E .B_ 
OHGE_.B S B 
BBS JE .E BB 



IBJE^EjBl 
I -BBHGEGl 
HDHDHDBI 



. __JG 

J 3_H .BGBB 

■GE_,BaEGB 

IBLB .H_E J 

II E E_B 



. E 



E E _B A 
LE-BGBI 

E-EGBBi. 
GB-.HGBI 
E El.E_.HB 
l E E E Bl 
BGHGH JHGBfli ! 
BB E IE E HI! 
DBB^E. J B_ J E..H 
HJBBL.EbB_EG 
LIB. .BB _.B. 



ijb' 



JHUELBBuEBBjEaB-B^E 
1 



;E BB-E E..B BB E E 
]:BBjE_.E H_E-.BB_EJ 
:BB jEl.E E EBH.EE 
IB .B^E„E E BB BDEG 

1 E B- E E -BB BLBaB 
,E ,E .E E BB B .BJBJ 

2 S .B ,B BB..B BjHjH 
,D jE E BB. :B E EGBL] 
-. 'B B BB ,B_E E EJE 

I E-BB BEE B_EJ 
B BB_.H_H_B »_« E 
■HE E E BB BBJ 
■■■_iHL.iHL.H-BB. H_BB 
IB JHaEUBLiBB,..BuBL.,B 
L;HGH_'HLBB H.LE_.EJ 
B .ELE li:_____ J 3 
I E_B B Bfl B_B_B.J 
,H_H. E BB' .E .E_E 



_But 



Fig. 512. 
28 harness and 28 picks for repeat. 



EBBfflfflfflaifflBBT 



iBBEr 

"ESI iB 

iffli 
iB' 



iB3t 



lEBBBBEBBSBBSBBBfaBF 



BaBf IB; 3B 



ESEEaasaa ib^b ;a ,a_? 



aaa. :a- a<- 



BBI 

Mffl ! 

Bffi : 
t B: 



ebbbb 
a a ;b' 
;s a a 






JB 



.aaa- 

■B0Bs 






BE 

LB 



"B B -S iB B ^_______S___ 

ia ib. g ._ a i i 1 n ia 1. i na- 
" a iBaaaaaaBaaaaai 

B 1 3 1-5L I MBSBBEBBi 

BBB3BSSSBSB IE iffl 

_ 1 JBBiiJBrMBB -IE' !E- 

a lEBBaaaaaaaa^aaB ia- 
asaBa. bb -i 1 mt-i 1 hebsbb is 

,Bi JEBBEBBBSBBB: IBBBBSBffli 

_fW4 iJaaBBBBBEBsaa. ~ 



.a; ia 
;s> SB 
aa 



' i I: ■-.. i ,; j II 1B1 B. 

BaBBaaaaaB' :b ! 



a- -bbebbbbbs 



iBi .a*- aaaaa 
a* .a; .a ;e: <E' 
a .ai a ib-e 
a' : a. a= .a .a 
a' a. a- .B r ;a 



IBBBBBF 

.Bi si .a- 

IBaB .B' 

bbb; ai 

B-".B. .B 

;b- &■ .a- 
ar.ai .a 

.B' iffl: B' 



a a 

& iB .a 

a- a a 

a. a a 



aaa ,_> .a a 

. ji :. , ,a« a= a> 
aaaaa a a 



t_r _. ltd- td _! 

b: .a. ib ia .a 



,t_r 



______ 

aaa 
bbbbbs 
aaaaa 

.1 .= 'B 

sa_i_ ^aaaaaaa ia ibbe isasEB ia ^bi e- a : aaaasEB a 



IB' IB 

iffli iai 

IB. .Bi 



Bi 

a. 

Bi 
■B' 
iBi 
IB! 

B' IB' 



a 

BBS 



iBaBSBBE 
IBBEBBBB 



BBMB IB 
BfflHffl 'B 
BBBB iB' 
BBBBBBt 
BBBBBB: 
EBBB IB" 
BBBBBB 
JBBBBBEi. 
BHSi 



ebbbebee 
bebebbbsb 



iB 

-aaaaB. ib 



_ JB 

■bi 

BBBttJ 

BBaB . 
BBBB IB 
BBBBi IB 

bbbebb 

BBSBBffl 
IEBSBS 



. _ .BBSBBB= _ _ 

ibbb aa ia .lasa laaaaaBa' 'ai a> .Be-.b .aaaiiB- a 
sa la.-ia m -iiBiHHeM _«* 1 ^ mat iai iBf_B' .at .at ,a a 

IB ia ffl-JBi^B«BBBBBBBBBBBt-B. ffi. BI B' BE- a' B 

;a ia. m ts »_i_i_i.^: . _a _■ _B_i_i_.ffi; at=a a .a-- a a : 

.a ia ia -ia iasa jBBBaaaaaBBa. anai .a. bi.b. a 

■ " a ia .-ia -ia n-i i a -a a a- a a 

a iH-ji_ -iffl-iBBBaBBBaBaaeaHai.ia'-'B. a 

a saaa a ia > i. 'SMNMSBaHBt-iat^Bi a. 

S3- JB3_3_3:-1__ iBeBBBBBBaBBBBL-ai .B s .B ! B 

a s*a.-iBi_B=iSi-Lv id of . ! .&' a. ia a 
a _ ;a a ia a i__i .aaaaaaaaa' a. a 1 a 

a a a ia a ;a :at a ■ --.' a 

_3MB3B3_3. .HBI-J_3«B_l IfflMffil IBBBBBBBI 
ffl. iJBM' JBUBiIBi IBtiBI- BLBBBr-iBi 



Iffll 



a- .B 

IB 



ia- 



lapanaPLBBaaa 
~ -as ■ .a 
a aaa 
a a- :e( 
a a a 
is 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
m 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a- a aaaaaaa 

B; BaaaaaaaB 
ai a tt ,■■ -v< 

a a _;-;.- . - _ 
a a a. aaaaB 



<bb a B; 



a -a 
a a 



a .a a 

B- :BBB : 



.a. a. a 



M 

aaa 






.B 



S( .a' a 
E- a; a 
Bi-.a. a 
a -a ! ;B" ia .a ;a iaaaBBBB'iB^aBBtiBfBi a -a a a a aa 

" B c " 

Bt.BBBB 

IGBL 

_- IB iBBBBBBfflfflfflBBNBBBf 'BBBBBI BLBt •». BBBBBB 









IB. 



i ia i 



BaatiBhEir'ar 

.LZHBBBBBt E» 

iai ai ai ai a.i 



'BBBr-E 



a- .a 

EBB. 






aaaaaaa a 



a: a 
b.-.b 
a, ,a 
-a 
.a 

:E 

-a 

IB 



iBUBr 

^aaaEEaaaaBi ;b> ;a. 

1 I j.-: -j >. j -MEi iBtiES 
I- IE - IB IB iEBBaBBBBBEBBBBEnEr 

1 ia : ia iai . .. 1 .i r :. i a : a. «n_ 

" " ~ -iBtSBti 



aaaaa* ".at a- .a 
Bi;l 



:EI E : E L -.a E ■■ 
Bi _i BtBEBE 



■_3t'_ Ii It, t* 

BBBEa-iE 

Bf 1 " ■ ' ' 

B- BEBE 



BEaa iHw .-li'iiiPn IBI J BLiB : "E^B 

PiBS -' J & BEEEBEE E B" E E' iBBSi E' .E' E' 

Bffi r ."i_ iili :ffl ass] :■& a ia ia ibhehbeh. iai ii tswsi .as 

BEaB ! 'El "El IB! IB' 5B :BI B. 'Bi I' i iai i IB. B 1 .Bi B. a : 

EEL-EI El 'B' Ei E> : S' B' .Bt .BBBBBBBBBBBf BL'BBBrEI 
Bat-.Et lEiiBt.Bi-.B^Bi-iEi iBaBHBHBiiBMHi_i_BBi-BaBr.a.i 

a aaa. a a a a >; a a'-.a: .laaaaaaaeaaa. aaai a: 
ii , . . .a. is .a. bl.e a a-..ia. .a. ii.. n ii ! i i,j..ii ,, ;i aeiai 'Bi 



BEEBEE 
EBEBBB 
BBEEE 



EEE E E 



Bt .B 

B: iB. 



B ! .E 



e. e e a a 



BBS. a : 

E. ia: ■&. 
Ei B. IBi 
E. B' E 
Bt El- E 
.BisBeSi.. 
lEBBBBB 



a^.a a 
a. a a 



s 

-B 

.a 
^a 
s 

B 

a 



Bi a. aaaassE 
si .ai i' , is . m 

E' EEEEEEBBB 

a. .BN.L.r.- _. .-_:_,a 

BBBLSEEeBEB 
nBBBBBBBBBH 



Fig. 513. 



The same arrangement of using alternately light and dark 
interlaced by weave 514 the effect shown in Fig. 515. 



threads will produce on a fabric 



B3EB' -SiaB* 
pi "-laBSF- 



EBBBEBBB 

t I: I. :-! - 1 ' 

BBBsaaafi 
n 1 ■ ■ ;:i : 

EBBBBBBE 
Hi.i ia: i> 
BBBBEBES 

aaaaaaafi 

BBii. i Li: '■ 
"" BBEEE 
-IB" 



EBBBB "B 

mm~ r- a m 

BEE IE IB 
BBB IB IBI 
BBB B IE 
BBB 'E - B 
--IEEE 'E B 
BB- 1 E B 
BBEEE ; B 
BB' II! _ 
BBBEEEB 
■ 



BBBBBnBBBL'BBBBBf 'IBBBBBi : BtiBi' 'Bi iEBBFIEI- BBEBBfl 

aaaaa .a' -a ib anal ■>■ i • -eaai- aaa- ai -BaB 1 - a. BaBiiaB 

.BBBBBaaaBaBaBaBBBBBBB! : BaBLBaaBEaBL-Ea'Br.:BB 
BBBBB' IB --B B iBBBi L-iaBt I! il BI iBKBHaBBi 1 Bi iBaBaBB 
BBBSB' iB'iE IB lEBBBBBBEEBEaBf BI- 'BBBaBt -'EaEBBB 
aaB'IB 'B 1B IBi HBBMHHBfiBBBBBBBLIBHEaBBEBiaHBB 
~ iBBBBBEEEBEBaiaBBi BriBBBf 'aaBBBEEB 

a .a ' ; laBBBBSBBt i < li ; ELBBBBEaaaBBBB 

a •EEEBEEBEEEEEEEEEEEBi EBBaEEEEBEBB 
. .HBt-IBBBf 1 : f._,i i i^BBBt.i i • as BBB 
aBSBBEBBEBESEEBBBEEBBBSBBBEBBBESBB 
E'r i"»S' ini-l.sBBI II H-iNt-t I I -F-t-'i- !- :l iBBt : f 5 t aBt ji IHB 
EBB' iBEBBBBBBEBEEEBBEEEEBaaai "'BBBEBEBEBBSB 
- _iftii.*1 JBUBBBEii ita-i - , km EanBBI > ' Bat t.KB 
B .B iSBSEBBSSBSBBBEEBBBEBBs BL BBBEEEBBEBEB 



-.&: iB' !E IB- 



3EBE 'B 

i . la 1S ! ; B 
3BBBBB 



B .B. SB 



B' 'B' 



HiNHMhBH 



-as -Ei » 



:BB 



iB- IBaBBBBBEBEBBBBEBBt Bi BBBI EBBBBBBEfflB 



IB IE :.- '! HBBBBBBLSEi EL.Ef :Ei 
_ IB IB jEEBEEBBBEEEEBI Bt -Bt El 
IB iBaS iBBBa rl !-" I " 'a-iHtaLBf Bt _ 

iBBBBBBBaEBBBBaBBBt Bi Et^ Ei Bt BBEt :Bt BEE 



Bt=B' I !.i.tl.l.HB 
EBBt EBBEEEBB 
EBBS Bt " 



IE' IE' -IBBBBBBB- 

B " _ • - - 



_i 



II BBBI iBf.Et El .EB.BBEI .BBt ,i.,Bt= 



E iB' iBaBBBaBBEBBLiEBIBf .BLiEi 'Et 'ELiBt IBI lEaiEEB 
E iB- 'E 'B.~EaBa!BB!-F^BBBPBLBt BI "Ei EiaBt BI iBBBBLJIfi 
a ;B-1B IE IB-IB -iSBBBBEBBBBEr — 



: a a. a. * a : a ai 



IB 1B' IB a 



H'-iL; 



_ 'iBi E> Ei 
IBBLlBBBt Bl E 



iSt BL'BtrBL . _ 
Bl EL.BBSI-EB 



IE' 



lEBBBBBBEEBELiBBBi Bl Bi.EHBI.ErBr.Ea 



BBi-IBBBaBBBBBaitaL-PriBtaEtiEl Bf Bf iffll El BBBBBB 



IE iBBBBBaE'-'BaBEESEBSEEEBL Bt E L ELBI ELBtiEBBB 



BBaaaaaaa 



iB "B b B' "B .B B' 



IB .a 
B 'S IB 



B: 



iL.Bt 



B BBSBEBBBEEBBEEEI E' 



'Bt Bt -BBBI E! Et 



t 



!B 



IBi ii 



il ,M 



Bi 



:B' E. BBEBEB 
Ifflt -E' 



EBEEBEEBEBSi IB IE' iBEEBBBBBBBBEBBEBEBBt 'BBBt .BEBBBEBB 

t .. ■ " 

BBEBaaaa 



:B. 'B' 

aaaaBE' 



iBBEi 



1BBB 



BBBELaaai: 

BB'' 

BBBBSBBE 
L'i ii i IBS 1 
BBBEEEB 
Br i. ■ ■ - E 
BBBBELilB 
BBUl-IBFiB 
EEBI-IBi-IB 

i a a a 

B : a IB'-iE 
IBLiBBBL-iB 



. ., !BBB. . 
aBEBEBBBBBBBBBEBBBEBBBEaBBEBEEBBEa 

SBBB 'aBEEBBaBBSEEEEEBEBiaEEEE!' aEBEEBEEBBBa 

' B: ' ' i I 



BEE 'B ! lEBBEBBaEEBBBBBBEBBEEBi ffli BEBBBEBEBBBB 



1BHHLILHBHI I i' .1 E' B' B' 

B' 'BEBEBBBBBBBBBBBEB' El E' E" 

.S '. i i i . i -BBLIUBBBI i 'Bl B » E 

:E iB 1 IBi iS'lBaBEBBBBBBBBBi IBL Bl ffl' E 



BBBi IB! 1SBB' 



1BBi it HBMBMBf-iBi Bi B' El IBi 



fflBBfflfflfflfflfflfflffl 

B' . i i ' ! I 
B BBBBBBBa 



! 



:IB! 1B! iBi IBBB' IBBBBEBBBBi- IBI IEI- iffll Bl iBBBI IBI lfflfflfflfflfflffl 
IBBBUB IBBE'iB laBI 'Bl iBBBBBBBBi : B! IBBBI IBLiBFii !i IBB 

iBBEi 'Ei -aaa' ia iBBBBEi -a- a. a' 'Bi a' isaai 'Bi at aaaa 

.a E. IB JEaa.-.B, iffll JI :i lEBEtlBI iBBBL^EUEBEUBBBBa. i. IB 



Fig. 515. 



s^GBBGHannnnHGHannHGHGnaHn 

HGBfl ELE E E E E E E "H n B 
CE ■■ 'EBB. 3 IEGE "JHGH "IHQBB 
H E BB-'H' IE E.iB IBBB- IB. 1BBD 
LB B BB 1 IB 'E JB IE 1 IE JB IBBGH 
H ~E B BB ,E' EBB iBBB BB I'SG 
LE E B ■■ .E'JSGB'JB BB.:E-E 
E.E BE BB JE JEL JBLlflB E BJ 
GB E E H .BB JHl 1BGBB E iEGH 
B B E IBLB JBB'JB'JBB. IB 'E IE ) 
LE. E E E !BOBBL!BBDB. S B-B 
H"H"H_H BJB'J BB IBLB IE _J 
L.B E E_.E BB.J B IEbEJEL'BGB 
EBB iBLIflfl'jflfl IHGHGBGHGHG 
LE .HGH'JBB 1HGBB GHGHGEGBGH 
H_E' B.iflB 1H IE ■■ IE' )E ELIBG 
LB B '■■ IB iB-iE..iBBGE E B LB 
E E ■■ B E E E ■■ B E E 
GB: ■■ iB-JB B JE IE ■■ E ,EGB 
HliHM E IH lE iB'. IE JE BABE E I 
GBBGB'. IB IB IB.. IE IBBB . BflGECB 

BBGBbBGH jh jbgb; jegb.. jbbgh J 

BaHGHaHGHaHGHGHaHGHLlBBI JH 

lGHGH-iH-H^EGHGBGaGBGBGBBU 

1 i4 



Fig. 514. 



The effect illustrated in Fig. 516 is produced upon a fabric which has the warp and filling 
(arranged I end light, or color No. 1, to alternate with I end dark, or color No. 2) interlaced 
with the broken twill weave Fig. 517. 



97 



The same arrangement of colors in warp and filling (i light, i dark) used upon weave 
Fig. 518 (broken twill) will produce design Fig. 519 for effect in the fabric. 



EEESEZEEBESEEEEEB EBEEBB 
EBB : E S : ESSBEEEi B S^EEEB 



EeE' E 


% 


►2 SE5 5 


gj 


s 


s ss 


BaE E 


-% 


5 SB- E SB 


5 


SB 


S< S^i 


BSE E 


►j 


SB '2! 5 SB 


SB 


5« 


5 mm 


BBE S 


^ 


•5 SB ■ ; SB; 


S? 


•2 


sb s^ 


EEB =S 


£< 


5f SSBSBSBSB 


SB 


s?" 


e> sa 


^ --: ^ 


% 


SB 


SB 


SB 


£<- ?^c^ 


BEEEB 


£•< 


SSBSB3SBGB5<>- 


}% 


SB 


esbss 


s= -- 


S 






SB 


- r-ZZT] 


2SBEEB 










3 SB SB SB SB 










t-i ■ £< 


>5 




Ed 


s 


. Qa 


EEE B 


S 


S^lSSS&S 


£* 


sb 


sees 


^=B ~E 


S 


5 " z :- E 


SB 


5! 


s ^n 


BSE S 


>~< 


5 SBSBS S 


S 


s 


s *as 


BBS E 


^ 


SB 5 SB- -SB 


SB 


s? 


s s^ 


B«E S 


| 


SB S3 SB SB 


£< 


sb 


5 -'S3 


— = 5 S 


•2 2* SB 


SB 


1^5 


S "S^ 


SSB * 


>5 


SB SBSBSBES 


s 


sb 


a aa 



BEEEB B -BBBBBEEEB E EEEE 
1- .-. -E . _..E - 

1 12 



Fig. 516. 



2BCBG 


bbq~3^bg 


GBGB 




B BB 


a a a: 


r.ii 


■ a a a 


BB B 


-B a azz 


B B 


■ a_.a bz 




a b a a 


a 


3 B B BB 


a . a 


_.a. BZBBO 


ca 


:: b bb a 


a a 


a bb ■ a j 


iQaGB 


as a a 

12 



Fig. 517. 



iggbcbgcb _ b_ 
bcbgbcgbb .3 

DBZBZBZ-Zaz 

czBzazBza : 

bdzb:b_bz :a 

a a a a . 

bzbzzb aa_a 

CBCBGZBGGB:. 

Gazzazazza . 

a ~a~a aa a 

a a azza . 

a a a : a 


a a "1 
a -,a 

a"a a 

a a ] 
a a : 

a _a 
a_ az 
a a : 

a a 
a a 

a a . 


a a a aa 
ca. a _ :a ■ 

G H_ H 2al B 

1 


n b a 

a a 

ZCBGB 

IG 



Fib. 518. 



Repeat 



16-harness, 
16 picks. 



Fig. 520 illustrates the fancy color arrangement applied to a fancy twill. 
A, the weave, 8 harness and 8 picks repeat. 



EEEEEZE :Tf EBEEE " E"~EESEE E EEBBE 7 "EZ 

E " T "$3 """$ I I $"-"■"",-"* $ § ' 

E-"i"" "E -E E E ll'S^^"*! E Is|^ 
B E BBBBB -B =3 EEE ^S BEEEB E B"ES 
B' :B- E : - ■ B .B -3- "S S B 'S i B E E Z 
BEE 'E "E -EEB E S -BBE 'E B S BEB BZB 1 
-. :B -.a "B - ' : .E "S . : JB S S ' - ' M- -E 1 

E E : E :S^""'"^ : : S E =E -E i"*i 'z^Z : B 4 

e a a 'BBaaaaaaa ess EssaaaaaE i 

B -_a -E - : E -.BBE. E : Z- Z 

63 z- t »a ' tatiJtCCcti! "ijbjti3r>3tijjj'i3 =td ^i*ti3*iitjrx! Q3 tc EC S Cj tJ 

Bza^ - - -a a a -a - a a - i 

16BBBBB B -EEEEE B IBBBBB B BaBEB -EZ 

HZ 1- . B : S S Z 3 — . B.J' ZB -a 1 

EBBBBBB BBB S IB ■BBBESEE EEE :B B 3 

B 'I 'Z : - ,B ■% IE :B : ' E B BZ 

B 1SBBEBEB a :3 1B -E EBBBBSB E E EZ 

B B : - IMS E -B B IB -B . B B B -SZ 

E B BBEEE E 'E BBB =E "EEEEE S B iBS 

E :S B !ZE -B :B : ffl-:B'"-B BBS '-Z 

BEE ' B B-EBE .B E BBB IE B BBB^B "SZI 

B B B iBBEEEBB -B E B B aaEEEBa "B-1 

B E B -BEBEBEaaa B -B B BBBBBBEBS 5 ! 

E -E E . E "E 'B B : 'E ' .: " .-1 

B' B EESSB ;EBBBBBa B EEEEE BBEBSB 

1BZB..ZZZ.E E ' E E E .E_ J= ,aL;d 
1 16 

Fig. 519. 



7? 



■DBBonnannronnaaDnGnaazia 

CCBB " BBB Z'ZZ n DDDQGZL"'DQQ 
■■ZZZBBZZ 

bb bb : aa aa aa aa 

czzbb bb .aa:-:.:aa , aa :33 

BBB :ZBBZ3DCu~Z: 

izbbzbb" .znnanaanDnnncDDn 

BB: - BBZZZGaGGGGGZOGarEaa 

GGGBdiZGGHHaa' a aa . ia 

□OOBBDODBr - - 



QDGaa: ncrai 
GGcaa " 

GGGHB^GGBH 

: ■ 'a 
GZ aa a 
r-czzaa 

QDCBBGGGHB 

rzz aa 
cz aa 

QGCHflGGGiifi 

■ ia 
aaaaacGGai i 

DDDaaGGGHil 



33 

3 aa 

■ -aa 

aa 

aa 

a a 

w 

aaa 

3 aa 
a a 
aa 

: ,aa 
a a 

Juaa 



B 



BBBBGGrzB^zz _ z^z~aaaaaaaGGGCG 

gcbbb bb ■ : :.zzaaaaaaaaaaaGDaD 

QGDBB. BBB GaDOODDODDDDDDDDDDD 

cczcB_ bbbb zacaaaaauGac 

b : bbbb a aa aa iaao : a 

gbbbb aa . . aa , aa , aa - a 



BBGGCBBB " Z-Z~ 
BGL BBBB 

aa a aa: 

DDDDBBDGG : : i3: :\ 

GaGGBBaaaaBi a : 
anccBBG:. . . ,s 

DDQG33 3333331 

"•DDDGaa ' 33C 

' aaaae«aaaaaMBBBi 

GaGGHBDGDGaBBBBHi 

I 3 3 

33 333333 

ZZ33GI B 33: 

' '3' "i 

GGQGB9GGG. : "-' 3'Z 

GGaaaBGG :■ a ■ 

: 1 aa 333333 

QGGG33 a ' 33S 

I 3 : . ' .3 

1 ' zzz z , a ' i ! iBi 

aaaGWHnc' a 1 1 :n 131 

33_- aaaaaa 



a 
ia 

1 a 

•a 

33 



IBBt 



MD 



3 
33 

IS 



Fig. 520. 



F"ig. 521. 



B, the arrangement of the warp, 2 threads 

C, the arrangement of the filling, the same 
£>, the effect produced. 



light to alternate with 2 threads dark, 
as the warp. 



B 



ZQBGDBGBBGI 
B BB . BBI 



■ I 



CBI 
BB 

a 

GBI 

GGI 



1 



Q! a a I'..... 



jonrii 



BBB B 



3 T 

33' II 333333 

33 333333 



SDpQI 
DQQl 



I3333BB 



■ B 


aa ai 






B 


a bb ■ 


■ 




BBB 


BB 


■ 





I BB BB - -- ~G 

a a aa 
1 a aa 



IB BB a 



II I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

.'Z 

II ] 



am 1 a 

i33! ii 11 11 11 11 iai 



43 



3333 

-zaair 



33:33 
:aaa 



\B 






GG_. 

GGI ,'Zi ii 




^GDDDUUCCL 
33 ' 33 

a a a 






S3 .a 1 a 3 ' ii 
.aa ii 'i 11 i' .■ BB' 

3 333333 333333 



IBB I ' ■ :BB> Ii . 

a a 1a 1 iai 11 1 

3 iai ii " ■ ■ a a 



33333 3 3333: 

BBEBl IB 33333 

3333' .' 13333331 



w 



I 
I 



33 






3333 
3333 

aaaa 
3333 
3333 

i 3333 



33 '33 

33 BB 
33 3 

:: a 

33333333 3 
333333' 1333 
3BBBB3 3 
333333 
333333 
333333 
3 ' 'B 
H IBB : 
33 IBB 
33 33 ' 

bb a 
:: a 

33333333 

aaaaaa a 

a:;:;:::::: 

a:::::;:::::; 

333333 

3333331 I 



3 

33 



aa '33 



3333 33' I 



•■I) 



beb 



aa 



333' I 

::: bb 



33 33333333 



BBI I 
33 I 

a a 

333 
33 133 



Fig. 522. 



Fig. 523- 



Figs. 521, 522 and 523 illustrate three specimens of effect produced upon fabrics interlaced 
on granite-weaves. In each figure A represents the weave, B the dressing, C the arrange- 
ment of the filling, and D the effect produced. 



Single-Cloth Weaves for Fabrics of a Special Construction 

and Peculiar Character. 



HONEYCOMB-WEAVES. 



The Principle of Constructing Honeycomb-Weaves and the Peculiarities of Fabrics 

Interlaced with them. 

In these weaves squares are to be formed by floating (more or less) part of the warp and 
filling threads. These warp and filling threads will float on the face opposite to the back of the 
fabric ; also on the place where the longest floating warp and filling thread interweaves, will be 
formed a groove on the back of the fabric and vice versa on the face. Hence we get the peculiar 
appearance of the fabric known as honeycomb. The difficulty for the designer consists in so 
arranging the weave that when the warp floats on the face, the centre point of this float will form 
the centre point for the filling float on the opposite side of the fabric. And again, when the 
centre point of the filling float is taken into consideration on the face of the fabric and we put a 
needle straight through the fabric on the designated spot, the point of the needle will meet the 
centre of the warp float on the rear side of the fabric. 

Different rnethods are observed in designing these weaves. 

Honeycomb-Weaves Designed on Point Draws. 

■ and h Raisers ; □ Sinkers. 
Fig. 524 shows the plainest honeycomb-weave, executed on 8 warp-threads and 8 picks 
repeat, with the "point draw" for 5 -harness below it. 

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Fig. 524. Fig. 525. Fig. 526. 

Fig. 525 illustrates the floating of the warp in above design, thread A A forming the centre 
of the float, which gradually decreases in the adjoining warp-threads. 

Fig. 526 illustrates the floating of the filling in design Fig. 524, pick B B forming the main 
float, which decreases in the adjoining picks. 

By these designs it appears that the warp float is two threads longer (7 picks) than the filling 
float (5 ends). 

Fig. 527 illustrates the honeycomb-weave, designed for 10 threads in each system. The main 
float in the warp covers 9 picks, and the filling float forms the square in the fabric with a pick 
floating over 7 ends. 

The point draw for this weave requires 6-harness. 

(98) 



99 



Fig. 528 shows the honeycomb-weave, designed for 12 threads, warp and filling ways. The 
heaviest float in the warp covers 1 1 picks, and the greatest filling float covers 9 warp-threads. 
The point draw for this weave requires 7-harness. 



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1 111 



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Fig. 527. 



Fig. 528. 



Fig. 529 is the honeycomb-weave designed for 14 ends in warp and filling, with a main float 
in the filling covering 1 1 warp-threads. 

Point draw for this weave requires 8-harness. 

Fig. 530 illustrates the honeycomb-weave for 16 ends, repeat in warp and filling, being about 
the largest arrangement of this weave used on a high texture. 



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1 14 



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Fig. 529. 



Fig.' 530. 



Main float of warp covers 15 picks, and main float of filling covers 13 warp-threads on the 
face of the fabric. 

Point draw requires 9-harness. 



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Fig. 531. 



Fig. 532. 



A second style of honeycomb-weaves is designed after the following method : Run on the 
designing paper, over the repeat of weave wanted, a check formed by a twill one thread up. 
This check must stand on one corner, each corner forming in this manner one of the point 



100 



harnesses for the weave. Next put into every other square (in a diagonal direction) the required 
warp float. Every square so alternated remains empty or may be further outlined by one row of 
twill (raisers). 



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1 14 



Fig. 533. 



Fig. 534. 



Fig. 535 



Figs. 531 and 532 are designed to illustrate this style of honeycomb-weaves. 

Fig. 531. Repeat: 12 ends warp and 12 picks. 

Point draw : 7-harness. 

F'g- 53 2 - Repeat: 14 threads warp and 14 picks. 

Point draw : 8-harness. 

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■BGBGBBBBfl B BBBBB B lllll BGBBBBBGBGBBBBBGBGflBBBBGBGBBflBBG.BGBBBBBGBGBB 

■ ■ fl BBfl B B :■■■ I I IBI fl H BBB B ■ BBBLB BZBBB B 1 III I B III BGBGB 
DBQD ■ ■ ■ ABB Z.BJflJBGZi B B ■■_:.. B BB BBB Bflfl ■■■ ■< 
■DaaDDBGBaDGGaBiGBGGaaQBGBaaDaCBDBaaDaDBDBDDDDDBaBaaGGJB B GJ-fl ■ GQDDflJ 
aBDaaBDBDBDaGBaBGBaDaBQBDBDDDBaBDBDDnBCBDBaaDBaBQBaaGBZZflGB , ■ flGflGGOBG 
■aBaBGBBflGBGBGBBBGBGBaBBBGBGflGBBBGBGBaBBBGflGBaBBBGflGBGBBflGB: BGBBBGBGBGB 
HE B^BflBBflGBGBBBBBGBGBflBflfliGflGBBBflBGBGBflflBflGflGBflflflM BGBBIBfl ■ BBBBflZ.B_flfl 



Fig. 536. 



We now pass to a third style of honeycomb-weaves, having a double line of twills for the 
main square. In this manner Figs. 533 and 534 are executed. 
Fig- 533 has for its repeat 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. 



101 

Fig. 534 has for repeat 14 warp-threads and 14 picks. 

These honeycomb-weaves have also the filling float sometimes outlined by one row of twill, 
as illustrated in design Fig. 535, which is taken in its foundation from Fig. 534. 

Figs. 536 and 537 illustrate fancy combinations of the honeycomb-weave for groundwork 
with point twills for the figure. 



CBCL_. 
BZBBBBBGB. 

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I HI 



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GC_ 
DDDI 



cbzi 

B CI 

HBI 

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cm ~ 

DDL_ 
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CI I 

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CCZ 
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czaz 

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a mm 

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: a 

L B 
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a aa 
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CB B 
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bbbb a aaaaa a kiaii a ubbbb b kkbhb i 



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B BBB B B BBB. B I BBB B B BBB B B BBB B 
B ■■■■■ I ■■■■■ B ■■■■■ I ■■■■■ ■ BBBBB ■ 

■ ■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ aoaaaaD 

B BBBBB B BBBBB ■ BBBBB E BBBBB B BBBBB B 

■ ■ bbb a a aar a a aaa a a aaa c a Bar - 



B BBB 

a a ■ 

b a 



BBB BBB BBB BBB BBB 

i a aaa a a ■■■ ■ a aaa a a bbb ■ ■ aaa a 
□ ■■■■■ a ■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■ ■ bibbs a ■■■■■ 

I ■■■■■■■ BBBBBBB BBBBBBB ■■■■■■• ■■■■■■• 
B BBBBB B BBBBB B lllllll B IIIBI B ■■■»- 

I ■ BBB B B BBB B B BBB B B BBB B B BBB 
.BBBBBBB BBB BBB BB 



B BBBBB B BBBBB B BBBBI 



aaa 

a a 



a 

D 

B 

B 
BG 

BB 
B 

B 
B I 

B 

B 
B 

BB 
B 
■ ■ ■■■ B 
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■ B B B 

bbb a a a i 

I BBB B B BBB B 

■BBBB B BBBBB I 

■ »■■■■ ■•■BBBB BBBBBBB 



■ B BBB B B BBB 
B BBBBB ■ CBEBI 



B B 



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Fig. 537- 



A fourth division of the honeycomb-weaves embraces those known as " star effects." 
The appearance of these weaves in the fabric is of a different character from those previously 
described. The effects produced by these weaves in the woven fabric are quite novel, and a 
careful study of the annexed designs will not only give a thorough understanding of their con- 
struction, but will greatly aid in developing new ideas for weaves in this line of fabrics. The 
point draw, which has been used to such a decided advantage in the first three divisions, is not 
used in this 

Figs. 538, 539 and 540 are different weaves designed on this principle. 



102 



Fig- 538. Repeat of pattern : 16-harness and 16 picks. 

Check A contains in its 8 ends repeat, a twill running in a direction from left to right, the 
twill line being formed by the warp upon filling ground. 

Check C is the same weave, warp and filling exchanged, and direction of twill reversed. 

Check B and D are bound in plain for forming the groove. 

Fig. 539. Repeat of pattern : 28 harness and 28 picks. This weave is an enlargement of 
the preceding one and explains itself. 



SSDHDHnHDE 
GG~ 



□ 



3DHQH 



C._ 

ege B _ 
:,a b jggbgb.G3 
£>a a a _ .& e. >r 



H 

I " 



a 



r bbbbrebbbbb 

OQ'DXiUOLillllllllll 

■ lOlHIM 

■ BBBBBBBB 

QIIOGOXIIIIIII 

QDIIIDGODDIIUH r 
IBBII 1 - 



■■■■nDDDDi._ 

:: !•■■■■ ■ 

"GOGCD! 

■QDnr - 



16 EC B B a HEBBBB 

E GB ".BGEGGGGBBBBB 

c a. a iegebg bbbb 
„a a a b_.bb^GljBbb ,, 
.Ol a a : a ^aiHDDDii C 
a a .a bgbbbbgggb 
[.□" e.b^bbbbbbg 
a a a a ■■■bbb 
gggi ,_ ■■ a e aoa 
ddc .BBaa a a :a j 
cgggbbb_ a a ege 
.DDDm : a a a a 7 , 
^4cgbbb „ a a ege ,6* 
L ■■■ __.e. a :e_eg 
B i_ ■ — — ■ ~n n n' n r n 
IBBQDDGQDaOaijaLJEa 

1 10 



a a a a a a bgbbbbbbbggggqbb 
1 a a a a .a .bgebbbbbbbbgcdgcb 
a a a a a a a bbbbbebkb 
gb_egb_e :: 3 shiiiniii 

EuELjELjauEuEGEGBBBBBBBBBBB 

□ddddddddddbbbue'. a a" a a : 
DDODGDGnnaBBBBB 7E a a a a 
nDGGGGG 1 . ■■■■■ a 1 Ei a 

DGGGCDQGGBBBBB JE "B 3 

DnGGDOGBBBBB "1G.. B: H B 
^QGaGGGBBBBBQaaB 
--". BBBBB 

UGGuBBBBBaaaaCB 

■■■■■ moo l: l; u 
naBBBBBaaaQaGGE "egg e 

DBBBBBDDQGDCGG'. B B. E_ 

BBBBBGacaaaGGGE :e e a a. e_hj 

■BBBnaDDDDDDDDLEGEJEGEGE^EGH 
lBBBDDaDDaaaaaaEGB^EGBGEGE ._EG 

\ 18 



IG 






G 
G 

IBG 
B E 
. EG 
E ^B 

a a 

.EG 

a_a 

_EQ 

a_a 



I i 



D 



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Fig. 538. 



Fig. 539- 



leGEGBGEDEGGBB 
a GGEGE BBGB 

a a a c: ■■■■■■ 

/>bge:e :: in ■ at 

' a a .3..BGBBBBGBBI 

a a ::■■■ ■ ■■ 

a a EGE ■■ oaa ■ 

a a a a bb hbbbb i 

GEL E E_.BG l bbbbbbb. 

bglg : .bge[:bgegbg 

CB_~_ . B.S rEGEGECH 

DGBG. 'GBG_ E E E'_EG 

y?aadGBGGSDuBGEGBGEG D 
BBB E "E..E E 

aaBaaGBG"aaGGGaiEG 

GBGCaaaBaBQEaBGEGB 

IBDDDDDDDBGEGEGEGHa 

1 13 



Fig. 540. 



Fig. 540. Repeat: 18 warp-threads and 18 picks. This weave contains in its principle, in 
check indicated by A, the X of a common twill filling face on 9 threads for each system. 
Check C contains the same arrangement except that the warp changes place with the filling. 
Checks B and D are interlaced plain for forming the groove. 

A fifth division of the honeycomb-weaves is created by forming squares with a certain 
number of warp and filling threads, floating (equal long floats for each thread in either system) 
regular distances. Figs. 541, 542, 543 and 544 are designed to illustrate this system. 

Fig. 541. Repeat : 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. Can be reduced to a 4-harness "section 
draw." 

Fig. 542. Repeat : 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. Can be reduced to a 4-harness " section 
draw." 



12[ EGEGBBBBBBB 

EL E BBBBBBBB 

a BBBBBBB 

::■■»■■■ 

a a BBBBBBB 
EC a BBBBBBBB 

GEGBGEGBGBGS 

CGGG. GGGEGEG 

GGElBiGB 

E EGEG 

ggg: egbgbge 

lEGEGECECBCEG 
1 12 

Fig. 541. 



12GEOEQGBBBBBB 
EGBGEGBBBBBB 
Ca_E BBBBBBB 

E^EGB.BIJ X. " 

eSeg'b^E IEGEG 
GEGEGB E 3 E 
GGGGGGB^EGEG 

DaaGaaaBasaH 
cgggg: b b bg 

gggggg: a Bus 

IBGEGBGEGEGEG 
1 12 

Fig. 542. 



MEGBGEGBGCGGDEG 

L B.jBGEGSGGaOGE 

e:e"b sgcggceg 

GE EGEGEGGGGaE 
G EGE E "GGGGEC 
CB_B_B lEGGGGGE 
EGEGEGE EGEGBG 
GB. SGEGE "E E~E 
BBBBBBB 

1H3B1 a a a 

ICBBBBE E^E^EG 

E ^ n n n n n j 

IGEGEGBGEGEGEaa 

1 14 



ICE :s E BBBBBBB 3 

GOGS' 3G3BBBBBBBE 

B B BBBBBBBG 

"Biitm:: 

a a a :: bbbbbbb i 

BBBBBBBBB 

B a B 3 BBBBBBB 1 

B B B BBBBBBBBB 

BGBGBGEGBBBBBBBG 
GGGGGGGB IE "E~EGE 

aaaaaaGGBGB egbg 

DDDGGGGE GBGEGBGB 
DDDaDC:. IE "BG3GBQ 
nnDQQG-.EG3GE.G3 B 

aaaaaG_ ege.. eg hj 

laaGGGaGEGEGBGEuB 

1 10 



Fig. 543. 



Fig. 544. 



Fig. 543. Repeat: 14 warp-threads and 14 picks. Can be reduced to a 6-harness <l section 
draw." 

Fig. 544. Repeat : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. Can be reduced to a 5-harness " section 
draw." 

IMITATION GAUZE. 

These weaves are used for such fabrics as dress goods, curtains, ladies' aprons, canvas cloth, 
etc. In designing these weaves the end to be gained, is to have 3 to 4 warp-threads and also 3 to 4 
picks intersect each other very easily, while the next following warp and filling thread form a com- 
plete break from the one ahead, and so can be readily kept apart for some distance. In the warp 
these breaks are separated by the reed by leaving one, two, three or more dents empty. The 
threads required for a close working are drawn in one dent. To give a clear explanation of th<= 
matter, Figs. 545 to 553 have been designed. 






103 



13 4 6 

"DBOBDBDBGBDB 
UIGGrillGLG 
_CBCBGBCBDBGB 
BGBGBGBGBDBG 
■■■ ■■■ 

BGBZBZBZBCBO„ 
II BZB. BZBO 
BBBOGCBBBCCG 
QBGBGBCBGBGB4 
- BOBCBGBOBGBC3 
_■■■ BBB 

■GBGBGBGBCBZl 
Til 



■■■■ 
/DBO 



BGB 
□DD 
BGB 



DBG 



<B ■ 
DOG 
BOB GBG 
a b c d 

Fig. 546. 



Fig. 545- 



Fig. 545 illustrates the 6-harness imitation plain gauze-weave; the 
lines for the warp ( | ) indicate the break, and so the place in the 
reed where one, two or three dents are to be left empty. Warp-threads, 
1, 2, 3 are drawn together in one dent, as also warp-threads 4, 5 
and 6. 

Examining the weave, filling- ways, the break appears between picks 3 — 4 and 
6 — 7, etc. Picks 1, 2, 3 intersect easily, and also in their turn after the break, picks 4, 5, 6, to be 
followed again by a break; picks 6 to 7 equal to 6 to I. 

Fig. 546 represents a general analysis of the weave, which will at once convey an idea of 
the method of arrangement and operation. 
r a to b, = 3 warp-threads for 1st dent. 

b to c, = space for one (or two or more) empty dents. 
\ c to d, = 3 warp-threads for the 3d dent (or 4th, 5th, etc.). 

From d to repeat of weave again (= d) leave space (empty dents) equal to the one left 
^ from b to c. 

{ a to e, = 3 picks for close work, 
j e to f, = space for open work, equal to b, c in warp. 
\ftog f = 3 picks for close work. 
[_ From g to repeat of weave again (= a) leave space equal to the one left from e to/. 






^•0 



15 




1 45 8 

GBBIBGGBGBBGBCGB 
BBBB ■■■■ < ] 

■■■a ... ■ ■■■■ 1 

_ . ■■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ .LB 

■ ■ ■■ _■ . B BBIJ 
_ .- HIS ■■■■ 

■ ■■■ 'V BBBB 

■ ■ ■■ ■ zi.iin 

■■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ BS 
BBBB ' BBBB I [] 
BBBB BBBBZOOG 
_ BBZB B BB B CBS 

■ ZB BB~B B II 

BBBB .: BBBB 
BBBB BBBB 
_BGGBGBBDBGDBGBBG1 
I I I i I 



Fig. 548. 



fCBBG 



lMU 

t I 



BGGB 

oaca 

! 

G BGGB 



■ BUB 
BUHB 



^BGGB 

aaaa 

BGGB 
a b 

Fig. 549 



■ 
c 



II 
d 



Fig. 547 illustrates the enlargement of a fabric produced on weave Fig. 545, under the pre- 
viously explained rules. As this figure cannot help but to explain itself, we will consider the 
imitation gauze-weave, produced upon 8-harness and 8 picks repeat, which is shown in Fig. 548. 

The lines for the warp ( | ) indicate operations as explained by Fig. 545, the break, hence 
the place for one, two or more empty dents, so as to form the open work in the warp. Warp- 
threads I, 2, 3 and 4 are drawn together in one dent, also warp-threads 5, 6, 7 and 8, etc. In 
the filling the break appears between picks 4 — 5 and 8 — 9, equal 8 — 1. 

Fig. 549 represents the analysis of the weave with regard to appearance in the fabric. 

Warp. — a to b, 4 warp-threads drawn in one dent, b to c, for one empty dent (or two 
or more), c to d, 4 warp-threads drawn again in one dent. From d to repeat of weave (= <?) 
leave the same number of empty dents as left from b to c. 

Filling. — a to e, 4 picks, close work, e to /, space for open work, equal to b to c, and d to 
a, in warp. / to g, 4 picks, close work. From g to repeat of weave again (= <i) leave space 
equal to the one left from c to/. 



104 



Fig- 55° illustrates the enlargement of a fabric produced on weave Fig. 548, under the 
rules already mentioned. 

Figured Imitation Gauze. 

The first step for figuring imitation gauzes 

: — is to produce stripes of the same in connection 

= with part of the fabric woven in the common 

' — manner. With regard to wear, imitation gauzes 

will be less durable than real gauze; yet as to 



r m- 



i 



I I I I I M I- 



m 



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A 
Plain Ground. 



C 



533: 



D 



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FF 3 



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1 B B ■ B B B B7B B fl 1BGBGBGBG 



1DI 
1 



Fig. 551. 



33 



12 3 4 



6678 

Fig. 550. 



— general appearance, very novel designs are pro- 
duced in the former. Fig. 551 illustrates the 
weave for such a combination of common, plain 
and imitation gauze forming stripes. A is the 
common plain interlacing part, B the close- 
reeded part, B to C and C to D forming open work (separated by thread C). D is the close-reeded 
part, D to iTand E to informing open work (separated by thread E). F close-reeded part. Repeat 
of weave: 32 warp-threads and 12 picks. 

The second movement in figuring is the 
forming of checks. 

Fig. 552 illustrates such a design, forming 
in the fabric checks interlaced on the common 



38h b~b ;s 'S~'S 'H^majH a ~b 'hjbghgbgbgbo 

a a a a a a a a a «~b \ bbb bbb 

a a a a a a a a a a a b a b a b b b i 

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1 a a a a a a a a a n ■ d b b h b b b 
a a a a a a s~ s a .b a & a as a m a i 
1. a a a a a a a a aGijGBBBGGGBBBaaGBBB 
a a .a .a a .a :a a a a m b..b~bgb .ibgb b i 
ca a a a a a a ,a a a bgb 1 bgbgbgbgbgb 
a a a a a a a a a bbb ugbbbG' ijbbbggg 
La a. a a:s a a a a b b~bjbgb~bgbgbdb 
a a a a a a ¥ a a a a a a b b b bbb 
La a. a a :a a a a a 1 : bbb. i <bbb i bbq 
a a a a a a a a as ■ e a a b a a a 

a a" a a a a a a :b_;b~ibgb b jlijiliidi 
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a a a a a m m a b b b bbb 
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BBB G BBB a JB33 13 33 Q IB .3 :3 



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... BJ3 ,3G3 3 
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a ,a iB a : 
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a .ib ib 



:_ia: 



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a ib j 
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ib a i 
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3 a a 
a a a i 



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iQBQBQBQBGBaBaBaBQflaaG3aaGBaaua3a_.a_ia 

1 31) 

Fig. 552. 

plain weave to alternate with checks produced 
by imitation gauze; 36 warp-threads and 36 
picks forming the repeat. Reeding: 3 threads 
in one dent, 2 dents empty, and over again. 
Diagram Fig. 553 illustrates the plan of 




Fig. 553. 



the fabric woven with weave Fig. 552. This method of combining the plain weave and imitation 
gauze for forming figures can also be applied to ornamental or floral designs. 



Combination of Weaves for Fabrics Constructed with One 
System of Warp and Two Systems of Filling. 

The object in designing these weaves is twofold — either to produce additional bulk to a purely 
single-cloth fabric, or to produce figuring otherwise impossible to be obtained on purely single 

cloth. 

Combining Two Systems of Filling with One Kind of Warp, for increasing the Bulk. 

As seen by the above heading, two systems (or kinds) of filling are essential to the con- 
struction of these fabrics. One filling (the face filling) forms with one system of the warp the 
face of the fabric, while the other filling (the backing) forms, by an additional interlacing in the 
warp before mentioned, the back of the fabric. The latter filling is solely applied to the single 
■cloth, as mentioned, for the purpose of increasing the thickness, and might properly be considered 
only as a lining. To increase the thickness of a fabric in this manner is of great advantage to 
the manufacturer, and is thus used very extensively in the manufacture of " heavy-weight " 
"woolens, etc. The weave employed for the face of the fabric (interlacing the warp and the face 
filling) is generally of a more artistic construction than the weave used for interlacing the backing 
into the above-mentioned fabric. 

It will readily appear that the warp-thread i in these fabrics must resist to a certain extent 
more strain than the filling, and for this reason should be composed of a better stock, in addition 
to a harder twist. The backing must contain only a small amount of twist, so that the bulk of 
the thread (without considering its additional heavier size) will always be larger than the harder- 
twisted face-filling or the warp. The " soft" twist in the backing will also produce a soft hand- 
ling fabric. Among the materials for producing a proper backing, which may be used with 
advantage in addition to wool, are the cheaper articles, such as shoddy, mungo, card-waste, roving- 
waste, etc. 

In constructing the weaves, we must first deal with the face-weave (interlacing warp and face 
filling), and this in a manner independent of any additional backing-; as it applies to any 
weave for single cloth. 

The backing must only form an addition, separately introduced into the face fabric and for 
purpose originally intended, unless a special effect, such as " tricot," etc., is required. 

The most frequently used proportions for backing to face filling are : One pick face to alter- 
nate with one pick back and two picks face to alternate with one pick back. Seldom do we find 3 
picks face to alternate with 1 pick back ; or irregularly, as 2 picks face, I pick back, 1 pick face, 
I pick back, 5 picks in repeat, etc., etc. 

In using the arrangement "one face pick to alternate with one backing" be careful to use a 
size of the latter not much heavier (if any at all) than the former. If using a backing of a too 
heavy size, it will influence the closeness of the face filling and produce an " open face, " appear- 
ance in the fabric. 

As mentioned before, the backing should be of no consideration in the construction of the 
single cloth, and this with respect to its weave as well as to its texture, i. e, the same number of 
picks required in a single-cloth fabric must be retained for face picks if a fabric containing face 
and back filling is constructed. Thus, for example : A fabric on the single-cloth system requiring 
44 picks per inch will require, if arranged in its filling " I pick face to alternate with 1 pick back," 
£8 picks per inch. Again, if 2 picks face are to alternate with 1 pick back, use 66 picks per 
inch, etc., etc. 

(105) 



106 



In both examples given, we suppose the size (J. e., thickness) of the warp and face filling to 
remain undisturbed. 

Rules to be Observed in Designing these Weaves. 

The weave for the back filling must be selected without disturbing the face. The back 
filling in its method of interlacing must pass readily underneath the face pick previously inter- 
woven ; also, allow the next succeeding face pick to cover any part not covered by the previously 
interwoven face pick. 

To produce this result the warp-threads used for binding the back filling must be in the 
lower shed, in the face pick preceding the backing as well as the one following it. 

Another point, which properly comes under the present rules, but which has been treated to 
a certain extent before, is, to arrange regular transpositions of face and back picks. 

If the face-weave contains a far-floating filling, the binding of the backing into the warp- 
threads should be arranged as nearly as possible in the centre of this float. 

To produce good work, and perfect cloth, every warp-thread should be used in rotation 
according to the weave for binding the back; because, if some warp-threads should be omitted, 
they will get less tension through weaving, and give trouble. A bad shed will result, etc., with a 
possibility of spoiling the fabric. If we should be obliged to omit some of the warp-threads 
from the binding in the back, we must be careful to arrange those used in a regular and well- 
distributed manner. 

Among points worth considering in the manufacture of the present kind of fabrics we note: 
If the weave (or system) for interlacing the backing to the warp is of a short repeat, that is, no 
large floats of the backing, we must use a soft-twisted back filling. Should we use a very hard- 
twisted yarn, the possibilities are that the backing will "show through" on the face. 

To use a backing with the least possible twist (yet sufficiently so to avoid "tender" goods) 
will also be of advantage during the finishing process, as most fabrics to which the present sys- 
tem of weaves applies require a soft well-covered back. 

leHG^EGEGG 

BODBBDDB 
BCGGGGBE 
CCBBCZBB 
DEEEGGGG 
DBBDOBBQ 
GEEEEEED 
BBGGBBQa 
EEGEGGDB 
BCGBBuLB 
GGGGGCGB 
■I II 
EEHGCGBG 
DBBCZBBQ 
GGQCaGBG 
IBBQDBBOa 



□DCBGCTB 

aiHEE aa 
qqbz^ b : 

GEEZBEB 

DBzaaBzzi 

GaEGaHa i 
1B3JDB-JD 

i i 
Fig. 554. 




Fig. 555- 



Fig. 556. 



Care must also be exercised in selecting the material for the backing with due consideration 
of the proportional amount of binding. 

The heavier in size the backing is, the earlier will imperfections appear. 

We will next consider a few of the most frequently used combinations of weaves for these 
fabrics. 

Let us first consider the weave Fig. 554. The arrangement to be observed in combining 
face and back filling is to take one of each system alternately. For the face-weave (picks, 1,3, 

5, 7) select the 4-harness 3 twill (see ■ type). The interlacing of the back filling arrange with 

the T 4-harness twill (see a type). Repeat of complete weave: 4 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

For a proper understanding of the present weaves, two different characters of type are used, 
one for indicating the face filling (b) and one for indicating the backing (n). 

Diagram Fig. 555 illustrates the section cut of a fabric interlaced on weave Fig. 554. 

Weave Fig. 556 shows the 4-harness even-sided twill arranged for "backing cloth." For 
the intersecting of the backing the 8-harness j twill is used. Thus one repeat of the inter- 
lacing of the backing equals two complete repeats of the face-weave. 



107 



Fig. 557 illustrates the section of a fabric interlaced with weave Fig. 556. The back 

stitches onto the regular 8-harness s twill, as mentioned before, and, in consequence, runs its 

points of interlacing to the face in one twill line of the latter, leaving the second undisturbed. 
This, in turn, shows every alternate twill line on the face of the fabric (into which the backing 
binds) more prominently than the other. To prevent this, it is advisable to use the weave shown 
in Fig. 558, being the same face as previously used, except having the 8-harness satin applied for 
interlacing the backing. 




nU, 



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Fig. 557. 



Fig. 558. 



The latter weave combines face and back by alternately exchanging the points of interlacing 
from one twill line of the face to the other; thus in one repeat of the complete weave it has four 
points of interlacing in each twill line of the face. This method of arranging a weave produces 
a smooth face, one twill line showing as prominently as the other over the entire surface of the fabric. 

Fig- 559- Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 24 picks. Face-weave: 3 6-harness twill. 

Weave for interlacing the backing: 12-harness satin. This weave, like weave Fig. 558, produces 
a smooth face. 

An illustration of a fancy twill, arranged for backing, is given in weaves Figs. 560 and 561. 

Fig. 560 represents the face-weave. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

Fig. 561 illustrates this face-weave arranged for a backing cloth, one pick face to alternate with 
one pick back. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 32 picks. The weave used for interlacing the backing 



to the face-fabric is the - 



10 



-. 1 6-harness twill. 







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■■ 1 ■■■■■■ a 

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i BBB B BB BB l.l 


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aaaa aaaaaaa 


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aaaa aaaaaaaaaa i 


BB 


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Fig. 559- 


Fig. 560. 


Fig. 561. 


] 


7 IG. 


562. 





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■ fl Bfl Bfl m~ZM 

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I ■■ ■ ■■ ■ J BB 

aaaa aaaaaa aaa 

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1 

Fig. 563. 



Fig. 562 illustrates an entwining twill. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. This twill 
is illustrated as applied for backing in weave Fig. 563, one pick face to alternate with one pick back. 

In applying backing to similar "entwining-twills," as also to "broken-twills," be careful to 
arrange the same so as to have the points of interlacing follow the twill lines in the face-weave 
running in the direction from left to right, as well as from right to left. 

Granite-weaves constructed from the satins are well adapted for the application of a backing. 
In this case the satin which was used in the construction of the face will be the weave required 
for the backing. 

For example, see weaves Figs. 564 and 565. 



108 



Fig. 564 illustrates a common granite-weave, which is shown with a backing applied in Fig. 565. 
Weave Fig. 564 (single weave). Repeat: 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Fig. 565, the previous weave with a backing applied. Repeat: 8 warp-threads and 16 picks. 
Fig. 566. Diagram of the section cut of a fabric interlaced on weave Fig. 565. # = face 
filling; b, backing. 





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1 ■■ ■■ J 


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EBBGEBBE 


■ ■■ ■ 


QMGGGBBJ 


■ DC ■■ ■ 


CEEEBEBE 


1 ■■ ■■! J 


1 JGOBIGBB. 


OMCXOM 


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DQOMOM 


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Fig. 564. 



Fig. 565. 



Fig. 566. 



In fabrics in which the arrangement of one face pick to alternate with a backing will pro- 
duce too heavy a cloth — in fabrics in which the arrangement of combining the backing to the 
face-weave cannot be properly effected, and in fabrics in which it is desired to have used a much 
heavier size of yarn for the backing than is used for the face filling, the arrangement just given 
cannot be followed. It must be changed to 2 picks face and 1 pick back. 

This proportion of face and back is very extensively used in the manufacture of woolen fabrics. 

Producing the backing of a heavier size will (taken in the average) allow of a cheaper mate- 
rial (waste) being used. It also tends to a greater production of cloth by using less picks per 
inch ; a larger quantity of roving per set of cards in a given time, more pounds of yarn per 
spindle, etc., etc. Another point much in favor of the present designated proportion of face and 
back filling is the advantage of getting a full face with less picks per inch than by using the 
proportion of one pick face to alternate with one pick back. 

Weave Fig. 567 illustrates the combination of the 3 6-harness twill with the j twill,. 

but using only every other warp-thread. Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 18 picks. 

If the proportion of one face pick to one back pick produces a cloth too heavy, and the 
two face picks to alternate with one back pick produces a cloth too light, or should the size of the 
backing yarn be too heavy for one face and one back, or too fine for two face 
and one back, we must use the average of both; thus — 

2 picks face, 
1 pick back, 
I pick face, 
I pick back, 

5 picks in repeat. Fig. 567. 

Should a fabric require a proportional arrangement, of less weight than that produced by 
2 face 1 back, use 3 picks face to alternate with 1 pick back, etc., etc. 

Combining Two Systems of Filling with One Kind of Warp for Figuring with Extra 

Filling upon the Face of the Fabric. 

In these weaves the extra filling is brought at certain intervals upon the face of the fabric for 
forming additional fancy effects. In woolen and worsted fabrics, for men's wear, these effects are 
generally limited to stripes and checks, whereas if used for dress goods they are 
often of a very elaborate design. 

Weave Fig. 568 represents a stripe effect, produced by an extra filling (back 
filling) introduced after four successive ground (face) picks, a face picks (ground), 
■ figure picks (back). The weave employed for the ground fabric is the commoa 
2- Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 5 picks, a and ■ for raisers, □ for sinkers. 



isbbbgbeebhbbe: 

■■LDOuMBOOOB 
■QODMBOOQBn 

egeeeeeebeeb 

riiJUBBBOOCBBB 
ODHBDOQHMD. 
EEBEEEEBBEED 

BUB BBS 

Ml Ml 

HHBEEEEEEGEE 

■■r.'i jmc-i ■ 
■onoMaQDnn 

BBBBBBBOEBBH 

DC ' aaa aaa 

aaa aaa 

BBEBaaBBBEEB 

□■■■CQDBMQL 

lBMLjQCJBBBnOO 

1 1U 



■■III Mil 

HnDEBOQBBCDB 
LjGBB' 1 EB : li IEB 
DBaDQBSODBED 

be 1 .aaa: ee jg 

■ Mil Mil 

EDGBBUGBEGQB 
DGEBl IGEEHGBa 
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1 12 

Fig. 568. 
4-harness twill 



109 

Design Fig. 569 illustrates the figuring with an extra filling for forming a small spot figure. 

This extra filling is similar (except the floating, which is more 
extended) to the previously illustrated example of floating on 
the back of the fabric and is interlaced with the face fabric in a 
manner to produce the desired effect; in the present instance 
producing small spots. This extra filling, floating to a great 



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1 — ri~o ~r*i "^ — ^ "T" ""ti r^ '7' "r^^^ - " ri ~^ — ,n "i*^ 

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r - ^ *^ 3 '3 3 — 3 3 3 ^ 3 3 3 ^ ~H ~3 3 






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extent on the back of the fabric, is generally removed by cutting 
off those floats around the place where they interlace with the 
face fabric. 

Another style of fabric which is constructed on this system 
of weaves are union fabrics, comprising certain kinds of shawls, 
Chinchilla and Ratine overcoatings, etc. 

In weaves for this description of fabrics the interlacing of 
the face filling with the warp is the same as the one used for 
interlacing the backing. The warp, which is in most cases of 
■■■■■■■■niiiBBaaiiiB cotton, rests imbedded between the two kinds of filling-. 
i"*B*3ia!;a"™""s""™""""za Fig. 570 illustrates the combination of the 5 -harness satin 

Fig. .569. filling up for face and the 5-harness satin warp up for back; 

thus the same weave will form the face and back. Repeat: 5-harness and 10 picks. 

Fig. 571 represents a like combination of the 8-harness satin filling up for face, warp up for 
back. Repeat: 8-harness and 16 picks. 

I6nnpr — npnn 

ISSBBSZEEEEa 

czzbzzzzbzi 
cbzzzzbz; 

3333 3333 

CZZ'IBZ: :zb 
CZBZZZZBZZ 1 
3 3333 333 
BZZZZBZZZZ 
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33 3333 :33 
IZBZZZZBZZZl 
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HPJHI " 3 "'■'"'■ , H " 'T 
GZBCCODB^G 
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1 5 10 

Fig. 572. 



M3ZB3& 

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cbzz: 
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:cb 

DBEBE 
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a 

Fig. 57c. 



16EEEZ 


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Fig. 571. 



Fig. 572 illustrates the 5-harness satin filling up for face and the same weave, warp up, for 
back. Arrangement for exchanging face and back filling is 2 picks face, 1 pick back. Repeat: 
5 warp-threads and 15 picks. 

Swivel-Weaving. 



For fabrics in which the figures are produced with an extra filling and these figures, as seen 
on the face, are far apart, as in figured dress goods, ribbons, etc., these figures arc produced 
upon the ground structure of the fabric by using a loom having a "swivel lay" attached. 

The object of "swivel-weaving" is to save material in fabrics having small figures for the 
design, and to give to such figures a more prominent appearance in the fabric than can be pro- 
duced by the common method of weaving by floating the filling on the back when not required 
for figuring on the face. There is a further 

advantage in the designing, for no disturb- ( ~~J~ [ - ... nr .. rr i-. 

ance of the design is necessary. 

Again, in cases where, in the ordinary 
process of weaving, the figure-filling would 
shew through on the face, and thus must 
be cut off, this method of weaving omits 
the cutting away of the loose filling on the 
back; and in this case tlu s.vivol arrangement contributes to the strength of the fabric. 




no 

Fig. 573 is an illustration of a swivel fitted in a movable frame to be attached to the regular 
batten of a loom. 

The method of weaving fabrics figured by the swivel arrangement is as follows : After the 
common shuttle carrying the ground filling 



•j 



V* 



"N 









C* 



?i 







Fig. 574. 



is interwoven, a separate shed of the warp is 
opened for the introduction of the swivel 
shuttles (instead of passing a common shuttle 
all the way across the loom) carrying the fill- 
ing which has'to form the figures on the fabric 
at intervals of two or more inches. Each 
figure in the fabric is formed by its own shuttle 
(filling); hence it is apparent that by the swivel 
arrangement we can have different colors in 
the same shed across the fabric. In using a 
fly-shuttle in common weaving the filling from 
the latter has to be used in every figure, whereas by the swivel method every figure may have 
its own color. 

The swivel is used to the best advantage in the production of small spot figures. 

In Figs. 574 and 575 such effects are shown. 

As the shuttles of the " swivel " are all of a given size, and are arranged in certain distances, 
they require the design to be arranged accordingly. By examining Figs. 574 and 575 we find 
the distances between the figures to outmeasure completely the spaces occupied by the figures 
themselves, which point it is necessary as a standard rule to keep steadily under consideration in de- 
signing. One and three-quarter inches is about the smallest width of the shuttle, thus two inches 
is the smallest distance possible to be used by a shuttle of such a size ; but generally a wider 





Fig. 576. 



Fig. 575. 



The general rule to 



distance between the figures is allowed so as to get a more perfect fabric 

be observed in designing for these fabrics is to have the distance between the figures about thrice 

as wide as the space occupied by the figure itself. 

In these designs the ground filling forms the general design for a ground or all-over effect, 






Ill 

while the filling introduced by the swivel shuttles only contributes to the coloring up of par- 
ticular effects. 

Circular swivels are used for fabrics where very close-set figures are required. These swivels 
are specially constructed for these effects. 

Combination of the Swivel Effect with Figuring through the Warp. 

In some fabrics (but only where the most exquisite designs, richness and fineness of material 
are employed) this method is applied, hence we have to use the following four distinct systems of 
threads in producing the fabric : 

ist. One kind of warp to form a general ground fabric with 

2d. The regular ground filling ; 

3d. One kind of warp to produce, on the two systems mentioned, the foundation parts of a 
design, into which the filling from the 

4th, swivel shuttles forms the figure spots. 

Fig. 576 is executed on this method. In this we find the white grounds for systems 1 and 2. 
The stems, leaves and buds, only outlined in design for system 3, whereas the two shaded 
flowers have to be produced through system 4, or the swivel shuttle. Design Fig. 576, illustrat- 




ing only one effect, has to be arranged for practical use according to the fabric for which it is 
required. 

Another combination of the swivel arrangement with figures produced with the common 
shuttle, but of a yet more complicated nature, is procured by combining systems of threads as 
follows : 

ground warp. 

ground filling (common shuttle). 

figure warp. 

figure filling (common shuttle). 



ist system 

2d 

3d 

4th " 

5th 



the filling from the swivel shuttle. 



Swivel Loom. 

The foregoing explanation of the theory of swivel weaving requires in practice a loom which 
must be capable of two different movements — namely, the plain or fly-shuttle movement, and the 
swivel and plain weaving movements combined — to produce the figure or pattern in the body of 
the fabric while the latter is being woven. 

For illustrating the method of operation in such a loom diagrams Figs. 577 to 580, represent- 
ing the J. Wadsworth swivel loom, are given, similar letters referring to like parts in each figure. 



112 

The before-mentioned two movements are carried on in the following manner: First, the 
loom having been adjusted for plain weaving, the cam-shaft C is in the position shown in Fig. 
577, which illustrates a view of part of the loom, partly broken out, looking down upon the same. 
As the cam-shaft revolves the roller projections z* z 3 at the right-hand end of said shaft, and the 
similar projections, z' z 2 , at the other end of the cam-shaft, alternately depress the treadles / t y 
which in turn operate the picker-sticks s s, to throw the fly or body shuttle back and forth across 
the loom, as in ordinary weaving. The rollers z' , z 2 , z 3 and z* must be so placed in relation to 





*3 



Fig. 57S. 

each other that they will act alternately, first operating the picker-stick at one side of the loom 
and then the picker-stick at the other side of the loom, and so on. The fly-shuttle is thereby 
caused to pass across the loom four times during one revolution of the shaft C. This is the 
plain-weaving motion of the loom producing the body of the fabric, and is the first motion referred 
to above. The next operation is the introduction of the swivel-shuttles for the purpose of weav- 
ing figures or patterns. This is accomplished by shifting the shaft C with its attached cams and 
rollers along the line of its horizontal axis from right to left, so that it will occupy the position 
shown in Fig. 578. The harness and other portions of the loom not essential to a full under- 
standing by the student are omitted from the drawings. By the shifting of the cam-shaft a new 
set of cams and levers is brought into action, and the operation of certain of the devices which 
were in action before the shifting of the shaft is arrested, while a portion of the devices which 
were in action before the shifting of the shaft remains in action after the shaft has been shifted. 




Fig. 579. 

The new cams and levers thus brought into play, acting in connection with the devices which 
remain in operation after the shifting of the shaft, as stated, give the second movement 
previously mentioned — namely, the combined plain and swivel movement. 

In diagram Fig. 579 the front view of the loom is illustrated, in which a portion of the plate 
at the left-hand end of the loom is cut away to enable the rollers z' z 2 the more readily to skip 
or miss the treadle. In place of the shots of the fly-shuttle, the swivel-shuttles are called into 
action by means of the second change effected by the shifting of the cam-shaft — namely, that by 
which the arms b b, with their attached rollers d d' , are caused to operate the treadles a a and to 



113 



give to the rack E, containing the swivel-shuttles D D D the necessary downward motion, and 
by which at the same time the cam/, through its connections K L J, is caused to drive the swivel- 
shuttles horizontally to weave the desired figure or pattern. The action of the fly-shuttle must 
alternate with that of the swivel-shuttle. The operation then is as follows, reference being had 
to Figs. 578 and 579. As the cam-shaft C revolves the roller s* depresses the treadle to operate 
the picker-stick, thus throwing the fly-shuttle from right to left. During the next quarter-turn 
of the shaft the roller z' would operate the picker-stick at the left side of the loom to return the 
fly-shuttle were it not that by the shifting of the cam-shaft this roller is thrown out of gear. In 
its stead, the rollers d d, attached to the arms b b, are brought into contact with the treadles a a y 
and, depressing the same, pull downward the rods i i (against springs J X J X , arranged around the 
same), and the attached rack E, containing the swivel-shuttles V V V, is thus brought into posi- 
tion for the working of the swivel-shuttles with the warp. Almost simultaneously with this 
downward movement the swivel-shuttles are driven longitudinally from right to left by means of 
the cam/", acting in connection with the levers Ka.nd L, rod J, and the rack-and-pinion mechanism. 
By referring to Figs. 579 and 580 it will be seen that on the outer edge of the wheel /, and 
extending half-way around the circumference of the disk, is a collar, e, having its ends beveled. 
As the shaft C revolves, carrying with it the cam/, the roller^, which is attached to the lever K y 
coming into contact with the collar e, is thrown outward, carrying with it the lever K, which in 
turn operates the vertical lever L, moving on the pivot 11. To the free end of the lever L is 
attached the rod/. Rod/ is connected with rack-bar V 2 , see Fig. 573, which rack-bar is sup- 



AT 





Fig. 580. 

ported in the rack E, and is in engagement with pinions V , which in turn engage teeth V 3 upon 
the swivel-shuttles V V V. As the lever K is thrown from right to left, the swivel-shuttles are 
driven in the same direction. This longitudinal motion occurs almost simultaneously with the 
up-and-down movement mentioned before. The roller £" is kept in close contact with the cam/ 
by means of the spring/ and is prevented from being operated by the cam when the cam-shaft 
has been shifted for plain weaving by the stop k. (Shown in Figs. 578 and 580.) By the time 
this double motion has been accomplished the shaft has made another quarter-turn, the rollers 
d d have released the treadles a a, and the springs around the rods i i throw upward the rack E 
and the shuttles V V,to remove the same from the working level and allow the fly-shuttle to pass 
without interference. The cam-shaft having now entered upon the third quarter of its revolution, 
the roller z depresses the treadle t on the left-hand side, thereby operating the picker-stick s to 
throw the fly-shuttle back again across the loom from left to right, the roller z 2, at the other end 
of the shaft at the same time passing inside the corresponding treadle / without operating it. 
The cam-shaft now begins the last quarter of its revolution- The roller z 2 misses the treadle t on 
the left-hand side, as before explained. The rollers d' d' depress the treadles a a for the purposes 
before described, and the roller^, having traversed the collar c, leaves the same and is thrown to 
the right by the spring/ thereby, by means of its attached levers and rod, causing the swivel- 
shuttles to make a shot from left to right. This completes one revolution of the cam-shaft,- and 
the operation is repeated as often as may be desired for the weaving of the figure or pattern. 
When it is desired to return to the plain weaving, the shaft C is shifted back again from left to 
right, and the action of the loom is then the same as that first described. 



Combination of Weaves for Fabrics Constructed with Two 
Systems of Warp and One System of Filling. 

Weaves for this division of fabrics are obtained by the combination of two (or more) founda- 
tion or derivative weaves. They are designed for three purposes. 

1st. For using two systems of warp and one system of filling in producing double-faced 
fabrics, such as ribbons, etc., etc. 

2d. For using an extra warp as backing for heavy-weight worsted and woolen fabrics. 

3d. For figuring with an extra warp upon the face of a fabric otherwise interlaced with its 
own filling and warp. 

Two Systems of Warp and One System of Filling for Producing Double-faced Fabrics. 

These weaves are largely used in the manufacture of ribbons and similar fabrics used for 
trimmings, in which one side of the fabric has to be of a totally different color from the other. 
Such fabrics (mostly of silk) require a great many ends in the warp, as only one-half or two- 
thirds will form one side of the fabric; the remaining half or one-third forming the other. In 
addition to the difference in color for each side we can also change the quality of the stock, or 
the nature of the stock itself; hence we may use a finer quality of stock for one side (the face), 
and a lower quality of stock for the other (the back) ; and again we may use silk for one side 
(the face) and cotton for the other (the back). 

In selecting weaves for these fabrics, we generally use the combination of a regular satin 
weave, warp for face, with its corresponding satin-weave, filling for face. Technically we classify 
the warp which shows on the upper side of the fabric as the " face-warp," and its mate, or the 
warp forming the lower side of the fabric, as the " back-warp." As mentioned at the beginning, 
only one system of filling is used for interlacing both systems of warps. 

In combining both warps into one fabric in this way, it is necessary to observe the following 
Rule : The raising of the backing zvarp over the filling must always be done at a place in which 
ttvo face-threads raise next to it (one on each side of the backing warp as raised). Diagram 
Fig. 581 is designed to illustrate this method. Three warp-threads and four picks are 
represented. 

Warp-threads 1 and 3 illustrate the face warp ; warp-thread 2 represents 
the back-warp. 

In examining the latter warp-thread, we find its point of interlacing 
with the filling situated in pick 2. 

Face warp-threads 1 and 3 are also raised on pick 2, as required by the 
rule (given before) for combining both systems of warps. A careful exami- 
nation of the diagram will show a second point possible for perfectly inter- 
secting the back warp-thread (number 2) into the filling at pick number '3. 
Picks 1 or 4, if used, would produce imperfectly stitched places, as in the 
first-mentioned spot face warp-thread 3 is down, and in the latter-mentioned 
spot face warp-thread 1 is down. To give an illustration of these weaves Fig. 581. 

Figs. 582, 583 and 584 have been designed. 

Weave Fig. 582, repeat: 8 warp-threads and 4 picks, has for its foundation the combination 
of the 4-harness broken-twill, warp up {ox face (■), and the 4-harness broken-twill, filling up for 
back (a). The arrangement of the warp for face and back in this weave and weaves Figs. 583 
and 584, is one end face to alternate with one end back. 

(114) 



■0 

03 

x 
a 

u 

03 

+-» 

IT, 


03 
<U 
u 
X 

-t-> 

1 

a 
■a 


T3 

a> 
I* 

XI 

■*-» 
a 

03 

T3 








m 


4th pick. 


■ 




u 


3d pick. 


■ 


• 


u 


2d pick. 


■ 






1st pick. 



115 

Weave Fig. 583, repeat: 10 warp-threads and 5 picks, has for its foundation the combi- 
nation of the 5-harness satin, warp up, for face (■), and the 5-harness satin, filling up, for 
back (a). 



nOBEBGBGGGBSBGBG 

■□■Q-' bebzbgg zbe 
b::b ■ ■ _.BHBaBD.:a 
b zbeb b beb 

4zzbsbzb:z bebzbg 
bzbzzgbebzb : :;ih 
beb b ibeb ■:: 

ib beb b :_ _beb_ 

1 8 10 



"BZB BEBGBCBTGZBEBO 

BBBZBZBZZGBEBGBGBGGa 
: I ZGBEBCBGBZQGBEBaBa 
BGBGBC IBS B B BE 

1ZZBEB^BZBZZ_BSBZBZBG 
1 10 20 



fBGBGBGBOBCGGBEB j 

bgb:::. bub bcbgbg 
bebcbzbzbzbgbhgg 
bzb::b bzzzbeb bj 
bzzzbebzbgbzbgbg 

B ■ ■ ■ ■ B [ BE 
IlI ■ BSBCBGBG 

1GZBEBGBCBCBZBZBZ! 
1 10 



Fig. 582. 



Fig. 583. 



Fig. 584. 



Weave Fig. 584, repeat : 16 warp-threads and 8 picks, has for its foundation the combi- 
nation of the 8-harness satin, warp up for face (■), and the 8-harness satin, filling up for 
back (a). 

In the same manner as these three examples of weaves are arranged for explaining the 
present system other combinations of satins or twills can be designed. 



Using an Extra Warp for Backing for Heavy-weight Worsted and Woolen Fabrics. 

These weaves are used to obtain a thickness of the fabric by using a lower stock for the 
back, as, for example, a wool back for worsted goods. 

They may be designed with one of the following arrangements for the warp: 

1 end face. 2 ends face. 1 end face. 

1 end back. 1 end back. 1 end back. 
- - 2 ends face, 

2 ends repeat, or 3 ends repeat, or 1 end back. 

5 ends repeat, 
or any other similar arrangement. 

In stitching the back warp to the face fabric it is necessary to observe the following 
points : 

1st. The backing-warp has to be raised over the filling, in every instance, between two face- 
ends, so that the face-threads will afterwards cover the backing ends. Should we have to deal 
with any face-weave in which only one end-warp raises at the time (satins filling up) we must 
raise the backing-warp near this one end-face, either to the right or left hand. 

. 2d. We must select for the backing a weave as regular as possible, such as satin-weaves, 
broken-twills, etc., so that every warp-end gets the same amount of binding and therefore of 
tension. 

3d. If there are more intersections of the face-warp with the filling (in a certain number of 
picks) than intersections with the back-warp (in the same number of picks as before) we must work 
each warp from a separate beam. The face-warp, if intersecting oftener than the back-warp (or 
the same number of picks) requires more material ("takes up more") than the less intersecting 
back-warp. 

Two warp-beams must also be used if the material for the face and back-warp is of a different 
nature, such as wool and cotton or worsted and wool spun yarn, etc. The number of intersec- 
tions of face and back-warp in such a case can be equal. 

4th. If using the arrangement "one end face-warp to alternate with one end back-warp," 
never use a heavier size of warp- yarn for the back-warp than you use for the face-yarn. Such a 
selection will prevent the back-warp from showing upon the face. If using " two ends face to 
alternate with one end back," a proportionally heavier yarn can be used for the back-warp. 
Great care must be exercised in selecting the stock for the face-warp and back-warp for fabrics 
requiring "fulling" during the finishing process. The material in the back-warp, which can be of 



116 

a cheaper quality, must have, as nearly as possible, the same tendency for fulling as the "stock" 
which is used in the face-warp. 

In selecting the weave for the back-warp, we should be guided by the required appearance of 
the face in the fabric. For example, a twill-weave can be used for the interlacing of the back-warp 
if the face-weave is a prominent twill. If the face-warp is interlaced into a twill of short repeat, as 
? j 3-harness twill,? ^ 4-harness twill, etc., etc.; or if the face-warp interlaces on a plain- 
weave, rib-weave, basket-weave, granite-weave, etc., etc., thus showing small broken-up effects upon 
the face of the fabric, a satin- weave must be used for the interlacing of the back-warp. In woolen 
fabrics requiring fulling, the back-warp, by reason of its lesser amount of intersection as compared 
with the face-warp, is apt to show by impressions the points of intersecting of the back-warp on the 



saooGBOBooaDOBEBa 

l i. ■_'■'"■ J-.'_T'BGBO."~J 

■ a nc ■! bebgogoo 

■ . , i:_i..BHBG .jO "IQBG 

a i.imjbebi '.;. : i bubo 

gobeb innaamamaaa 

bkb . l.b:ijdcdd 

iHGGGaaBDBaaaaaBa 

T 16 



Fig. 585. 



8DnnDBnBDDDDDBC!Ba 
□DBHBDDDaaBDBGDC 
BGBGGaaDBEBQDOnr 
BGCGGOBOB BE 
DDDDBHBDnnDDBCBC 
DDBnBDDDDaBHBDDC 

b;:h ... m bgqooc 
1 BaaauDBaBDaaDDBC 

1 16 



Fig. 586. 



■"" "BUB -HOC' " BHBEB " 

■ b ■ i' ■■:-:■ 

■ a a ■::■ i ■ 

B ' ! ■ BUB ■ B : 

C'imB'JBSB/CIJBUBBBG 
B BEB<_ B B B :..! 

BUB ' B B B ,1BG 

IBDDGBGBBBGI DBGBH 
1 8 16 



Fig. 587. 



■_ 'BOB IB" 1DBDBHB 1 

8080801708' "BOBGQG 

b_b 11". b_b::bo::bj 

boggbobob :. : ibcbe 

OOBOBHBOOOBCBOBa 
BOBaBOOOBOBEBOOa 
BEBG' lOBOBOBOOOBO 

)B..__B_BEB BZBG 

1 16 



Fig. 588. 



face cloth. For this reason a twill-weave, which is used for interlacing the back-warp, might possi- 
bly show its lines of impressions running over the face of the fabric, whereas if a satin is used in the 
present example for interlacing the back-warp, the impressions, if visible on the face of the fabric, 
will be well distributed and harmonize in every respect with the weave used for the interlacing of 
the face-warp. 

Weave Fig. 585 illustrates what might be called an imperfect combination. The ^ 4-har- 

ness twill forms the face upon every alternate warp-thread; the - 7 8-harness twill, the weave 

for the back-warp. It will readily be seen that the repeat of the 7 8-harness twill, 

taken in equal proportions with the 2 - 2 twill, will require two repeats of the latter. The 

interlacing of the back-warp into the face-twill will thus only occur with every other face-twill, 
and proportionally make every other face-twill appear more prominently. 

Weave Fig. 586 illustrates a perfect selection of weaves, the 2 4-harness twill forming the 

face upon every alternate warp-thread with the 8-harness satin- weave (filling for face) as the weave 
for the back-warp. A careful examination of this weave will show the method of perfectly com- 
bining the back-warp with the face fabric by stitching the former alternately (exchanging) into 
each twill line of the two repeats of the 4-harness twill, forming one repeat. 

Repeat of weaves Figs. 585 and 586 is 16 warp-threads and 8 picks. 



SOODOOOOOBOBaBOBO 


8CGBBCBBG 


80000H0B0DDBEB00D 


800DBBaBB 


DuD lUUBuBHBOBOUU 


BOBBOOOB 


BuaoBHBunaoQanBa 


BOOOBBOB 


000L a : bub :BDoaao 


BGnOBBOB 


BOOOOGnDBDBOODBa 


DBBOBBDO 


DDB .BKBOBLDQOOOa 


OBBOBBOO 


Dl B » ;.i jHHB ID OD 


OOBBOBBO 


BDBEBUHOOODOaaOa 


OBBOODBB 


CaBHB'"'L'L naOQBDBO 


BDBMQDOB 


bhb::b louauaoDDBa 


- OOOBBOBB 


DOOODOBnBDI 'UBEJBD 


■BOBBOOD 


BGBULjDacaaouBGBa 


BBOflBOOD 


B B HOI -BHBD : \jOUO 


BBOIOnBBO 


IBuUGGUGCQUBOBEBD 
16 


IBBOODBBD 
1 8 


1BBB. aCO-j_iBOBaDD 

1 16 


lUHBCOOBB 
1 8 



Fig. 589. 



Fig. 590. 



Fig. 591. 



Fig. 592. 



8naonnBBonBHBooaooBBOOBHB 

BaDaCOBLBCOBBOaODOBOBaOB 
OOBBOOBHBOOOOCBBQGBHBOOO 
OOOBOBOOBBaaDOOBOBOrBBnO 

b . hub i mm .1 nan . ■ 

■ I17.WI E'K 'BBI".rrOJ 

BHBaDiDQJBBOCBEBGICOGBBIO 

lOOBBOQOGDBGBJjBBGOOOOBOB 

1 12 24 



Fig. 593. 



Weave Fig. 587 illustrates by taking ■ and n for raisers, 1 and a for sinkers, an imperfect 
selection of weaves, as demonstrated and explained by example Fig. 585. 

By exchanging the 8-harness 1 ^ twill (back-weave) in Fig. 587, to the 4-harness twill 

—g (a, ■ and a for raisers, □ for sinkers), we produce a perfect combination ; the back-warp 
interlacing with the face fabric regularly in every face twill-line ; thus, if producing any 
impressions, such will be uniformly visible. 

Repeat, if using the 8-harness 1 ^ twill of weave for back warp : 16 warp-threads and 8 

picks ; if using the 4-harness x 3 twill for weave of back-warp : 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Weave Fig. 588 shows a perfect combination of weaves, the 3 r 4-harness twill for face- 
warp and the a - 7 8-harness satin for back-warp. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 8 picks. 



117 

Weave Fig. 589 shows another perfect combination of weaves. The - 4 8-harness twill is 

used for the face and the - 7 8-harness twill for the interlacing of the back-warp. Repeat: 16 

warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Weave Fig. 590 represents a granite-weave. Repeat : 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Fig. 591 illustrates the combination of weave Fig. 590 for face-warp with the 8-harness 
satin for the back warp, face and back-warp exchanging alternately. Repeat: 16 warp-threads 
and 8 picks. 

Fig. 592 represents a common granite- weave designed for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks in its 
repeat. 

Weave Fig. 593 illustrates the latter applied as a backing warp. Repeat : 12 warp-threads 
and 8 picks. Arrangement of warp : 2 threads face-warp to alternate with 1 thread back-warp. 

The next arrangement for combination of face and back-warp is found in 1 end face, 1 end 

back, 2 ends face, 1 end back =5 ends in repeat. 

6 dm3" Weave Fig. 595 is constructed in this manner, and has for its face- 6 EEi = B= =i -S 

■EEBB" weave Fig. 594 (repeat: 6-harness and 6 picks). Weave Fig. 595 has ■ iBaBdu 

_! for its repeat, 10 warp-threads and 6 picks. L 10 

Pig. 594. r > r r p IG _ 595 _ 



Figuring with an extra Warp upon the Face of a Fabric otherwise interlaced with 

its Regular Warp and Filling. 

This method of combining two systems of warps with one filling is extensively used in the 
manufacture of textile fabrics devoted to women's wear. One system of warp and the filling pro- 
duces the ground structure of the fabric, and then the second system of warp is employed to 

onacOTaaaDGDDaannGnarTxn produce the figure upon this ground structure. 
nDanaocnooDaaonauooaaoaa ,.._,. 

As a peculiarity of this second system of warp, we mention 

3 ~zzHdlB^z BBBB " B " ai - ' = ] that it is only visible on the face of the fabric at certain places 

o iE^B: jj^aS 1 (according to the design), while at other times it is made to float 

f 0200030030333330001303^333 . , , . ..... . , .... . r 

Fig. 596. on the back or is stitched in certain places not visible on the lace. 

Weave to Longitudinal Sec- To give a thorough explanation of the general principles in- 

tion. Fig. 597. volved in this system, Figs. 596 to 609 are given. 

Fig. 596 illustrates a part of a weave. The warp-threads indicated by I and 2, shown by a 
type, represent two ground warp-threads interlacing into the filling in " common plain." Warp- 
thread indicated by 3 and shown by ■ type represents the figuring thread. The latter is 8 
picks down, 8 picks up, 8 picks down. A indicates the place where the figure warp raises on 
the face of the fabric, and B indicates the place where the former returns for floating on the 
back. 



/fee. \ 




Fig 597 . 
(Section corresponding to Fig. 596.) 

Examining the longitudinal section, Fig. 597, we find the same numbers and letters used. 
i\o. 1 warp-thread, ground fabric, is indicated by a dotted line ( 1 in the weavi 
No. 2 warp-thread, ground fabric, is indicated by a fine line ( in the weave). 
No. 3 warp-thread, the figure-thread is indicated by a heavy line (■ in the weave). 
Places A and B in the longitudinal section indicate the respective places marked by corres- 
ponding letters in part of a weave Fig. 596. 



118 

Fig. 598 illustrates two warp-threads of a four-leaf twill, ground fabric, having in its centre 

a figure warp-thread, which also is stitched in certain places to the ground fabric, but so that 

the stitchings are not visible on the face. 

Warp-thread No. 1 reads 2 picks up, ) r .-. 

r r r >o times over, 

2 picks down, 



Warp-thread No. 2 reads 1 pick down, 

2 picks up, 
I pick down, 



)■ Ground threads. 



6 times over, 



Warp-thread No. 3 reads 1 pick down, 

1 pick up (binder), 
4 picks down, 

7 picks up (figure effect on face), 

8 picks down, 

1 pick up (binder), 

2 picks down. 



a 2- 

o 3— 



OQaaoDoanDDnnnnncnnanoaa 
QOo^DQaaoQQOODDaGnanaQoa 
QooQcciODicccoaoaoQCGaan 
QQDQonaaoQODDDanaaaoaaaa 

.jBB_ -[".Si. - --',¥' "_:3S"' _ t =BZ_ i I ! ; J 
■DBGCr " ■■■■■■■ _■ . " /JDGBQQ 

•ejbccw 3 ; ..an :.;. t *n _ _r rij^gana 

□QaDDCGGZCGG^GGGGGCQQOa 
D -) OLD o I JDDDD / "CDDDDnn /->□ 

DDDDDDDaDnnDDDDDDDnDCDDa 



Letter A indicates the binding at pick No. 2. 

Letter B indicates the raising to face at pick No. 7. 

Letter C indicates the lowering to back at pick No. 14. 

Letter D indicates the binding at pick No. 22. 

Examining the longitudinal section Fig. 599, we find the same 
numbers and letters used, so as to give a perfectly clear compre- 
hension of the matter. 

No. 1 warp-thread is indicated by a dotted line, ground fabric (■ in the weave). 

No. 2 warp-thread is indicated by a fine line, ground fabric (■ in the weave). 

No. 3 warp-thread is indicated by a heavy line, representing the figure-thread (represented by 
■ in the weave). 



Fig. 598. 

(Weave to longitudinal section 

F''g. 599-) 




Fig. 599. 
(Section corresponding to Fig. 598 ) 

Places marked A and D clearly indicate the binding of the figure-warp. By the nature of 
the operation the same is pulled down below the ground fabric and covered by the two warp- 
threads nearest to it. 

B represents the raising of the figure-warp; C represents the lowering of the figure-warp. 

Fabrics made with Loose Texture without Binding the Figure. 

If a fabric is constructed with a thin or loose texture, the floating warp-threads are apt to 
show through on the face, hence the latter threads have to be cut off after the fabric leaves the 
loom. In this case a second point has to be considered: 

If the figure-thread (No. 3) as shown in Figs. 596 and 597, after producing the figure on the 
face, simply passes to the rear, there will be nothing else to keep the figure-threads upon the 
ground fabric but the slight pressure of the ground-warp upon the figure- warp, at the place where 
the latter intersects the former. As this would be insufficient to enable the fabric to resist the 



119 

least wear and tear, we must bind the figure-warp close into the ground fabric all around the 
edges of the design. The best weave to be employed for this purpose is the "plain," which by 
two or three repeats will give sufficient strength to the figure-warp to allow it to be cut off on the 
back. (Cut not too close to the place of binding.) 



I'zzzGznznzazazzzzG 
szzzn.-.a. ■zn: n 

a a ■■■■■ c □ 

□ a ■■■■■■■ □ a 

dob ■■■■■■■ a □ 

a ■■■ ■■■■■■■ □ 
d :■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ a 
;.■■■■■■■ : ■■■■■■■ 
□ ■■■■■■■ ■■■■■ q 
: a ■■■■■■■ ■■■ □ 
a a ■■■■■■■ ■ □ c 
c o ■■■■■■■ d a 
■ □□_■■■■■ □ a 
□□■■■□ a 
□ a ■ azazzzs 

XSj.i^.DiQ.: Q^EJ iS.GS 

1 * 17 



6 



Fig. 6oo. 



Fig. 6oi. 



Fig. 6oo is designed to illustrate this point in general, as well as to illustrate a second point, 
in which this binding is used for producing a second effect to the main design itself. In the 
illustration this binding forms a shaded effect around the main design. 

This binding may also be used for shading in floral designs, where in some cases the colors 
have to appear to their full extent. Some cases may'require the same color only in a subdued 
form, while others may require that it shall be scarcely visible. 

To get these effects you have to bind your figure-warp into the ground cloth to a sufficient 
degree and in such order as is required. The weave must be selected according to the required 
effect, whether heavy twills, fine twills, satin-weaves or cotton-weave, etc. 



zhbz: 



-.■8jGHBGG§GGGeZGG3iGZjSGGBaaapaaaHaGGBGaSGGEaHGH9GGGnGGBGGGnGGGHGGGB 

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Fig. 602. 



Fig. 6oi represents a sketch for a design which is practically worked out on the a designing 
paper in Fig. 602, to be used on a common harness-loom for a dress-goods fabric, produced on 
two systems of warp, one system of filling; ground fabric, "plain;" figure as formed by the extra 
warp — circular spots, distributed after the principle of the five-leaf satin. 

The warp is arranged — 

1 end ground, 1 .. , • , 

*> >7 times over, 14 ends. 

1 end figure, J 

1 end ground, 1 end 

1 5 ends in one repeat. 



120 

Fig. 603 illustrates one spot (as used in Fig. 602), shown without the ground-warp, and thus 
represents the spot effect as visible on the face of the fabric. 

In weave Fig. 602 the ■ type indicates the "raisers" for the ground-warp, the ■ indicates. the 
effect of the figure-warp as produced upon the before-mentioned ground-structure. The s indi- 
cates the additional binding of the figure-warp to the ground-structure. 



■■■■■ 



Fig 603. 



Fig. 604. 



As mentioned at the beginning, the plain ground fabric is not always used. Very frequently 
we have used the "twilled" face. For this reason Figs. 604 and 605 are designed, representing the 
sketch of the fabric and the weave. The arrangement of the " motive " in the sketch is after the prin- 
ciple of the four-leaf broken-twill. The weave of the ground fabric consists of the four-harness (even- 
sided) twill 2 2- The b in Fig. 605 represents the ground fabric; the ■ in Fig. 605 represents 



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DBEBDDaDDBaBDDaDDBaBDaannBDBBnDCBBBBBGanEBDBDnannBnBDDLD 

Fig. 605. 

the figure produced upon the former; the e indicates the additional binding of the figure-warp to 
the ground structure. 

The warp is dressed — 

1 end figure, 

1 end ground, 

2 ends in repeat. 

It does not always occur that only one color is used for the figure-warp. Very often differ- 



GEGEGBBBGGGEG 
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IBB 111 

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Fig. 606. 



■■■■ 
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Fig. 60S. 



ent combinations are employed; but, in whatever shape, form, quality or size, the principle of the 
construction of the fabric will remain the same as if only one color should be used. 



121 

We now pass to fabrics where the floating of the figure-warp is omitted, such as fabrics in 
which the extra warp is bound to the ground fabric. In constructing fabrics of this character 
the " plain " weave, which has been used so extensively in weaves previously illustrated for inter- 
lacing the ground structure of the fabric, is omitted. 

The smallest weave which can be used for the present purpose is the 3 -harness = 

twill, but generally the 4-harness even-sided twill is used as the smallest repeat of a weave. In 
this manner Figs. 606 and 607 are constructed, representing a motive and the complete weave for 



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Fig. 607. 



a figured dress-goods. The motive, Fig. 606, calls for 13 threads in warp and filling, hence the 
dressing of the warp for weave Fig. 607 calls for 

I end ground ) 13 times 

j, c ' f =26 ends. 

I end figure, J over, 

15 ends ground, 15 

41 ends in repeat. 

The n is for ground warp, the ■ for figure-warp, and the n represents the places for binding 
the figure-warp to the ground structure. This stitching is done with the regular eight-leaf 
satin. 

Weave 607, calling in its complete extent for 82 ends, can be reduced by cross-draw to 30- 
harness. 

Fig. 608 represents a motive, a crescent, arranged in Fig. 609, for 96 ends repeat. The 
motive calling for 16 ends for figure, will necessitate the following dressing : 

1 end figure, ) 16 times 

j j 1" =32 ends. 

I end ground, J over, J 

16 ends ground, 16 

48 ends in repeat. 



122 

Comparison of the Size of the Materials as used for Ground-warp and Figure-warp. 

The first condition required by the figure-warp is to produce a design solid in appearance on 
the ground fabric. To produce this effect the texture is required to be as close set as possible ; and 
the figure-warp must be made of sufficient thickness, so as to cover the interstices between each 
other as nearly as possible. The general arrangement for changing ground and figure-warp is 
the alternate arrangement between both (i and i). Again, care must be exercised not to have 
the ground-warp of a heavier size than is necessary; for the figure- threads have not only to fill 
the places between the ground-threads, but also to cover them actually ; hence the diameter 

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Fig. 609. 

of the figure-warp must equal the diameter of the ground-warp, plus the space between each 
ground-thread. 

Comparison of the Twist in the Materials as used for Ground-warp and Figure-warp. 

As a general rule, the ground-warp is of a harder twist than the figure-warp. The 
latter is generally only twisted enough to weave well. There are two reasons for this arrange- 
ment of the twist. 1. The ground-fabric has to stand the strain inweaving; hence, must be of a 
harder arrangement in twist. 2. The figure-warp has to cover the design ; hence the loose twist 
will assist in this work. 

Necessity of having Two Beams for Weaving, 

In almost every case in producing the textile fabrics here explained, we are compelled to em- 
ploy two beams, one beam for the ground-warp, one beam for the figure-warp. The reason for using 



123 

two beams is found in the difference of the weave (for the figure-warp is less interlacing than the 
ground-warp) as well as in the difference of the materials used for ground-warp and figure- 
warp. 

Another system of weaving for producing figures upon the face of a single-cloth fabric is 
that known as 




Lappet Weaving. 

This method of producing figures upon the face of a fabric was very extensively used prior 
to the introduction of swivel weaving and the invention of the Jacquard loom. The method of 
operation in this system of weaving is that of passing an independent set of threads through a 
series of needles set in a frame, situated between the reed and the shuttle-raceway of the lay. 
This frame is arranged so as to slide horizontally to and fro, regulated by the "pattern-wheel," 
and the needles are depressed at proper moments to allow the figuring-thread to interweave with 
the ground-cloth by passing the shuttle and its filling over the figuring-thread. This method of 
interweaving the figuring-threads is, in looms of older construction, arranged to have the needles 

which guide the figuring-thread operated on from below, as is illustrated 
in diagram Fig. 610. The needles a (only the first shown) are fixed in 
the guide-frame b. The needles have a thread, c, passed through the eye 
d near their point, e represents the reed, /and g the shed formed by the 
warp of the regular cloth, h the woven part of the fabric, and i the 
FlG - 6l °- shuttle. 

The method of interlacing is as follows: When frame b is raised the needles pass through 
the warp at the rear of the shuttle i and guide-pins k, but in front of reed e, so that by inserting 
the filling by means of the shuttle the figuring-thread gets interlaced w 7 ith the regular cloth 
structure. Next the frame guiding the needle is lowered and the latter moved to 
the right or to the left as required by the design to be produced. This hori- 
zontal moving of the frame, according to design to be produced, is effected by 
grooves / in a ratchet-wheel m, illustrated in Fig. 6n. The pin n, fastened to 
the end of the connecting lever o, being' worked alternately from side to side of 
the groove, regulates the distance in moving the needles for the figuring effect 
required. 

This method of operating the frame which guides the needles requires a fresh one for every 

new design. This ratchet-wheel moves one tooth for each 
pick, and the number of teeth it contains is regulated by the 
length of the design. 

Diagram Fig. 612 clearly illustrates (enlarged as to size 
of threads) the method of interlacing the figuring-threads into 
the ground structure. The figuring-thread is represented 
shaded, ground warp and filling outlined. 

Fig. 613 is the same 
effect arranged in 3 repeats 
in a fabric sample. As 
previously mentioned, the 
frame containing the needles 
for guiding the figuring- 
warp is placed in some attachment to these looms, situated above the shed formed by the regular 
warp. 

Diagrams Figs. 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 619 and 620 illustrate a loom and the method of 




Fig. 61 r. 





Fig. 612. 



Fig. 613. 



124 



operation for lappet weaving as extensively used in the manufacture of elastic web fabrics, such 
as suspender webbing, also ribbons, tapes, and narrow goods generally. It can be arranged, 
however, for wider "figured" fabrics. This loom is patented by Mr. G. H. Hodges. 

Fig. 614 is a side elevation of the lathe and pattern-wheel; certain parts of the lathe being 
represented as broken off. 

Fig. 615 is an end elevation of the lathe, pattern-wheel and ratchet mechanism for operating 
the pattern- wheel. 

Fig. 616 is an elevation of the pattern-wheel detached, showing the side opposite that repre- 
sented in Fig. 615. 





Fig. 614. 



Fig. 615. 



Fig. 617 is a sectional view representing the needles elevated. 

Fig. 618 is a like view representing the needles depressed. 

Fig. 619 is a front elevation, partly broken away, of a lappet loom of the present construction. 

Fig. 620 is an end elevation of the loom, the devices for connecting the needle-bars with 
their actuating levers, and also the mechanism for actuating, the pattern-wheel being omitted in 
order to avoid confusion and to better illustrate the features shown in this figure. Like letters 
of reference indicate corresponding parts in the different figures of the drawings, c represents 
the figuring-threads ; U, the woven fabric; A, the lathe; B B, the pendulous arms by which the 
same is suspended; C, the shuttle; D, the shuttle-race; E, a section of the reed. 






Fig. 616. 



Fig. 617. 



Fig. 618. 



The web U is ornamented by means of threads c, which pass from spools (not shown) 
mounted on the loom through the guides and thence respectively through the eyes of the needles 
d m and into the web. 

Guards m 2 are employed to prevent the needles from being sprung or drawn out of 
proper position by the strain on the threads c during the process of intersecting the same 
in the fabric. These guards consist of rigid wires arranged horizontally in front of the 
needles near the upper portion of the reed and firmly secured at either end to a fixed 
portion of the lathe or shuttle race in such a manner that when a needle is bent a trifle 



125 

outwardly or toward the front of the lathe by the action of its thread it will strike one of the 
guards, the vertical movements of the needle not being interfered with thereby. The needles 
work vertically and pass through the unfilled warp-threads between the path or race of 
the shuttle, the reed, the pattern-wheel and needles swinging with the lathe. Lateral movements 
of the needles in one direction or to the left are caused by drawing up the horizontal arm of the 
lever L by means of the rod k, thereby bringing the vertical arm of this lever into contact with 
projections on the pawls causing the latter to engage the teeth and slide the bars or holders H J 
to the left, the reverse lateral movement of the needles to the right being caused by the action of 
the springs A" when the vertical arm of the lever L is withdrawn from the projection i by depres- 
sing the rod k. The clamp / is returned to its normal position after the vertical arm of the lever 
L is withdrawn by means of the springs g 2 , its movement toward the right being arrested by the- 
stop g z , which determines the oscillation of the socket/" 2 . When the vertical arm of the lever L 
is withdrawn from the projections on the pawls and strikes the curved arms of the pawls, the. 
pawls are thereby disengaged from the teeth on the bars H J, permitting said bars to be forced 





Fig. 619. 



Fig. 620. 



by the springs K against their respective pins in the wheel Q\ but as the pins are of unequal 
lengths one of the bars will travel toward the right a greater distance than the other, thus chang- 
ing the relative position of the needles d 111 with respect to the web II. It will be obvious, how- 
ever, that when the vertical arm of the lever L strikes the projections on the pawls both the pawls 
will be caused to engage the bars simultaneously and both move in unison to the left. 

In order to more clearly understand the method of intersecting the threads c in the web U, 
and thereby ornamenting the same, the operation of the principal parts shown during one full 
revolution of the main driving-wheel of the loom, or one complete traverse of the lathe is 
described. The lathe being at the front of the loom, the shuttle at the right-hand side of the 
fabric, and the needles, needle-bars, and pattern-wheel elevated, with the needles threaded, and 
the bars against their respective pins in the pattern-wheel, if, now, the loom is started up the lathe 
will be moved or swung back from the breast-beam, and at the first quarter of its traverse the 
needles, needle-bars and pattern-wheel will be lowered, and the needles carrying their threads 
will pass through the warp-threads and remain down while the lathe passes through the second 
and third quarters cf its traverse. After the lathe has passed through the first quarter of its 



126 

traverse, and while it is making its second and third quarters the shuttle is passed from right to 
left of the web, completing its passage at about the centre of the third quarter of the traverse of 
the lathe. The needles begin to rise as the lathe enters upon the fourth quarter of its traverse, 
their upward movement being completed before the lathe completes its fourth or last quarter. 
The lathe then continues to advance to the front to beat up the filling, and while completing the 
fourth or last quarter of its course the lever L is actuated through the rod k, and the needles 
carried to the left, after which the pattern-wheel is revolved one notch or step to change the 
position of its pins with respect to the bars or holders H J, after which the lever L is withdrawn 
from the projections of the pawls and striking the arms of the pawls disengages them from the 
bars H J, and permits the springs K to move the bars to the right into contact with the pattern- 
wheel, and thereby change the position of the needles preparatory to repeating the operation. 
The needles </are secured to the needle-bar or holder //by a screw-clamp, and the needles m in 
the bar J by screws ; but any other suitable means may be employed for this purpose. Any 
.desired number of needles and needle-holders may also be employed. 

Mr. Hodges in his patent further mentions that "instead of using the rows of pins, 
•annular cam-shaped flanges may be employed on the wheel Q, against which the bars H J may 
abut, if desired. 

" The movements of the needles may be so timed as to cause them to work ' pick-and-pick,' 
or pass through the warp-threads at each throw of the shuttle or otherwise, as desired. The 
pawls and lever L afford a convenient means for locking the bars H J together, and moving them 
away from the pattern-wheel conjointly. 

" A proper tension and take-up mechanism (not shown) must be used with each of the 
threads c. 

" But one shuttle and one reed are shown in the drawings, but it will be understood that 
several may be employed in the same loom ; also, that one or more needles may be employed 
with each shuttle and reed as desired. 

" It is preferable to have the threads carried by the needles of a different color or colors from 
those composing the warp and filling of the fabric; also, that in commencing the weaving the 
needle-threads should be drawn some distance through the eyes of the needles, in order that the 
loose ends of the threads may be caught and secured in the fabric by the filling." 

TRICOT WEAVES. 

Under the general name of tricot are classified fabrics presenting rib-effects. The weaves of 
the tricot fabrics are more or less elastic, according to the uses to which they are to be put. If, 
for example, the stuffs are to be used for trousering the tricot weaves will be much less likely to 
bag at the knees than other fabrics. If used for ladies' dress goods, cloakings, etc., they will tend 
to give the garment a nicer and closer fit to the person of the wearer. 

Tricot weaves are graded into tricots forming rib-effects in the direction of the filling and 
tricots forming rib-effects in the direction of the warp. We will consider the former first. 

Tricots with Rib-Effects in the Direction of the Filling 

Are employed largely for stuffs for dress goods, cloakings, overcoatings, suitings, etc. The 
arrangement of the weave most frequently employed is 2 picks face and 2 picks back; but this 
may be changed to I pick face and I pick back, or to 2 picks face and I pick back, according to 
the size of the rib required in the fabric. As a general rule, the heavier the back filling used, 
the more prominent the rib-effect will be. 

Fig. 621 is the 4-harness (filling) tricot weave, 2 picks for face to alternate with 2 picks for 
back. Repeat: 4-harness, straight draw, 8 picks. This weave has for its foundation the 4-har- 
ness broken-twill, 2 picks, warp up, to alternate with 2 picks, filling up. 



127 



Fig. 622 is the 3-harness (filling) tricot weave, 2 picks for face to alternate with 2 picks 
for back. Repeat: 3-harness, straight draw, 12 picks. This weave has for its foundation the 
3-harness twill, 2 picks, warp up, to alternate with 2 picks, filling up. 



DGGBGGGB 
DBGGGBZG 
BBGBBBGB 

cbsbgbbb 
ggbgggbg 

B~GGBZ2I] 

8bbsgbbsg 
gggbgggb 

GBG3GBGG 

CBBSzasa 

ggbgggbg 
ibgggbggg 

Fig. 621. 



■GGBGG 

be..:ebg 
cbbdbb 
ddbdc b 

□BGGBG 

□aa^aa 
bgse :a 
bgzb DO 
■ a 
a jbe ..:a 

BBDBBD 
OBDQBD 

12B .: ■ -3 
bbgbbd 
ose: aa 

OGBGGB 
DBDDBD 

ceb^bb 
a aa~a 

BDDBDD 

DDBGGB 

acaa :a 
bsgbbg 

1DBDDBD 
1 3 

Fig. 622. 



OBSBGESB 

DDGBDGGB 

bb - sbb a 

DB_ TB_G 

a aaa_aa 

ODBD"." ■ : 

see eee : 

BacaBaga 
t ggg "sss 

DDGBGGGB 
aa .ESSGB 

- ■ fl 
Brass ss 

■ ■ 
ess aaa 

IBDDDBDDD 
1 4 

Fig. 62^. 



Fig. 623 represents the 4-harness (filling) tricot weave, 1 face pick to alternate with a backing 
pick. 4-harness, straight draw, 8 picks, repeat of pattern. This weave is composed of the 
4-harness broken-twill. 

Fig. 624, 4-harness (filling) tricot weave, 2 picks face to alternate with 1 pick back. Repeat: 
4-harness, straight draw, 12 picks. In designing this weave, observe the following rule: The 
warp-thread which is lowered in the back pick must be raised in the next following face pick. 

Tricots Forming Rib-Effects in the Direction of the Warp. 

This division of tricot weaves includes an endless variety of effects in trouserings, suitings, 
etc., both in wool and worsted goods. A few ends of the regular warp twisted over with organ- 
zine silk, or a few fancy-colored threads of worsted wool or sewing silk spread over the fabric 
(on warp ends showing on the face) will give good effects. 

Fig. 625, 8-harness warp, tricot weave. Repeat: 8-harness, straight draw, 4 picks. Harness 
1, 3, 5 and 7 are for the face, and hence the harness where the fancy end has to be drawn on. 



BBEZSBBG 




■ ■ 




DBGGGBG : 
IBB - SEE a 






■ ■ 1 




■ODDBGOD 




E BSE BE 




DBDDGBDD 




■ fl 




CBSBGBBB 




■ ■ iGD 




GGBGGGBG 




l^BBB BBEG 




■ ■ 




ri\..,i .: 




BE EBB B 




-BGGGB ] 


BGBB j-.BGB GBB BQ 


B GIBG! 


■ ■ BE ■ ■ BE 


s bbb:bb 


■/■ B flEfl ■ ) 


IB.. B Gl 


B BEB B flEfl 1 


■ ■ 


■ BE B ■ BE B ] 


["BBS BBS 


(. ■ B B BE B B BE 


B _;, B . 1 


BBB B BEB B 1 


1 B__GBJ 


1BG' HEM B . BEB i 



1 4 

Fig. 624. 



a flEfl ■ fl a beb a '■ 

■ flEfl flE a ■•:•■ AS 
BEB flE ■ flEfl flE ■ 

B B ■ flEfl ■ ■ ■ flEfl ' 

■ flEfl ■ ■ ■ flEfl ■ ■ 

■ flEfl flE ■ flEfl BE 
I'M flE ■ flEfl flE ■ 

Ifl ■ ■ flEfl ■ ■ ■ flEfl 

1 VI 



Fig. 625. 



Fig. 626. 



S BESSES, 
B ■■ ■ 
BBBEB EB 
B ■ BB 
EBB EBEB 
■ ■■ ■ 
ffiBSBBBB 1 
B ■ BBB 1 

m BBBSBS 
B BB B } 
BBBEB EE 
B ■ BB 
BEE EBEB 
BBB B 
BBBEBEa 1 

Ifl ABB 

1 a 

Fig. 627. 



Fig. 626, 1 2-harness warp, tricot weave. Repeat: 12-harness, straight draw, 4 picks. Harness 
1 > 3- 5' 7» 9 an< J 1 1 are f° r the- face, hence for the fancy ends. 

Sometimes we have to make these long tricots extra heavy, which may be done by adding 
an extra backing pick every alternate pick. Fig. 627 is an example. Repeat; 8-harness, straight 
draw, 8 picks. 

In Fig. 628 a specimen of a tricot weave is given which by the proper arrange- 
ment of its texture produces a fabric containing a considerable amount of elasti- 
city, in fact, a fabric very closely imitating what is known as "Jersey cloth." 

As mentioned, it is not upon the weave alone that we must depend for 
imparting this elasticity to the fabric. The result also follows from use of materials for the yarns 



> ■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■ 

■■■a ■ ■■■■■ ■ 1 
p ■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■ 



■■■■■ ■ ■■ 

■■■■ B Bflflfll 



Fig. 628. 



128 

of the proper "counts" and quality and upon their arrangements. The following dressing must- 
be used for the previously given design; 

2 threads of 2-ply cotton (forming after finishing the body of the fabric). 

2 threads of single worsted (forming the face of the fabric after finishing). 

4 threads in pattern. 

The fillings to be fine, soft, single worsted (forming the back in the fabric after weaving and 
finishing). 

Both kinds of warp will be visible on the face after weaving, but during the changes the 
fabric undergoes in finishing the cotton warp will disappear from the face, taking its place in the 
body of the fabric. 

These fabrics must be made very wide in the loom. Thus, in the case of a 54-inch finished 
fabric, the goods must be woven 92 to 100 inches wide in the loom, according to the texture and 
quality of the material used. (Fabrics made with weave Fig. 628 require the selvages to be sewed 
together when they are fulled.) 




Double Cloth. 

Under double cloth we comprehend the combining of two single cloths into one fabric. 
Each one of these two single cloths is constructed with its own system of warp and fillino-, while 
the combination of both fabrics is effected by interlacing some of the warp-threads of the one. 
cloth into the other at certain intervals. 

The objects for the making of the double cloth are manifold. Among these may be men- 
tioned: To reduce the cost of production for heavy-weight fabrics by using cheaper material for 
the cloth forming the back; to increase the strength of certain grades of fabrics; to increase the 
bulk of a fabric; to produce double-faced fabrics; to produce fancy effects by the system of com- 
bining or exchanging both single cloths. 

As mentioned before, a separate warp and filling is required for each cloth, and so likewise 
in preparing the design a separate dealing with each is required. 

In diagram Fig. 629a the section of two single-cloth fabrics is shown. 



B A B' A' 





In Diagram Fig. 629^ the plan of two single-cloth fabrics, situated above each other, is: 
shown. Warp-threads 2 and 4 and picks 1 and 3 form one cloth (shown shaded), while warp- 
threads 1 and 3 and picks 2 and 4 form the other (illustrated in outlined threads). 

Examining the section, Fig. 629^, and the plan of interlacing, Fig. 629$, it is found that each 
warp-thread interlaces with its own system of filling, and thus each, cloth is formed independent 
of the other. These are, with a few exceptions, such as seamless bags, etc., stitched (or combined) 
together so as to form one fabric. 

The proportion of face warp and face filling to back warp and back filling to be used may be 
as 1 end face to 1 end back, or 2 ends face to 1 end back, or 2 ends face to 2 ends back, or 3 ends 
face to 1 end back, etc., etc. 

One proportion for the two kinds of warp and a different proportion for the two kinds of 

filling may also be used, for example: 

—.,,. f 1 pick face V^ face, 

r ill in" ■ 

I 1 pick back = ]/{• back, 



Warp ( 2 ends face = % face ' 
I 1 end back = y$ back, 



3 ends in repeat. 2 picks in repeat, etc., etc. 

As mentioned before, the stitching has to bind these two single-cloth fabrics together, in fact, 
to unite the same into one fabric. The warp of the bottom fabric may have to bind into the face 
fabric, or the face warp into the bottom fabric. In both cases the warp of the one has to inter- 
Weave more or less with the filling of the other. 

1129) 



130 

In fabrics where each side is of a different color, and the color of the face fabric shall 
not disturb the back, nor the color of the back cloth the face, great care must be exercised in 
the manner of combining both cloths. For this purpose we must select for binding, points where 
warp and filling interlace less frequently, as this will reduce the chances of the thread used for 
interlacing on one cloth showing upon the other. 

The binding of both cloths into one fabric also has an influence with regard to the feel 
(handling) of the fabric, for the oftener we combine (stitch) a certain number of ends of warp 
and filling the harder and firmer the fabric will feel; again, if not sufficient stitching is used the 
fabric produced will be loose or spongy. 

The amount of binding for both cloths can only be learned through practical experience, yet 
the rules for binding are the same for wide as well as close-stitched fabrics. 

Rules for Designing the Present System of Double Cloth. 

i st. Indicate the back zvarp and back filling on your squared designing paper. (At your first few exer- 
cises stripe off these threads with a light color so as to readily distinguish one from the others.) 
2d. Put the weave for the face cloth upon its own system of threads (omitting every backing thread 

as if it were not in the design). 
^d. Put the weave for the lower cloth (back cloth) upon its own system of threads, 
^.th. Raise all the face warp on every backing pick. 
$th. Combine both single cloths, thus far constructed separately, into one fabric. 

Observe the following rules in combining: The places for combining both fabrics must 
be distributed as regularly as possible over the entire fabric. Select the amount of binding for 
the two cloths according to the character of the fabric the weave is designed for. 

In combining the two fabrics by raising the back warp over the face filling at certain places, 
divide the arrangement as equally as possible for each backing thread. If in certain weaves every 
backing warp-thread cannot be used, arrange the omission of threads uniformly, such as every 
other or every third thread, etc. 

In combining the two fabrics through certain face warp-threads resting in the lower shed of 
the backing pick, observe the rules given for the back warp. 

In using the back warp for binding in the face cloth (as is generally done) the back warp- 
thread must be arranged to rise at places where the face warp-thread, situated on each side nearest 
to it, rises at the same time. 

It is advisable to have the raising of the back warp into the face fabric arranged to occur 
immediately before, or right after, the same back warp-threads have been or are to be raised by 
the weave in the backing cloth. 

In using the face warp for binding in the lower cloth, select for points of stitching spots 
(sinkers) in which the warp-thread is down in the two adjacent face picks. 

Be careful not to disturb the general effect of the face cloth by arranging perfect points of 

combinings, but in wrong places.. For example: Take the ^ 4-harness twill for face-weave. 

Suppose one repeat of the back fabric requires two repeats of the face-weave. Requiring a 
smooth face, and one face twill to show as prominently as the other, the stitching must be 
arranged alternately for each face twill, because by continuing to use only the one repeat of a 
twill in rotation, this twill will show more prominently than the other. 

To thoroughly understand the foregoing rules for designing double cloth, a study of Figs. 
630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 636 and 637 is advised. They represent both weaves for the single 
cloths and their principle of combining until the weave for the double cloth is perfected. Each 
rule is illustrated in successive rotation as laid down. 

Fig. 630 illustrates the 4-harness (e) twill ? r z , designed for 4 repeats, warp and filling 

ways; hence for 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 



131 

Fig. 631 is the plain weave for 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Fig. 632 represents one repeat of the 8-harness satin, filling face. 

In giving our rules for designing double cloth rule 1 calls for the indication of the two 
single-cloth fabrics, as each must be treated separately from the other. 

Fig. 633, which is designed for illustrating the present rule, explains itself as " two ends for 
the one single cloth to alternate with one end from the other, warp and filling ways." This 
will equal, in the present example, 2 ends face to alternate with one end back. 



It II H II II 

GBB^BBQGBBDOBBa 
BBDCBBGQBBCJOBBDD 
BDDBBDDBBDDBBDaa 

ggbbgcbbggbbggbb 

DBBaaBBODBBaDBBQ 
BB ■■ BB.. BB J 

bqdbbggbbdobbdob 
dobbgcbbccbbddbb 
dbbdobbodbbddbbo 

bbqcbbggbbggbbgc 
bddbbcgbb_gbb: : ■ 

O n BBGGBBGGBB^GBB 

BB BB BB BB ' 

BB "BB BB BB I 

IBGGBBQGBBGGBBODa 

1 16 



Fig. 630. 



fCEHEGBGB 
HDHOHDHD 
OHCHOHGH 
HDHOHDHD 
DHDHDHDH 
B H BGBJ 
DBGBDBGB 

1BGBGBGEG 

1 i 

Fig. 631. 



eOnODOCCB 
GGBQGCGa 
OGGGGBGG 
BGGGGCCG 
DGCBGGaa 
DDDDDDBD 
CBGGGCGG 

1DCDDBDDD 
1 8 

Fig. 632. 



24CH~CBCDBDD«DnBDDBCDBDCBD 
l-j <: ' f\:-.;t >., R:.r-ra.j:>^r^Bi1 
[ fT-DHDDBDDBD 

I uXGBCGBGGBG 

i : : .:■■■. -mmm 

i !D m GB JOB . DBG 
[ : MDDBOnaDDBDCBD 

S-'. ;.':'..:, ilsjrw -HWrtl-BBBBB 
CI. ■ '. J'i IDBDI 1BDDB jDBDJBD 
DBDDBDDBDDBDDBDDBDDBDr BQ 

I .' . .]. i , !..:■ L :■:!-, 

L: ; 

I > > 1DDBDDBDCBDGBD 

I ::■:•... :i i: 1— r i"V'f»rp=PH 

dbddbddbddbdgb: gk : gwggbd 

li ■■'■ HGi.eGGKGCSGGMZGB'J 

'"' ; . 

aBaOBaQBOOBOOBDOBOOBDOBQ 

DPDGBCGBGGBCJCBGGBGGBCCBG 

1GL: G'L'Ji' 

1 



IDOBGOBODBODi 



Fig. 633. 



^CPGBIiBGp-BBBGB-BBBGBGBBB 
■St'BHH 1 M--H- -t-iM|:->Mf ;r- M«c. H g| 
! B» ■_ BB > BB- BB 

BgB ; Bi B • B B B B_- ' : 

: BB BB . BB B 

■ B ' '1 BBI ''.'- J BB . BB 

i BB' ' ,1 iBfll ■ BB ' B 

B M 3 B 

- ... - JH 
■ BBHD 

: II I -a J 
, ;: • -; 
._ BBSGGBB 

gb:b a a a y:yM<-myvLmm 
mm ■ , 

DBBBMG BB . BB BB 

a: a b a a a a a - 

■BBBBBN: BBBBI BBBSBB 

lBHQQBBBBCDBBBBGOBBBBZ_BB 

1 24 

Fig. 634. 



i 'i a 


B jBBBBC 


; .1 


Nf ! ' 

BB 


a 


BB' 
■ 


.1 IBBI : 


LI ■. 
1 ii Ji J 


a a r-i 


fin ' 










BH 




BB 


: BB 



Fig. 634 illustrates the application of the second rule as given: " Put weave for the face 
cloth upon its own system of threads!' In this example the 4-harness twill shown in Fig. 630 is 
applied for face-weave to the plan " 2 face 1 back." 

Fig. 635 illustrates the succeeding rule (3d) as applied to example, Fig. 634. "Put the weave 
for the lower fabric upon its own systems of threads T The weave selected for this example is the 
one shown in Fig. 631 (common plain). The next rule (4th) calls for the raising of the face warp 
on every backing pick. This is illustrated in Fig. 636. These four rules, as observed thus far 
and illustrated in Fig. 636, produce two separately constructed fabrics. Two-thirds of the number 
of warp and filling-threads form the face cloth, and the remaining one-third of warp and filling 
form the lower cloth. Rule 5 calls for the combining of these separately constructed fabrics, 
either by using the back warp for interlacing with the face filling or the face warp with the back 
filling. The first mentioned method is used in the present example. 





"a" 








1 






311 










Mi I 


1 a 1 
i' 

1 


' ■ i 'a ' 1 .1 ai \ 




Hi IB 

GBB 

i <ei I 


:; 








t ; J 


a 


a 


a BB' 


' a 


■ ' 


i a 


! 








a i 










a ' b 

■ iB 
1 ' Bl 


Bl C BB 

a a 
a ■ 


a 


■ ' B 

a a 
a- 1 








1 a 






a 


a 


a aa- l 


B 


BL>_ 


LUB 



[• : .a. - 


b: .:•:; 'xxaxxi :■::■ eg 




a a ' : a a 


i a a i < ai a i 






i 'i :-xaxxi :•::■: 


a gi b' -i 'd i 


Bl B : a a 
r."n'.' r .'l ''- '-'3' '■' 

a ," 'i aa' ' 


Bl B I Bl B I 

xxaxxi xxaxxi 'G 

aa. i aa; ib 


:-:i :■.:■. a:-. .■ i . 


b:-::-:i xxexxi xxhki 


xexx' xxexx 

■ I BB 


xbxxi xxbxxi g 

BB' " ' l BB' I B 


.-J . XEX. I . . 

:: xaxx 

IB. I_,-UBB ! 

1 


a E. .1 EG 

I XXEXXI IXXEXXI IM 

BBI UOUBB B 







a: : 


: :a: : 




xi ixxbx.-.i 

XHXXI IXXE 




:xbg 


a ■■ 

XI XXBXGI i 




aa 


i BB! I 


v i -a 

■:XE8 


xaxxi xxa 

Bl ' I IBBI I 








BB! 


BB 


XI B 




aa 
a 








.■j .■ . a ..-. 

BB 

■ a a 

xax: ixxe 


■■ B i, 


■ a" " I ■ 

B I - BO I 

; x.xa: 


xbg 

ibi ;g 

1 ! 

"S.I >G 


a aa- 


IBBI 


BB 


.1 B 






























a 
.4 



Fig. 635. 



Fig. 636. 



Fig. 637. 



Fig- 637. The arrangement for combining (stitching) is after the principle of the 8-harness 
satin shown in fig. 632. 

In designs Figs. 630 to 637 the character of type used for each figure is as follows : 

b indicates the weave for face cloth. 

h indicates the weave for back cloth. 

a indicates the arrangement for combining both cloths for the double cloth. 

b indicates the back warp and filling-threads from face system. 

8 indicates the raising of the face warp on the backing pick. 



132 



The next thing to be studied is the relation of the warp to the filling and the weave. 
If both cloths (face and back) are equal in every respect (quality of stock, counts of yarn, 
proportion of warp and filling and its arrangement, and weave used for the face and back- 
cloth) no difficulties need be experienced in designing the same. But on the other hand, 
if any of these points, as mentioned, differ in one cloth from the other, great care must be 
exercised. 

We will next proceed to give a few examples of different kinds of double cloth; also com- 
plete explanations of them from their foundation to the complete weave. 

In the following examples, Fig. 638 to Fig. 688, the different characters of type used give 
the following indications: 

■ = the weave for the face-cloth. 
J ■ = the weave for the back-cloth. 

a = the stitching of both fabrics, back-warp into face filling. 
^ = the raising of face-warp on backing picks, as required for forming the lower cloth. 
Sinkers: k = the stitching of both fabrics, face -warp into the back filling. 



- 

v 



A. Double-Cloth Weaves having for their Arrangement One End Face to Alternate with 

One End Back in "Warp and Filling. 

This system of double cloth is mostly used in fabrics in which the quality, size and weave of 
the two cloths (face and back) is nearly, if not entirely equal, as in reversible overcoating, etc. 









1' E-E^EGEGEbEGEGES 








■BBC" ZBGBGGGGGBG 








BSE BGBBEGGGGBGB 








BaDQDDBaBaDOBDBB 








" E. E EZEZE E El 








DlI BZQQZGBGBBBa 








bz.e--e _h:hihosbhd 








DOBZBGGGBZBEBZGG 


■a no a 


8BBnn»DDB 


8anDDDGD3 


EBBGEGBHEBEIISZEG 


■CDBBOBB 


BQDBDGBB 


DDoaaacjH 


■ Ji. ;U ■ BBB B ) 
E E E :E- E 3E E GZJ 


OBBGOBBB 


CGBGGBBB 


caaaaaBa 


. B9 ■■■ 


G»GGBBBG 


QOnODBQQ 


BaGGBaBBBaQGCGBG 


BGGBBBOB 


N: I'3H; J ,J 


onaafflaaa 


EZE E E E .EZE3EG 


bgbbb :cm 


OOBBBuuB 


□aafflDGna 


L BiZBBBCZZB ■ 1 


DIIIDHD 


CBBBDOBO 


GQfflDDGGa 


E -.EHE. E EZESEZEG 


JBBBCGBBG 


IBMGGBGG 


laaaaaGaa 


1BGBBBGGGGGBGBGGG 


a 8 


1 <f 


1 8 


1 16 



Fig. 638. 



Fig. 639. 



Fig. 640. 



Fig. 641. 



Fig 638 represents the weave for face (8-harness fancy-twill). 

Fig. 639 represents the weave for back { 3 —^ — ^ 8-harness twill). 

Fig. 640 represents the arrangement for combining both cloths through the back-warp, inter- 
lacing with the face filling (- ? 8-harness twill). 

Fig. 641 is a complete double-cloth weave., constructed out of Figs. 638, 639 and 640. 
Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 



4GGI 
GG1 



IGG 
■GG 
4 



Fig. 642. 



4aaaaaaBG 

GGBQGQGG 

CDQQBGGa 

muaaaaaa 

l 8 

Fig. 643. 



SGGGaEHEnBGBHHBBB 
GGGGBZBZZ ~BBBG 

EGEGEBE IE E E 1EB 
DDGDBBBGG-. ■ ■ "J 
EBEilEZEZEHEBBGBG 
BGBGZGZZBBBGaGGG 
GHEaE_ J E_B L lEBaDED 

1 ■BBaaaaaBQBGaaGa 

1 16 



16BGBBEZEHE~Bi«SZBB 
ODBGGGBB jZBZGZBG 
EBEGBsS E-E E-iE J 

BGGGBG I ■ BB ' ] 

HDHBHGHBHOHBHQEB 

ODBBDDBanCBGGGBG 
EBBGEBBGBBBGBBBG 

B.: iZBZ . BB . B 
EGEBBGBBBaBBECES 
nCBuGZBJGGBGGGBB 
EASGE»SjGr"E E E 1 
BGGGBB Z JBGGQBGGG 
BOB --:E IE iEGEHEGBS 

GGBaaaBaaaBBGGBG 

BBEGBlE^IB'-iEGEBBG 

1BBGGBGGGBGGGBGGG 
1 16 



Fig. 644. 



Fi ;. 645. 



16EGE9BGE3E _ E"GGES 

C "B _ IZBZ - B.G" - BZ 
BBBCBBEZE=E ~E=1EG 
BGGGBGZ' - BZZ B ZZ 
SZEHEZEHEZB^EZB - 
QaBGGGBGGCB ZZGBG 

bbbgbbbgbb:;-: jhbhq 
bzz .b".. _'gbgz _b ii ,.j 
e e z...e e e e e 1 
GGBGaaBaaDBaaaBG 

E ,E E E "E E E ' J 

BaaaBaGGBGaaBaaa 

EGBBBGEBEiaEBBDBB 
Z".B- B. BTZZBG 

EBHGEBEQEBE Z EHBG 

iBQQaBaaaBGGDBaaq 



Fig. 646. 



Another example illustrating double cloth constructed "one face, one back" in warp and 
filling, is shown in weave Fig. 644. It contains the common 4-harness basket, illustrated sep- 
arately in Fig. 642, for its face and back weave. 

The method of interlacing observed is the stitching of the back-warp into the face-cloth, as 
shown by b for raisers in the full design, as well as in the extra plan Fig. 643. 



133 

Weave Fig. 645 illustrates the combining of two plain woven cloths into one fabric by bind- 
ing the back-warp into the face-cloth. It will be seen that the points where the back-cloth 
interlaces into the face will show on the surface, but as only one thread raises at a time in a 
plain weave, the required points in Rule 5 (z. e. to have for the intersection of the back-warp with 
the face-cloth, a place where the face warp-threads on each side nearest to the back warp-thread 
raise at the same time) can never be found, and we must use the weave as mentioned above, or 
as to whichever side of the fabric is required to be the clearest, we may use the arrangement of 
the " double plain," as shown in weave Fig. 646. In this the face is arranged to bind the lower 
fabric as indicated by ® for sinkers. The raising of the back-warp in the face-cloth in weave 
Fig. 645, as well as the lowering of the face-warp in the lower cloth, as in Fig. 646, are arranged 



if'HBn~QBn _ CHn7H|H3 



■ HH ■ 


8H3BaBD«n 


GGBBGCBB 


GHGBQBGB 


■ > ■■ 


■DBDBOBQ 


bbggbbg: 


UBOBDBDB 


■GGBBGGB 


SD§ChDH! 


CGBBGGBB 


DBDHGSDH 


GBBGGBBG 


H ~^u§DBD 


me ■■ ]□ 

1 8 


icbcbQbqb 

I 8 



Fig. 647. 



Fig. 648. 



snnasnnna 

dggggghd 
chgggggd 
c eggg 

DDOCCG3B 

aafflaaaaa 

GGGGGBGG 

isaaaGaaa 

1 8 

Fig. 649. 



H 

c 

E 

C 
E 



a 

L 
E 1 

L 
E 



TBEBI 



Evl 



_ a 
■sia 

EJEG 

■ g 

E Efl 

e:e« 

■ ■ 

E EG 

: 



in 

10 



Fig. 650. 



after the 8-harness satin (filling face). In the present examples, Figs. 645 and 646, the question 
may arise as to which method should be preferred ? 

Taken in the general average of fabrics constructed on this double plain weave, or similar 
weaves, in which only single threads raise at a time, such as filling-face satins, etc., the preference 
should be given in favor of the first named weave. 

Repeat of designs 645 and 646 is : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

Another example of this system of double cloth is shown in Figs. 647 to 650. 

Fig. 647 represents the face-weave. 

Fig. 648 represents the weave for the lower fabric. 

Fig. 649 illustrates the method of binding both cloths into one fabric. 



iODiiniia 
■ ■■ ■ 

■DQGBBGB 

■ ■ BB . 

■ ■ ■■ 

: ■■'JBB 

BBQBBQC 
IBBGGGBBG 
1 8 

Fig. 651. 



BOB ] 1HBDB 

1 ' 

GG ! IGfl 

m ., -1 11 .1 

CVl ' 1 . i VI 
H_ ! 1G-1G 
D1 ] . l.M 

ibgugjggg 

1 8 

Fig. 652. 



snaEacnoa 

DGGGE 

Qaaasaac 

B 

B 
B 
ffl 

inaaaGaaa 
1 » 

Fig. 653. 



i«HGtjg 


E^E' 

■•:•■ 


" S 


JHGHB 

B ] 


E IE 
B 


IB 


l ' ^ 


E IE 1 
BB 


E El 

B "" 


u ±j 


■•:•■ 


'E .E r i 
B J 


E E 

_BB 


■ 


fl B 


;ei ie j 
; 


E E 

. B._ 


■r. ". 

31 IE 


tE E' 


'.'■ 3 i 

BOB 


e 'E; 


__ M' 


• m :*! 


B B 1 
IE iE 1 


■ •:•■ 

E IE 
1BGB_ 
1 


B 
Ei IE 


a : 

a, is 

BE 


'a ie 1 
■ , 1 

10 



Fig. 654. 



Fig. 650 shows the complete design. 

Repeat : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. Face-weave is the 2 — ~ 2 4-harness twill ; back- weave 
is the plain. 

The stitching of the back into the face-cloth is arranged after the 8-harness satin, 
filling up. 

Weaves Figs. 651 to 654 illustrate the combining of an 8-harness " granite-weave" with the 
plain weave for double cloth, each taken alternately, warp and filling ways. 

Fig. 651 illustrates the granite-weave (8-harness) to be used for the face. 

Fig. 652 is the plain weave to be used for the back of the double cloth. 

Fig. 654 shows the complete double-cloth weave derived by combining both cloths with the 
8-harness satin, Fig. 653, using the back-warp for binding into the face-cloth. 



134 
Double Cloth Composed with Different Proportions of Face and Back-threads. 

B. Warp : r end face to alternate with i end back. 
Filling: 2 ends face to alternate with 1 end back. 

In this manner weave 655 is constructed. Repeat: 16 warp-threads and 12 picks. Weave 



*'•».. ,or^ ■ ■ rr-, .QBE 








HDa7E ,d H a. a bgbb 








GGCGBBB.: "BGBG 








DDBGB'_i'_jGGnBBBGDn 








m :a a a a .a : aaan 


SBGDBBGGB 




•OODT'IDDB 


BEBDDQ .JGBQBDDDDD 


■1 II 




DGBGCCGD 


B _"D_ BBB 1 HOOK] 


DBBGGBBG 




GGODGaaa 


a e.:b a -<a :a_:a=aj 


BBGGBBOG 




BQDOGDQD 


l.GGGB B J; ■ BSB ] 


■GCBBGGB 


4DDBDDGOB 

■aaaaBDa 


naaBDDDD 


GGBBBGG ZDOBDBDaQ 


■■ BB 


GaaacoBn 


EGH»a.;a "aria' ibqhg 


GBBGDBBG 


DaaeaaBG 


DBcaaaan 


• BaBGaGGGBBBDaaDD 


IBBOGBB-iD 


iQBQGBDDG 


iDGGGBGGG 


1 16 


1 8 


1 8 


1 8 


Fig. 655. 


Fig. 656. 


Fig. 657. 


Fig. 658. 


;loth is the k-harness — 


.. twill. Fie\ 6^6. 


Weave for the back-c 


loth is illustrat 



rately (same kind of type as used in complete weave) in Fig. 657. 

The combining of both cloths is effected by the 8-harness satin, Fig, 658. 

C. Warp: 2 ends face to alternate with I end back. 
Filling: 1 end face to alternate with 1 end back. 

Designing a double-cloth weave under this proportion is illustrated by weave Fig. 659. 



Repeat : 6 warp-threads and 8 picks. Weave for face-cloth is the 4-harness 



twill (Fig. 660). 



□GEanaai-aaraH 








B 1 BB 1 C : IB 








HBBB ,aBBaBQH 








■-:-■ ■ :<■ 








GGEEHEECBBBa 








DGBBaaaaBBDD 








hbqqc bhwhegb 








BBBG " BBBUDD 








CEGEEfcBEGSEBa 








BGGGGBBGDaGB 








Ei be eei iaa a 








BSBi"GGBBB 








e bei- aaGaasa 


4BGGB 


4QBGB 


4onaa 


■9 "BBGG 


DGBB 


■QBG 


CBGB 


E^^B HHf=TH £3 


DBBG 


DBGB 


GGGG 


iBBBGGjBBB^UG 


1BBGG 


1BDBO 


1BGBG 


1 6 


1 4 


1 2 


1 2 


Fig. 659. 


Fig. 660. 


Fig. 661. 


Fig. 662 



The back-cloth is worked on plain, as represented in Fig. 661, and the combining is effected 
by the back-warp in the face-cloth raising every other back warp-thread on every other face-pick 
(Fig. 662). 



The next arrangement for double cloth is — 



D. Warp and filling: 2 ends face to alternate with 1 end back. 

This proportion for using face-threads to backing-threads in warp and filling has been repre- 
sented before, in the examples given for illustrating the rules for designing double cloth. At 
present this system of using face to back-threads is mentioned in its proper place under the head- 
ing of " Different Proportions of Face and Back in Double Cloth." 

l2QDGBfflBCGBBQG 
E HHnEEfJEBJB 



E BBGBEI BBI 3 
BOBOQBBGBQOQ 
aaaGGBBCGBBB 
HUBBQBBaEEBB 
GuBBQauGQBGB 
BBBBG'BGBOGG 

G«aBBBBcaaaa 

lBGBGQGBGBBG^ 

Fig. 663. 



8GGBBCBBG 

B lllCULl 

BBGGBBOB 

BBOBBBGG 
CGGBBGBB 
DBBGGGBB 
BBBQBBUG 
1BBGGBBBG 
1 8 

Fig. 664. 



4QBBD 
DGBB 
■GGB 

l^BLDD 

Fig. 665. 



4GBGG 
DGBD 
DQGBa 

1BQDG 

1 4 

Fig. 666. 



Fig. 663 represents the combination in double cloth of weave Fig. 664 used for the face, and 
weave Fig. 665 that used for the back. Both cloths are combined into one fabric after the motive 



of the 



4-harness twill (Fig. 666). Repeat of weave Fig. 663 : 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. 



135 



Weave Fig. 667 illustrates the combination of the — 
the face-cloth and the 3 j 4-harness common twill for the lower cloth (Fig. 669). 



1 4-harness broken-twill (Fig. 668) for 

Both cloths 



are combined by motive, Fig. 670 (plain). 

Repeat of the double-cloth weave: 12 warp-threads and 12 picks. 



■-:•■ bb-i-b : a 

H HH HH .HH H 



t BB 


■ BB 


fl ■ 


SBB . ABA 


H HH 


- HH3HH H 


P. ■■ 


'■ :■■ ■ 


BBB 


~bbbb a 


Bi-iHE 


- HH = HH H 


fl BB 


■ BB 


ra IH'? 




IDGflfl 


DICGIIjI 



IP! 

1 



-lapse 

Pay I 
1BBDB 

1 4 



Fig. 667. 



Fig. 668. 



Fig. 669. 



■1HGSG 

* a 

BGBG 

IGfflDB 

1 1 

Fig. 670. 



This char?"ter of the double cloth (2 threads face to alternate with 1 thread back) is that 
most frequently used in the manufacture of worsted and zvoolen goods. In designing double 
cloth by this arrangement for 4-harness basket or similar weaves, as also combination weaves of 
basket and twill effects, etc., always remember that the back-warp must be arranged to work in the 
centre of the two face warp-threads working alike, as this gives us the only chance for properly- 
binding back to face. For example : 



2-iaCGflGflGGGB~BPPPBaflPPuflnB 
H HH iH3 HH HH HH HH HH IH 

ppjbpb - B ■Bn~:i"i::::i ■ 
a B"rpflSB.: bjb B,B_"ja 


a ■ ■ ■ a ■ 

pp.b ~,a _~:m is . rm 

pp: "_■'_■"': "'a ■ t m 


" B B 

fl. BBB 
r-HEPHH-IH 

~B P7B_fl 


L. ; '~k.>^. .O^j ...a tj kl. .'jij 


HH'sHHJH 




HH HH H 


e ■ b "■/, ■ a ■•:•» 

E -HH_Sa 1HS "":HG. HE HH: HH . H 

■ ■ ■ ■ ; ■ ■ flPflp 


: a ■ _, b>:-s ■ ■ a b 

H HH :HH HH3HB HH HH_.HH -H 

:. a a » a m a a a 


BOB ". ■ ■ ■ ■ 
H HH HH HH HH HH 

lflCflGP_flPflPOGBCBG 
a 


■ ■ ] 
HH. HE H 

GaBDBQQG 
S4 



SpuBBPOBB 


8GBGHGBOB 


SDGGPGfflGG 


ipBBGGflB 


Ba«aaaBG 


GafflGGP^ 


BBGPBBGC 


DBGBGBGB 


GaaaGQGB 


BB... BB' ' 


mamamama 


B 


■ ■ ■■ 


PBGBGBQB 


dbgggggpj 


GDBBPL..BB 


mzmnmama 


B 


BBGGflBDa 


amamamnm 


ZDfflDQC 


bb as 

l 8 


1SGBGBCBG 

1 8 


1 8 



Fig. 671. 



Fig. 672. 



Fig. 673. 



Fig. 674. 



Fig. 671 illustrates the weave for a double-cloth fabric, which has for its face the 4-harness 
basket (arranged as previously mentioned). It has the common plain weave for the backing, and 
the stitching is done with the 8-harness satin. 

Fig. 672, the face weave. Fig. 673, the back weave. Fig. 674, the stitching. 

Repeat of weave Fig. 671 : 24 warp-threads and 24 picks. 

The next arrangement of proportional face and back for warp and filling is : 



E. 2 ends face to alternate with 2 ends back in both systems of threads. 
This method is illustrated in Fig. 675 which is composed of the 8-harness twill - 



for face 



■ •:• ■■ 


- 




O 


E> !■ :EH; 
Q.i IQQ" 


IBH 


■ 
■■>:• 


a 

H 


■ B 

■T~ 


■ 

JHHI 

I3E 


a 
a 


orr 

EG 


iHHI 
IHH 

a 


HH 

IHH 
BB 


a 

H 

mm 


Qi : 
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1 


"a 


■BB 
IHH 

■ a 


BB 

SB 


a 
a 

1 


1 
q; 1 

E 


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£252 


■HH 


a 
a 


■ 


BB 


:'D 




j 1 



■ a 

■ a 
■ 

a 
aa 



1 ■ 



■a 



mamzmaaa 

i H 11 j' 1 11 

II I II II I! 

I jl 4 I .1 I I 

II I Ii I il 



II I: 
I.JI 



m 




Fig. 675. 



Fig. 676. 



Fig. 677. 



w 

EB I 

]JfflGULU 

> 8 

Fig. 678. 



and the common plain weave for back-cloth. Both cloths are combined with the weave repre- 
sented in Fig. 678. 

Fig. 676 shows the face-weave. Fig. 6jj shows the back. Repeat of the double cloth: 16 
warp-threads and 16 picks. 



136 



F. Warp: 2 ends face to exchange with 2 ends back. Filling: 2 picks face to exchange 



with 1 backing. 



These are used to a great extent in arranging 63 ° steep twills (diagonals) for double cloth. 

Figs. 679, 680, 681 and 682, illustrate such a case. 

Fig. 680 represents a diagonal on 6-harness and 12 picks repeat, as used for face. 

Fig. 681 shows the common plain as used for back. 



aanaaGi saa :ria 

DDi ■■ i' 1 :■ mm 

■CGI IGGGBBI JLD 

ay ihhi i jaa< t ia 
anamnaammDaa 

■DQ IBGGBGGi ■ 

□onaaGHaa: ma 

■a- ' KHMjai 
no. ibbgg: ;bggg 
□» iaa«i iaai i> ;q 

DDGBBDaGDaGB 
■nDBDDDBBDDa 

Qj-eai h iaa :. ia 

BGEBB 'i II IBBGDG 
■ I B J . O I B 

am. iaay ;aa«GQ 

IBDUGGOGBGaGB 

1 12 

Fig. 679. 



12QBBGBB 


BH BB 


■GGBBG 


1 B BB 


B BB IB 


■OBB.jB 


1 IBB B 1 


GBBDDB 


BB IBBl 1 


BBGBBD 


BGBGGB 


1BGGBGB 
1 6 


Fig. 680. 



eoBaeaa 

BDBDBD 
Ql IDH'JIJ 
■□■□■□ 
DBQBDB 
1BDBGBG 
1 6 

Fig. 681. 



•auDuna 
naaaoa 
annana 
naanan 

QfflaDGG 

innnann 

1 6 

Fig. 682. 



Fig. 679 illustrates the complete double-cloth weave, 12 warp-threads and 18 picks repeat. 
The combining of face and back cloth is shown separately in Fig. 682. 

G. 3 ends face to exchange with 1 end back in warp and the filling. 

These are illustrated in one example by weaves, Figs. 683 to 686. 
Fig. 684 represents a 12-harness fancy twill to be used for face-weave. 
Fig. 685 shows the common plain to be used for backing weave. 

Both cloths are combined into one fabric with the - 4-harness twill shown in Fig. 686. 

Repeat of double-cloth weave, Fig. 683 : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 



16BBGGGGGBGBGBGGGB 

aa ;aaai saaa. ,aaa ia 

BGGBBBGGBBGBLJBSB 
OQ..BB iGBGGQDBBGB 
DaGBLlBiJBJGDBBBDa 
HHBHHHDHHHI 1HHHDH 
■BGGBBGBGBB3BB B 
■GGBGGQGBBGBGGGa 

GBGBaaaBBBaGGaaB 
□□oaani iaaai :□□□■□ 

■BGBGBffiBBGGBBBGG 

aaaaBBQBaacBBaaB 

DaoBBBaaanaBaBaB 
□a saa 1 ihhh' iaaa a 

UBEBBBGaBBBDDBBDB 

iBBJBQGDBBaaBGDDp 

1 10 



Fig. 683. 



^■BDnnBDBBDDB 
BDBBBi OH Dl 

I I BB B ' I im 
OOB BB '. iBBBJ 
BB BBB BBB B 

■OBGnGBBBGHB 

I BB I IBBB II |i fl 

BBB BBB BBB 

BBB BB B 

BBB B BB 

I BBB BBB BBB 

'BBB I BB ■ I 

1 12 

Fig. 684. 



4GBGB 
■GBG 

nmnm 

1BGBG 
1 4 

Fig. 685. 



4GGGffl 
GGEBG 

IfflGGG 
1 4 

Fig. 686. 



The foregoing 57 weaves have clearly demonstrated that double-cloth weaves may be de- 
signed in any combination, from 1 face, 1 back in repeat, to 3 face, I back ; also that these pro- 
portions may be taken independently for warps or for filling in any weave. The binding has 
mostly been done by the back-warp, yet it has been shown that the face-warp can also be used. 
In closing this subject on the construction of the double-cloth weaves, a further example is 
shown in which both methods of stitching must be combined in one double-cloth weave. 

Fig. 687 represents such a double-cloth weave. 
Repeat: 20 warp-threads and 18 picks. The arrange- 
ment of the warp is : 
3 threads face. 
I thread back. 
5 threads face. 
1 thread back. 
10 threads in repeat. 
The filling intersects 2 picks face, I back, = 3 picks in repeat. 

On examining the weave we find the centre thread of the 5 face-ends used for interlacing 
twice in one repeat of the weave in the back. The places of stitching the face-warp into the 
back are shown by b. 



asDBGBBaaaaanBGBBGaaaa 

I ■>:<■ BX I 5 I BEBB BB ' 

HH-iaaaaa aaa .aaaaa a 

DDL, II ■ ■ BB B B 

UCOCJGQBBfflB I J 1 I Bflgjfl 

Ha laaaaai laaa.jaaaaa ia 

DQQQDDBB'.BB BB B 

DBGBBGG . '. MM II ] 

hb iaasaa>- iaaa- iaa:-;aai ia 

UBGBBGGGGGGBJBB _ JG ;i 
I BE3B BB BffiB BB I 

□qi laaaaaGaauGaaaaai ia 

□GGi BB' IBGBGaaaBBGB 1 fl 
DCG' I' IGBBEBBGGGi : " BBQB 

aa laaaaai aaaaaaaaaa ia 

■ IBB'. IB' IGG "1 BB B 

■a bb im ci i 1 ■ tan 1 

•■□a, laa^aauaaaaaaxaa ia 

1 11 20 



i^GBBBGaaGGBBBannn 

1 BB II ' BB BB I 
1. :■■ ibb «■ :■.:: 1BBLJBB 

I 11 I BBB ].]. I 1 JBBI 

[ I' I 1 ]' I 1 111! 

Ill ■■ 

I IBBB Gill 
I BB' BB i I I 
I ]! I BB . BB X 
OQUajBBB 
III'' BBB 
1 IHII It! 

1 9 10 



BBB 
B 1 



Fig. 687. 



Fig. 68S. 






137 

Weave Fig. 688 represents the single-face cloth, being a granite-weave with fancy spoi-effects 
(by the aid of warp-threads numbers I and 9.) 

Double-Cloth Weaving without Stitching Both Cloths. 

At the beginning of our lecture on the double cloth, and the purposes for which it is used 
when the two single cloths are not stitched together so as to form a new fabric, we mentioned 
the manufacture of seamless bags and fabrics constructed on similar principles. In manufacturing 
seamless bags a series of panels are formed, each composed of two separate cloths, a series of 
solid webbings uniting the cloths of the panels, and a series of divisions formed in the solid 
webbings, each of which are composed of two separate cloths. Diagrams Figs. 689, 690, 691, 
692 and 693 are intended to illustrate the method of weaving such seamless bags. (Harden- 
brook's patent.) 

Figs. 689 and 689 1 represent a plan view of the fabric. 

Fig. 690 is a transverse section of the same in the plane x x, Fig. 689. 

Fig. 691 is a longitudinal section in the plane y y, Fig. 689. 

Fig. 692 is a longitudinal section in the plane z z, Fig. 689. 

Fig. 693 is a sectional side view of a bag when finished. 



If. 


1 S- "" , &"- 


*. £ 


, — -,!..__ , rui. ji. 


r» - 
NO* 


===||== ,:^^*9;_JL_ 






I* 



a.. 




c 

—o- 






Ttc^a. 




-/ 



A (689) designates a fabric in which the arrow 1 indicates the warp. This fabric consists of 
a series of panels c c*, each composed of two cloths, and of a series of transverse solid web- 
bings, a a, and longitudinal solid webbings b b, in which the filling is interwoven with all the 
warp-threads of the fabric, producing purely single cloth with the latter at places mentioned. 
The outside edges, as to width of fabric in the loom, may either be temporarily closed with 
a few threads of plain working selvage, which may be liberated after the fabric has left the 
loom ; or the fabric can be woven without specially uniting the two fabrics in such manner. 
The commencement and the ending of the weaving of the fabric in the loom is formed in 
each case by one of the transverse solid webbings a (single cloth). If the fabric is cut 
lengthwise through the centre of the longitudinal solid webbings b b, and through the centre 
of the divisions, and also transversely through the middle lines of the solid webbings a a, 
f f, a number of bags are produced; and it will be seen that the bags produced from the 
side portions, c* c*, of the fabric have selvages at their mouths, while all the others produced 
from the centre portions, c c, will have raw edges at their mouths). 

The size and the shape of the bags is unlimited and is readily regulated by the changing of 
divisions (purely single-cloth weaving) or openings (double cloth not stitched). 

From the explanations and illustration given it will readily be seen that in cutting up the 
fabrics represented in the drawings a number of bags are formed, the mouth of each being 



138 

composed of two single cloths projecting beyond the solid webbing, so that they can be turned 

back upon the body of the bag (see Fig. 693) to form the tube g, for the reception of the 

drawing strings g 1 , or simply hems to protect the raw edges. 

Fig 694 illustrates the double plain weave (two plain woven cloths), without combining or 

"EBg stitching required to produce the openings, while the common rib-weave, Fig. 695 S855>- 

■ddd or f-^g common plain weave Fig. 6qk 2 gg is used for forming the divisions in the fabric 
Fig. 694. r ° JJ 

(purely single cloth.) 

These bags are used mostly for tobacco, salt, flour, etc., or pockets for trouserings, coats, 
suitings, etc. Frequently seamless bags of a larger description are required to be made, extend- 
ing in their length over the entire width of the loom. In such case the double plain weave is 
arranged for two successive picks in each cloth, as shown in cni Lower side of bag on loom. 
Fig. 696. Warp-threads 2 and 4 and picks 3 and 4 forming the iSBSB} Upper side of bag on loom, 
lower fabric, and warp-threads 1 and 3 and picks I and 2 forming -<-«? S. 
the upper fabric. FlG - 6 9 6 - 

Only one shuttle being used the filling will form the bottom of the bag at the point where 
the filling, after leaving one cloth, changes into the other cloth. For example, in the present 
weave, suppose we commence to insert the shuttle in pick 1 from the right to the left, or in the 
direction of arrow S, below the weave ; the shuttle and its filling, after leaving shed I of the 
upper cloth, will return in the same cloth on its return (left to right), but will insert itself in the 
lower cloth on pick 3 by interlacing with the warp and filling of the lower fabric ; returning in 
the same fabric at the opening of shed (pick) 4, ready to change again (combining both single 
cloth for forming the bottom of the bag) from the lower cloth to the upper (the starting point in 
the present example). 

Before and after weaving the required width of the bag (double plain interlacing on one side of 
Titt 697 1 the fabric), the entire number of warp-threads are arranged to interlace 

on the common rib-weave shown in Fig. 695 (in purely single cloth). 
Fig. 697 illustrates itself, by the aid of the foregoing explanation, as 
follows : a, b, c, d inside size of bag produced on weave 696. The 
shaded part between the two bags represents the purely single-cloth 
fabric interlaced upon the common rib-weave (Fig. 695) ; b to c = 
bottom of the bag, a to d = opening of the bag. Dotted line e to f 
indicates the place for separating the fabric. 

In the manufacture of hose and similar textile fabrics the 
weave given in Fig. 694 (double plain, one end face to alternate with 
one end back in warp and filling) is used. 









v e: 



|oL. c. 









Double Cloth Fabrics in which the Design is Produced by the Stitching Visible 

upon the Face of the Fabric. 

Worsted Coatings. 

Fabrics of this style are a division of the double-cloth in which the binding of both is 
arranged so as to form patterns of any required design. This binding of the two fabrics has to 
be done as firmly as possible all around the outline of the design. The double fabric has to 
become a single cloth, warp and filling ways, all along the outline of the figure or effect. It has 
to be bound not only at intervals as in the previously explained stitched double-cloth, but into 
one compact fabric throughout the entire length of the piece, upon the warp-threads, and across 
the fabric upon the filling ends which form the outlines of the figure. 

Double-cloth fabrics in this arrangement of binding may be made as fanciful as required, 
but in the manufacture of worsted coatings and similar fabrics they are generally confined to 
striped and small check figures. 



139 

Textures for these Fabrics and Arrangement for Binding. 

These fabrics are generally constructed on 2 threads face, I thread back (binder), and the 
stitching is done with the back-warp binding over 2 face-picks. For example, take Fig. 698 for 
the motive of the design and Fig. 699 for the complete weave. 

Repeat : 42 warp-threads and 24 picks. 

It will be readily understood that the stitching of the back-warp in the face fabric will form 
impressions on the latter according to the figure employed for the motive of stitching the fabrics. 
Again, through the places where the double cloth is left unstitched, the fabric will get an em- 



BDBaBOBCC 

cbzbzbzb: 
zzbzbzbzi 
czzbzbzb 
bzbzzzz^: 
dbzzzzzz: 
bzzzzzzzi 
zzzb: 
8bzbzbzbz: 
obdbzibzibl: 
□zbzbzbzi 

OZZI"~ 



iczz 
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I ■ 



24-BBZZEZBBZZaZBBZZBZBBZZBZZ3ZZBZZEZZEZZBZZ3 

nnnr-* nnnnn nrvinri nnnnn ririnnM" nnnriri - nn r -. ri n n 

3B B BB E 3B B BB: B~ BZ_.EZZBZZBZZEZ_BZZ 
ZZB^BEZ^E^BE^ .H^BEZZS-BH^ZSZ^E^ZBCCaDCHnDEI 

ez"eb"b _ "eb"e "bb"ez"eb"e' g""g~ "g""E""g;:z 

Z^E^ E^BE r / E^BE^ B^BB^ZB.^BB^ZB^B^ . E^E^, E 

g"-g= "gB^gz"gB"g~"3Bz , Br"gB."gz"Bz , "Bz"3z'"g;:z 

"a^ZHZ_H BE E BE .__EZBSZZEZBEZZEZZEZZBZZS 

r^ r^ r.i " ~ r^ r.-\ r^\ r^ r,^ ~ r^ryr^t r.^ 



aZBEEEEZEEEES EEEEEI "BEEEE 

az a .a aa az eb :ezzeb e 



beee 



ezeeeee. beec 
e_ aa _az a. . 
CBaz_az_.s c 

EB^az^a__ja__ 

Ezaaaaazaaac 
lazzazzEZZEz: 
1 



saa: aa: 



^^pn' — Pi'- , PinP , r r ^ n n F -' 1 r - 1 



:zza 

30BE 

;aaa 

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3ZZS 

:aza 

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3EEE 
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42 



Fig. 698. 



Fig. 699. 



bossed effect, similar to that of 2 pieces of cloth embossed with the needle, the binding taking 
the place of the latter. The cut effect will be more prominent when 2 beams are used, one for 
the face-warp (ground) and one for the back-warp (binder), and putting more tension on the 

beam carrying the binder. The -„ twill for the face, having the backing working on plain 

weave, may also be used. 

Fig. 700. Motive of the effect. 

Fig. 701. The complete weave to produce the same, executed on above stated principle 
Repeat : 36 warp-threads and 36 picks. 



grZBZZZZCBZBZCZBZZZZi 
B B 



' B B 

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B B C 

B 
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fl B 

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cizbebJjZ aaa"" ga""^rBa""^ aaa"":aE-Z 
a l a — aaa aa oc . > a 11 ^.a — 

ez":z ebb"" gg""" aa"""Zaaa"^ ag""". a 
a a aaa z a a zebe aaa : a a 

; aa""" aaa""_aa z. aaa"" aga"" ag" 

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a"""~ aa""" aaa"" aaa"" gg""" aaa"" a 
r ,a^a ri „b^e^ „aaa , r ,E^E^ ,a r ,a r> r ,aaa 

aa""" >«;"-""-' •;3ob"' j _co"'""" : sg""" aaB" J 

EBB-Z B .S^" EBB ._/ EBB . E E ",^E."E 

eb "aa bbb aaa aa aa ^a 

„BBB r ^EIS^ . n Q G p ^BBB^ZB B^ ^E _B 

J ~ aaa ' gaa"" as " gaa"" aa "" aa" 
a a aaa : a. a • a: a _ bbe a a 

LjLjukj kji.j^±**.s m.*Lj*.s*.j .JuUULi L«k.Jh^Ljk_« wjL<^L<U kJ 

b aaa be . bb:: aaa aa ... _a 

OZ^BBB ._ r ,E E Z^B' B ' EBEZL EBB E B 

" bbb""~bb ^" aa" aaa"' aaa" aa i 

aa"" aa' "" aa ' aaa ' aa aaa"" a 

a a a a aaa a a a a ■' bbb 

tj>.>>.ji.jkj ut.kjuu k >«.'k«>.Jtj kjt.j>.jk..L< k.ju>.<k<k.j kjxkjhj 

aa. a::. . aaa aa . aa bbb ■ 



Fig. 700. 



Fig. 701. 



In worsted fabrics (also woolen fabrics) forming stripes composed of different weaves, in 
which it is desired to make the changing from one effect or weave to the other very prominent, 
by means of a deep or pronounced cut line, use a method similar to the one above explained, i. e. 
" the double-cloth fabric changing into single cloth at the respective last ends of the one weave 
or effect, and the first ends of the other." The only change observed in the present kind of fab- 
rics, compared with those explained before, is found by combining both fabrics into one through 
lowering the face-warp into the back filling. In this manner designs Figs. 703 and 705 are 
constructed. 



140 

Fig. 702 represents the motive to weave Fig. 703, and Fig. 704 illustrates the motive for 
weave Fig. 705. 

Fig. 703. Repeat: 18 warp-threads, 6 picks, e for raisers, □ and ■ for sinkers. 
Fig. 705. Repeat: 36 warp-threads and 6 picks. □ for raisers, ■ and □ for sinkers. 



GQHnnHnnunoHunnnoH 
■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■■ ■ 

BBGQBBaDBBQaBBQDBBDQBBCa 
BUQBQBBOOBBOBaCBQBBDQBBD 

4GGHGGHGGHGGHGGHGGH 
DHGBGGHGGHGMGBGQBBGGB 
■ ■■■■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ 

1BGGBGBBGGBBGBGQBGBBGGBBD 
14 12 



Fig. 702. 



DnnHaHDDDHDHDGDHGH 
N GEEEHrEEEEE EEEG 
C rJEEGGEGGGGQEGGGGH 
EGBaGGEGEQaGBGEGGa 
HBGG sHCm GGGGG'JH 
HGGGCBGCHEGGGGHHGG 
GGGBGEGI GBi IB: UGBGB 
IB! 1 BBEEB EEEG 

GDBBaaEQaaaBBaaaaH 
hdhdl: jbgbdddbdbddd 

EBBEaBEBKB nGQGEZH 
BDDl ][ EGGEEnCDDHEDD 
eDDDHDHDGDHDHDDDEGH 
B GGEG-1 . .BBBBQGEGEB 
QGBBGaBG ] 1 IHHGDDGH 

BaBaaaEGEaaaBaEaaa 

GGEG MBEEB GGGGG'-IO 

lanDDDBaDEBnaaaBBDa 

1. 18 



Fig. 703. 



Matelasses. 

These fabrics are chiefly used for ladies jackets or mantle cloth, hence the name " matelasses." 
The face fabric is mostly silk or fine worsted, the back all cotton, or cotton and woolen. The face 
and the back are also two separate fabrics, having an extra "wadding" pick between each, which 
will greatly help to enrich the embossed effect characterizing this line of fabrics. The figure is 
produced exactly on the same general principle as that explained before. In addition to this 



DCBBQCBBQDBBnOBBQDBBnOBBaDBBDDBBaOBBOnBB 
Cmm .:. BB..BB BB II IBDC II ,1 II ' BB BB . BB . 

BBaOBBaaBBDOBBOOBBDOBBQGBBQDBBOCBBnDBBDu 
■ BB B BB. BB BBDCIBBOBODBBC B II :■■ 

40QBBC]DBBaQBaanBBaOBBaOBBDaBBaaBBnDBBDQBB 
QBBQnBBnBBnDBBOaBDIJBBCQBQBBaDBBOBBCCBBOO 
BBGDBBlCBB'JCBB BB".LBB"'"BB_i_BB » BB: 'CBBf.f 

IBQQBBQQBQOBBQDBBOBBaQBBQBQQBBQaBDDBBDOBB 
IS 16 24 



GcnEDBDnnEDBnonBDEaDGEnEDnnEnBDncBaB 

■DHnnDHDHEBEHnEBBBB' ''EEGGK GGGGB: BGEB 
CCHHDaaDHHDDHnHDD^B'TB " DB . .BBJODDQ 
HDHnCHBGHGCrB "LGZaDB' rEZZZBZG ■:_!'. :BZE~n ] 
EBBB "GBGBB l-iBBEBjEEBEB .HEEEB'JEBBBB M 
BaCDDEEaDDGEDI . BZBDLIDBDBDDBBDanOBEDD 

ecnQEDGDaDSDSOZQEaEnnCiEZB'rCCEGEnCCEZB 
f= EEEHBZEEBEi i EEBBB .. BEEEWBBEBB :EBEB 
nDBBCDZZBB. „E> IE . CI JBLjBODDEDrjDDBECDDDB 
E' Ei l 1 •' EPE '"." E' G": : G! >G < G .".BI".L"I iG G JL i 
BEBEI. BBEEB K-'aGBECBEGGBi. .".! GGGGi GEEEB^M 

iGDDDDBQDDDDGDDnBDEDDDBDEDnGBnJCZ'BBPG 



Fig. 704. 



Fig. 705. 



binding different weaves for the face effect may be employed by using twills and other weaves in 
floral and ornamental figures for design. In some of the lighter grades of these fabrics no 
interior or wadding filling is employed, but simply the two cloths as explained at the beginning 
of this article. In these fabrics nearly the same effect is obtained for the face appearance, 
though of course the figures do not stand out as prominently as when wadded, and the fabric is 
not as stout. 

Quilts. 

Plain Piqut Fabrics. 

Another line of textile fabrics, constructed on the same principle as the coatings and mat- 
elasses, is found in quilts, bedspreads, toilet-covers and similar fabrics. These fabrics are gener- 
ally made in white. In plain pique fabrics the back-warp forms lines across the fabric. Fig. 706 
shows a draft for such a fabric requiring 4-harness for face-warp, 4-harness for 
back-warp, = 8-harness. 

Repeat : 6 warp threads, 10 picks. 
a represents the face-warp, b represents the back-warp. 
Examination of the design shows: 
Picks 1 and 2 interlacing the face-warp on plain weave. Pick 3 is a backing pick, in which 
the entire face-warp is raised, and also every other one of the back (forming in this manner the 
first pick of the plain weave for the back). Picks 4 and 5 are a repeat of picks 1 and 2. Pick 6 
is a backing pick, in which the entire face-warp is also raised, and also the back warp-ends not 
raised in pick 3. Picks 7 and 8 are again a repeat of picks 1 and 2. Thus far the weave has 



10QBBDBBDBBGBB 
EBDEBDEBZEBD 
GaBGDEDDEDDB 
BDDBDQBDDEaa 
EDBBBBEDBBBB 
DDBaDBaDECDB 

BDDBnaEDaBna 

BBBEaEEBEEDB 

saDBODEcaaoaa 

IBDaEDDEDDBDa 
1 6 12 

Fig. 706. 



141 

formed two separate fabrics, each one worked on its own system of threads. By picks 9 and 10 
these fabrics are united into one cloth by raising the back-warp into both picks and working the 
face-threads on the plain weave as was done before on picks 1, 2, 4. 5, 7 and 8. This combina- 
tion of both fabrics gives us the required line across the fabric. If it is desired to produce this 
fabric for a heavier article, one or two " wadding " picks may be introduced between both fabrics, 
as in Fig. 707, through pick 5. 

Picks 1 and 2 face. 
" 3 back. 

"□HHCGHDHHaHCa .-< r 

hgcbbz ebzbezi A. iace. 

nnaczEZZEzaH ^ 

ezcezzezzezo { , „ • . • / j j- \ 

gzaaaaazHH^a 5 interior (wadding.) 

6 a^l="l="l=? " 6 face. 

beeezhbeeezb 

Gcazz!5zza za u _. i i 

IHDDHDDHCriHDD 7 DaCK. 

Fig. 707. " 8 and 9 face. 

" IO back. 
" 1 1 face. 

In inferior qualities these fabrics are made by omitting the two backing-picks ; hence the 
binder-warp has to float on the back. The wadding pick taken for these fabrics is of a very heavy 
size so as to prominently raise the rib effect. 

cba 

nnazca 

EBB BB 
DHQCBa 

CCBCZH 
ZBBZBB 

cazzan 

CZH~ZH 
■DDBDD 

8DZBZZB 
TCBBZBB 
6CBZZB7] 
5CZBZZB 
4CBBZBB 
3DBZZBZ 
2DOBDZa 

mcfzmco 
cba 

Fig. 708. 

Such an example is shown in weave Fig. 708. 
Repeat : 2 ends face, 1 end back in warp and 8 picks. 
The arrangement of the filling is — 

Pick 1 face, binder. 

" 2 1 

V face, regular. 

" 4 wadding. 

" S 
" 6 

" 7 wadding. 

" 8 face, the same as picks 2 or 5. 
Diagram Fig. 709 illustrates the section cut of a fabric interlaced with weave, Fig. 70S. 




Vface, the same as picks 2 and 3. 



Figured Pique. 

These fabrics are also executed on the principle of the double cloth. Both cloths are quite 
plain in their weave, but the face is much finer than the back. White is the color in which they 
are generally made. A "wadding" pick maybe used to give bulk to the cloth, and the em- 
bossed effect likewise characterizes these fabrics. The design for the fabric is also formed by 
binding both cloths together. The thicker the wadding and the larger the figure required to be 
designed, the more prominent will be the effect. In many of the lighter fabrics no wadding 
pick is used, but the two cloths are simply stitched together. 



142 

Fig. 710 illustrates a weave for these kind of fabrics (without a wadding pick). Fig. 711 is 
the motive of the stitching for effect in Fig. 710. 

A consideration of the face-picks will show in every one of them some of the binder-warp 
up, according to the figure required. 

This will easily explain the stitching of the fabric. As both warps are white, no change in 
color can be seen but the effect will be produced by the weave, as every binding back-warp thread 
will pull in the face of the fabric, in any place where it is raised on a face-pick, somewhat similar 
to the stitching together of two bulky fabrics with a sewing machine. Large designs, such as 

MEBSaOBBaaBOaa0aBBBBOE3BBBOESOBBGBBDB 

_jbe b a a ,b he 3 be ; a >ub lib a 
bbgbj lib. 1 :. a fjbj iaw ht '^p e i bljgblce l.j 
a jbbbbb jbb .3b_.bb. bbbbb aa aa aa. bbbb 
oca "aa _.a , a oa a aa b l.b a a bb 
__■_ bb ;a j .a . a:, ,a bb a_ a a _a ■. bb 
Huaa_,aaBaa jbbIjBB bb ,bb_ aa bb^bbbbb a 
dl a . ,a ',bb , ia_,GBwL a „ .a gb .. a jBGbb a 

BL :■ 'B j BBGB JGBC JBI I IBGi IB-jt 'B> » B : .1 BB' B j J 

anaacaa :aaaaa -jBbljbbueblibbl'Ebbbb. aa: >a 
dl a a a aaoGa_, ..egl a_._.a a bb: .gb' a 
bl a a aa. ;a_.oa lbgobgcbg, bb.b a j 
a_aa__aa aa aaaaa .bbcbb ..bbbbb bb.bb a 
cob ._,a. a . a bb : a i_jqc c ebb a a a 
B_ b;gb a bb :b . a , a., bb a - a.. a. ■ j 

BBBB BB ,33 .BBJBBBBB, BBBBB^BE BB BB. B 

dbb : _a ] jB , :a jgbgbbll bcbb. jl .a 1 ■ a a ,l,b 
aacaG 'a__ :b i jajuaBLiai » ibbdbi bi , h.ie: n 
a: bbbbb aa laaaaa jbbbbbgbbceB' aa, ebbb 
ugh iBa a E:aa j iecbbggei '..a ..." buqbubb 
b ( :: bb ,a . a: .bggbggbb: b.i a .:. b..lbdcbbd 
aaaa_BB aa aa.^BBBEBCBEBBB be be bee 
ube_::Ej_,b . a ,oa iBanrarBa e e_ ge a 

BBDEODEaaB : B , jBBI 3: '< 'BB B 1 ; E - EO'GBGG 

BDBBjEB IBB .aBBBB .BBI BB BEBEE .BE ,EBUB 1*00008380000 

oaaaaaoDB . je_.be' ) iai .. ibg__B' pa j iQ._gboge_ oboo : bjooob 

BDOBOOBG: ,E J .BB IB Jl 'El Jl EL:' ,aBi iBGUB'JCBOO OOBaOOOOODBO 

BCBB LEE l33BB3_.BB I33C3BCB3L IBBBBBCBB IB OODBOGOOOBOO 

dce.gb , a la.Ga ,aci a a < a bb.j.lb ' ja odoobooobood 

a ■ .a_". a . bb .a a a a__ a bb a a ,o bogouBcboodd 

BCBaGBBBBB BBGBB JBBDBBCBB BBGBBBBBOB GBGGaDBOOGDB 

Li BICE HE . :EGGBJGBLjGEIjL"B ' B .BGBEJGB ■OGuGBDbDIO 

BL'.B G..BB 13 JJBGUB .11 EGCBGCB . B ;EB ,BOG OaGOBOODBOOO 

BOEBBBBdBB iBBJBB IEBBEEL3B BB 33 BBBB OOOBDDaOGBQO 

DOBGBaG_,B'j'jaGaa j ibjbbglb a a . .bobb aoBGGaaaaaBa 

IBDGBBGaGGBGGaaaaaGBBGBGGBGGBujGBuGBBa laBGaCOBODDGB 

1 .6 1 12 

Fig. 710. Fig. 711. 

flowers, etc., are woven with the Jacquard. As these large figures have a long floating of the 
binder-warp (back-warp), while not being used for the outline of the figure on the face, the back 
warp threads as a consequence float on the back; and as this floating is injurious to the fabric, 
we must use, in addition to the front-harness for the face-warp, a second set of front-harness for 
the back-warp (binder), through which the back-warp can be worked on plain. 

Reeding these Fabrics. 

Threads 1, 2 and 3 are drawn in the first dent of the reed; threads 4, 5 and 6 are drawn 
in the second dent. 

RIB FABRICS, 

Under this division are classified fabrics which, in their method of construction, have high 
prominent and elevated places exchanging with lower or compressed ones. This method of ex- 
changing is generally arranged to run in the direction of the warp, but can be arranged for a 
diagonal direction, or even filling ways. The principle of construction of the weaves for these 
fabrics is nearly related to the common rib-weaves for single cloth. 



8BBaBaaBBOcaa 8oaoaaaBa3BB33BBOoaBBB33333BBBa 

BBOBBBOBBBGB HBBDBaBGBOBOBOBBIIIBaBaBOBGBGBaB 

HBBBaBBBOaaO OOaaaBBBSBBBBBBanQHEBBSBBaBBBB 

Bl BBBOBBWOPB ■aWBOBGBOBOBOBOiiaV.aOaGflOBGBCBn 

iBEaaaaBBGoao bbbbbbbboooo ■>: 333333333333: jbbbbbbebbsbb n 

OBOBOBOBOBOl GBBBGBBBGHilB ■■BOBDBOBOBaBOBBBBOBgBgBCB .BOB B 

BBBBBBBBaOaa EBBE333B , I I II. 333333333333 333333333333 A 

JBOBDBOBDBDBO iBBBQBBBOBHBq lBHHBOBDBaBOBOBOMHHBUBDBaBDBOBg -« 

1 12 1 12 1 15 W 

Fig. 712. , Fig. 713. Fig. 714. 

Weaves for rib fabrics forming their line (rib) effects in the direction of the warp are gener- 
ally produced by floating every other pick for 4 to 12 (or more) threads, and then raising these 
threads so floated for two, three or more warp-threads. The picks situated between them are 
interlaced either in plain or twill weaves. 



143 

For example, Fig. 712. The foundation weave is the common plain weave. Picks I and 3 
(and picks of uneven number) interlace in the entire repeat (12 warp-threads) on this plain weave, 
while picks 2 and 4 (and picks of even numbers) technically known as " rib-picks" float below the 
first 8 warp-threads and over the next (last) 4 warp-threads. 

Fig. 713 illustrates a similar arrangement. In this weave the 3 1 4-harness twill is used 

for every pick of uneven number, while the picks of even numbers, the rib-picks, work the same as 
in the preceding example. Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 8 picks. 




1. Z. b. 



Fig. 715. 



Fig. 714 illustrates an example in which every uneven numbered pick interlaces for 12 warp- 
threads on the common plain weave (floating below 3 warp-threads), while every even numbered 
pick (rib-pick) floats for 12 warp-threads on the back of the fabric and next forms the face-rib 
over 3 warp-threads. 

Diagram Fig. 715 represents the section cut of a fabric woven with weave Fig. 714. A 
careful examination of it "will show that warp-threads 4 to 15 inclusive must make interlacings 
with the filling which are not required by warp-threads 1, 2 and 3. To get perfect work and 
sufficient production it is advisable to have double beams — one beam to contain the first 3 warp- 
threads, the other the remainder. Repeat : 15 warp-threads and 4 picks. 

Another division of rib-weaves is derived by omitting the special rib-pick, 
using instead of it, every pick to form partways (across the weave) rib-pick and 
partways regular weave. Every pick in rotation is arranged for "rib-pick " effect 
(floating on back) when the adjacent picks interlace on common weaving. 

This method of alternately exchanging every pick in certain places for "rib-pick" when its 
preceding and following picks are used for forming the weave (on the face -of the fabric), is con- 
sumed until the repeat is derived. 

Fig. 716 represents such a weave, designed for 12 warp-threads and 4 picks repeat. The 
float of each pick (for " rib-pick ") represents 6 warp-threads as illustrated by □ type. 

For the remaining 6 warp-threads in the repeat of weave, every pick interlaces with the warp 
on the regular plain. 



•-.::::::::::: ■ ■ ■ 

llLlLlL.HHHHaa 
1 6 7 IS 

Fig. 716. 




Fig. 717. 

Diagram Fig. 717 represents the section of weave Fig. 716 This method of using every 
pick partways as rib-pick (float on back) and partways to interlace with the warp on a weave, and 
having this arrangement alternated in each adjacent pick will, in addition to the rib-effect pro- 
duced, prove of great advantage in the manufacture of fancy trouserings, in which every other rib is 
required to appear in a different color. Using each pick (taken in rotation) with the alternate ex- 
changing of two colors, each alternate pick the same, will (using one color for warp over the en- 
tire width of the fabric) produce the above mentioned effect. Such stripe effects will be yet more 
prominent if the warp in color arranegment is used according to the filling forming the weave. 



144 



ii 



4BEEBEEEBDBOB 
DBDBnBDBGBHB 
EEBBEEEEB ■ 1 

IBQBDBDI 



Weave Fig. 718 illustrates a rib-weave constructed on the same principle as 
weave Fig. 716. The distinction between them is the difference in size of ribs 
■a|a"a forming the new weave. Warp-threads 1 to 8 form the large rib I while the smaller 
Fig. 718. r ib II [y 2 the size of I) is formed by warp-threads 9, 10, II and 12. 

Fig. 719 illustrates a rib-weave in which the 4-harness - 2 twill is used for the face-weave, 

every pick being used for one-half the repeat in width of weave for floating, thus forming ribs of 
equal size. 

Repeat of weave: 16 warp-threads, 8 picks. 

1 « 11 



11 



11 



11 



sGnnannaewDDMonB 
■■ddbbddhhhehhhh 
bbbebeeebbcobbgd 
■■ ■■ eeeseeeb 
eebbbbbe 1 : iilciid 
CDBanDBBGaEEaaaa 

EEEEEEEE i MO.' ■■ 

i» ■■_. ■aaaaaaaa 

1 8 9 16 

Fig. 719. 



fEBESEEEBBDC'BBDDB 
GBBGGBBGEEEEEEBa 

EaaaaaBBBB i bb: :; i 
bbqi bbgqbebebbbg 

EBBBBBHHaBBDDBBD 
B BB GBEBBBEBBB 
EBEBBEBGi GBBGGBB 
iGQBBGaBBEEEEEEBB 

1 8 9 16 



Fig. 720. 



SBBBEBEBBBDBD 
BaDBBGDBBEBE 
BBBBBBBBDBaB 
1. BB BBBEBE 
GBEBEBESBGBQ 
OBBGCBBGEEBB 
GBSBGGBEGBGB 

lBBDGBBDaBBEE 

1 8 9 12 

Fig. 721. 



21H3BaBGBBGBGBGBBaBDBDBBD« 
Li va. BB jBGBGBB a ■ II I I 
OCO-'lEEBBBBBEEBBaBBEGBBBH 
GHaiGBGBGBBGBGBGBBGBGBGB 
I ■■ I I II B.BCBBD 



Dl 

[" GEGGEEEEGEEEEGEEEBEB 

BBgDQBBaBaBOBBGBDBDBBJBa 
GBHOBnBGBaBBDBQBDBBuBLiBG 
aaaGBBBBBEBEEEBBBEBBBBBB. 

GmSBGBGBBGBCBGBBQBGBLBB 

a bb b ■ ■■ i:i:iili 

QaaaBEBBBEBEBBBEBBBEEBEB 
r- ;aDBBDBDBDBBCB B BB B B 
BBBBBBBBBBB 
aaaDEBBBBBBBBEBBBBBBBBEB 
DBBBnBDBBaBDBDBBaBDBaBBD 
C ■-:■:'. ' BB B JBGBBGBOBCBBGBG 
naaQEEEEBBEEEEEEEEGBEEEa 

■bwgbgb. b..bbgbgbgbbcb bd 

GBHGBGBGBBGBGBaBBGBaBQBB 

lDDDLBBBBBBBEEEBBBBEQEBBQ 

14 5 24 



Fig. 722. 



The direction for running the twill in both ribs in weave Fig. 719 is the same, but which is 
differently arranged in weave Fig. 720. 

Fig. 720 has a similar repeat and the same weave (- s 4-harness twill) for face. The differ- 
ence is in the direction of the twill in the face-weave, which has a different direction arranged for 
each rib. 

Weave Fig. 721 illustrates a further step in figuring rib-weaves. In this figure rib I is inter- 
laced on its face-weave by the 5 4-harness twill, and rib II with the common plain. Repeat 

of weave : 12 warp-threads and 8 picks; rib I calls for the first eight warp-threads ; rib II requires 
warp-threads 9, 10, 11 and 12. 



11 



in 



IV 



20DBaQBBBDDBaBDBOB(nnBBBaOBOBQH 
BEEBBBBEBB BEBEBBEBBB J 

B ' BBB ■ i-. B B BBBDQBC1BO 

EEEBEBEBEBG ] 3 jBBBBBBBBBBDnDD 
DOMBDaBQBGfflGHGB_,BGCBBBQQBDB 
BGEEBEBBBBGDaaHHGBSBEEBGnanQ 
DBBBnnBaBDBOaaoaBGBDDBBBBDBD 
HHEGEBBEEEl 11 II II iBBEBBBEGBBaoan 
BBB' '; II ]H-L3BU_IBPBnDBBDBDB 

BBBBBBBBBB , . BBBBBBBBBBDaDD 
BB... B B B i I BB B ■ B 
BBBBBBBBBB I ,G EBEEEEBSBEGDDD 
B ■ B : 'BB. Ii I' ii IBBBl ii II , 
GEEGEBBGBBH I II IBBBBBBBBBBGGGD 
C" B B BBB ' ■■■ B ■ I 

BBBBBBBEBBGaariBBBBBBBBBBGDna 
B B BBB . BBB B..B H i 

BBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBB ./.JOG 

B B BBB :"i B III. I :MDiD 

iBBBBBBBBBBaDDDEEEBBBBBBBaDDD 

1 10 14 24 28 



Fig. 723. 



lODBDDBBBaDBnBDDBBBDDB 
B III 1 BGBCGBBBCD 

i BBB' I' Bi IBGB'JBDGBBB 3 
GBBBGGBGBGGGBGBGGBBB 
BBBGGBaBDGBGGBGBGGBB 
BBGGBQBOGBBBGDBDBDGB 
BGGBL'BGGBBBBBGDBDBGG 
L B B BBB BBB. B B I 
GBGBGGBBBaQGBBBnGBGB 

1 1 1 in ■ in ii 

1 10 20 



Fig. 724. 



11 



in 



IV 



4DnaCEBBEBBBBBGBGBGB BBBBEBBB 
■■BBBGBGBGBGBBBBBBBBBGBGBGBD 
DDO BBBBBBBBGBGBGBGBBBBBBEEB 

lt-i BBB BBBBBBBBB B B...BGB 



1 



13 



Fig. 725. 



Weave Fig. 722 illustrates still another step in the figuring of rib-weaves, observing for the 
general arrangement 2 face picks, to alternate with one rib-pick. Repeat of weave : 24 warp- 
threads and 21 picks; rib I is produced by every third pick with the first 4 warp-threads, and 
rib II by warp-threads 5 to 24, with two successive picks oul" of three picks in repeat of arrange- 
ment, and interlacing as face-weave with the regular 7-harness corkscrew. 

F'g- 723. Repeat of weave: 28 warp-threads and 20 picks. 

This weave illustrates the application of a pointed twill for face-weave of every other rib, I, 
III, etc. Every even numbered rib, II, IV, etc., is produced by 4 warp-threads ; one pick floating 
on the face over all four warp-threads (rib-pick in the adjacent ribs) to exchange with one pick 
interlacing on common plain. 



145 

Fig. 724 illustrates the face-weave for Fig. 723, as used for rib I and III. Repeat: 20 warp- 
threads and 10 picks, and is the pointed twill derived out of the - — j — - — s — - — % 10-harness, uneven- 
sided twill. 

Weave Fig. 725 illustrates a rib-weave, constructed in four changes. Repeat: 2 8 warp-threads 
and 4 picks. 

The next sub-division of rib weaves embraces the diagonals. These can be further classified 
into two divisions. Those designed with an extra rib-pick and consequently an extra face-pick 



24ZZZEEEEEEEEZ 

ZBZBZBZBZBZB 
CZEEBEBEEBZG 
BZBZBZBZBZBZ 
ZEEEEEEEEZZZ 
ZBZBZBZBZBZB 
EEEEEESEZZZZi 
BZBZBZBZBZBZ 
EESEEEGZZZZE 
ZBZB~B;iZiZB 

ljvj E u u _ EH 

BZBZBZBZBZBD 
EEEGEZ: IZEEB 
ZBZBZBZBZBZB 
EEH^ ~ ^~ E ^ ^ H 

bzbzbzbzbzbz 
eeezzzzeeeee 
zbzbzbzbzbzb 
eezzzzeeeeee 
bzbzbzbzbzbz 
ezzz.-eeeegbb 
zbzbzbzbzbzb 
gzz_eeeeeeee 
1 bzbzbzbzbzbz 

1 12 

Fig. 726. 



3=ZEEEEEGEEEEEEEEZ 

ZBBZZBBZZBBZZBBG 

BBZZBBZZBBZZBBZG 

UULJkJblkJLJkJOLlLiU Lji 

BZZBBZZBBZZBBZZB 

ZZBBZZBBZZBBZZBB 
EGEEEGEEESEZZEEE 
CBBZZBBZZBB BBZ 

Eryryryryryr~*r~*ryr~* r^nnr^ 

bbzzbb: zbb_ zbbzz 

^ r:,r ^"^ ,^:,r ■* ,r ■'" ^:,^^, — nnnnn 
B^Bfl^BflZ^BB^B 

zz , bbz , z , bbzzbb'z'z'bb 

U^LJUULikj LJUUULJLJU 

ZBBZZBBZZBBZZBBZ 
EEEEEEZZEEEEEEEE 
BBDDBBDDBBDDBBDa 

EEEEEZZEEEGEGEEE 

.JZZBBZZBBZZBBZZB 

Er"3H' — ry ry r^ ri n r-i ry ry ry ry 

ZZBBZZBBZZBBZZBB 

nr"^~ ~ ~ryryryryryryryr^ryryr.^ 

zbbzzbbzzbbzzbbg 
e3zzeeeeeeeeeeee 

bbzzbbzzbbzzbbzz 

FT* ~~ ~ »7"T* r.iryry. ry ry ryryryry ry r.l 

Li LiULJLiLiUULiL/LJUUU 

BZZBBZZBBZZBBZZB 

ZZEEEEEEESEEEEEE 

1QGBBZZBBZZBBZZBB 

1 10 

Fig. 727. 



13eeeeezbzbzbze 
zbzbzebbeeegb 
eeehzbzbzbzeh 
bzbzeeeeeezbz 
esezbzbzbzebe 
gbzeeeeeezbzb 
hhdbdbdbdhhhh 
bzee3eebzbzbz 
ezbzbzbzeeeee 
cgbeggezbcbzb 
cbzbzbzeeeeee 

GEEEES_B" ■ ■ 
1BZBZBZGEEEEEZ 
1 13 

Fig. 728. 



19EGEEEEEEZZBBZZBBCGE 
BBZZBBZZEEEEEEEEEZZ 
EBEBEEEZZBBZZBBZZEB 
BZZBBZZE3EGGGEEEZZB 

EEEEEEI BBZZBBZZEES 

ZZBBZZEGEEEEEEEZZBB 
EESEGZDBBGZBBZGEEGB 
ZBBZZEEEEHEEEEZZBBZ 
EEEEZZBBZZBBZZEEEEE 
BBZZEEEEEEEEEZZBB J 
GEEZZBBZZBBZZEEEEEE 
BZZEEEEEEEEEDZBBZGB 
EEZZBBZZBBZZEEGEEEE 

I — ~ryryryr.-rryr.*ryrz\ry — j — BB BJ — H — BJBJ 

bzzbbzzbbzzeebgbeee 
1 .eeeeeeeebz-bbzzbb j 
zzbbzzbbzzbeeeebeee 
eseeeeegezzbb: :bbzz 
1 "bbzzbbzzeeeeeeeeez 

1 19 



Fig. 729. 



(see Figs. 726 and 727), and the diagonal rib-weaves in which every pick is used partways for 
" rib-pick," and partways for face-pick. In this manner weaves Figs. 728 and 729 are constructed. 

Weave Fig. 726 has for its repeat 1 2 warp-threads and 24 picks. The face-picks interlace 
in common plain, while the rib-picks float under 8 and above 4 warp-threads. 

Weave Fig. 727 requires for its repeat 16 warp-threads and 32 picks. The face-picks have 

for their weave the g 4-harness twill, while the rib-picks in their repeat in 16 warp-threads 

float under 14 and over 2 threads. 



11 



zzz: 

ESSE 

z^zt 

HEBE 

4[ 

ebb: 

DC" 



□ 
IBG 

BZ 

BB 

J 

"HZ 



ieeeezzbZ^;_bg 
1 4 12 

Fig. 730. 



24BZBBBGBBBGBBB7 BBB BBBGBB 
GGBZ fl B B_.ZB. ■ ■ BE 

BBB BBB BBB : BBB BBB BBB. 1 
B ■ B fl fl BE E 

bzbbb bbb bbb bbb bbb ..bb 
gzb b__ b b be eb , 
■bb bbb bbb iii iii bbb 
bz_zb . b. . b .: ._■:: eb 
■l hi: ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ :■■■ bb 
:■"■_ , b_z_ bz : "be eb ■ j 

■BB BBBZBBB. BBB.BBfl BBB ] 
BE EB 

GZB . ",B . ZBE .EB B 

BBB BBB" BBB BBB BBB BBflZ 
BE EB 

■ "BE ::■ . 

BBB BBB BBB .BBB BBB BBB I 
fl . BE EB fl. ■ fl . 

■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ BBB BBB BB 
BE EB 

1BEZBB jGJCBDDGBI . B B 

1 

Fig. 731. 



CZBBBZGEGGZE" 
G B BEE EBB 
BBB" E_ El 



e"" 

BE EC 

: g 

L L"iLJ 

E ■ 
EB I 

BBI 
fl 



"EZZI 



■ EEC 

■ ■■ ZB 

■ BBB C 

■ B :c 

ra b 

EB EBB 

GZ :ezz 

ZB '. ' BB 
BE B 



B BBB BBB" B 

LJlJlj ..: BB _ EKE l- 



■ B E 

BBB BEE 






B BEE BEE B B 

BBB B B BBB BBB 

B BEE EBB fl B Bl 

BB B , B BBB BBB B 
BEE BBB B B EBB 

BBB BBB 
BEE EBB..ZBZZZB_... BEE El 
in 



IZ 

IG 
I ZZ 
I II 

:bz 

IBBG 
IB 

I B 

"EBB 
B_- 3 
:b E 

E 
BBB 

B J 

:b "z 

BB 
B i 

IBB ] 

I 



I B 
I B 

BEE 
E 1 
JB B 
B 
BEE 
B 



Fig. 732. 



Weave Fig. 728, as previously mentioned, is a rib-weave in which every pick is used part- 
ways for "rib-pick," and the remaining part forming, by interlacing with the warp, the face- 
weave. Repeat: 13 warp-threads and 13 picks. Width of rib-float 6 warp-threads, exchanging 
with 7 warp-threads interlaced on plain weave. 

In weave Fig. 729 the same principle, that of using each pick for rib-float and face-pick, is 
observed. For face-weave a common-twill is used. Repeat: 19 warp-thrcads and 19 picks. 



Rib-float is 9 threads, and interlaces in warp for face 



= IO threads. 



I 



146 



Another method of producing rib-weaves is to combine regular double cloth at certain 
places with a single cloth. In such cases the fabric when forming double cloth will not be 
stitched together, as, for example, weave Fig. 730. Warp-threads I, 2, 3 and 4 form a common 
plain rib-weave or single cloth, while warp-threads 5 to 12 interlace (without binding) with the 
filling on the regular " double plain." Repeat of weave : 12 warp-threads and 4 picks. 

These rib-effects in double cloth can also be produced entirely by the binding of both 
single-cloth fabrics. It may be arranged to form ribs in the direction of the warp and effects in a 
diagonal direction as shown in Fig. 731. Repeat : 24 warp-threads and 24 picks. ■ represents 
the weave for regular double-plain and a shows the stitching of both fabrics in a diagonal direc- 
tion for the required rib. 

Another step for producing rib-effects in double cloth is taken by exchanging the face-cloth 
with the back, and the back with the face. This method of exchanging may be arranged to run 
warp-ways (vertical) or in a diagonal direction. For illustrating this method Fig. 732 has been 
designed. Repeat : 16 warp-threads and 16 picks. 

Fabrics produced by means of weaves designed on the regular double-cloth system, such as 
weaves Figs. 730, 731 and 732 and other similar weaves, do not have the rib-effect appear 
so prominent as in the case of the preceding weaves, all of which contain the peculiar pick 
known as rib-pick, rib-float, etc., and which assists, for the reasons given, to such a great extent in 
making the rib-effect prominent. 

THREE-PLY FABRICS. 

It will be readily understood by any one that has carefully studied the structure of two-ply 
fabrics that by the same method and principles employed in combining two single cloths into one 
fabric, known as two-ply or double cloth, three such single-cloth fabrics can also be combined 
into one fabric. 

In the construction of a 3 -ply fabric a regular set of warps and filling for each of the three 
single cloths is required, thus dealing with three systems of warp and three systems of filling in 
designing. To impart a more perfect understanding, the construction of a 3-ply fabric from its 
beginning to the finished weave is shown, and for this purpose three single-cloth fabrics inter- 
laced on the plain weave are selected. 



oaaannnomnQDnDQ 
caaaaaaaaaaacoaa 

lOBBDCDLDHQCOnnBJa 

ODDDamoDCQoaooa 
ounnnQOLDQQDnxn 

TBBnnHDDaDCHDDDDG 
aaDDDDDDDaDDDDDa 
ODDDDDODDnDCDOOa 

^■■DDDDnHnnnaoHDD 

DDDnanannoDnDDaa 
□QOODQDQoaDoanra 

IMDQHOnQOQHQCECa 

coQDQnDoanaonanc 
ooaaoDQaDDQQOona 

DDDDfflDnBDDBDDBDn 

aanDBDDBaDBnciBDa 
1 4 7 10 



Fig. 733. 



□nDoaonnaDcn 
UDDDGHaaDDaHn 

6! GjGZHCG 

ncaaaaaaaaQo 

soHcanacHDaan 
HDGaacBQnaaa 
CGGGGnanoaaa 

snaanHGDGGGa.Ti 

DDGHGGaDGHGG 

GGGGaaaaaGaa 

sGHDuQOGGaaaa 
HaaaQDHGGQaa 

2 5 8 11 

Fig. 734. 



i2DaaacBaaaaD« 

OQQDHOGDGGEJ 

aaaacnaaaHca 

SCEBCJDDCDBQna 

DHuanacHDDDa 
BQQaQQHaaaaa 
eaanGaeaaaacB 
aaoaHQDDGGHa 

QGl a . HuG 

3aaBaanaa«aaa 
GHaaaaafflGGca 
HGQGGGBaaaGa 

3 6 12 

Fig. 735. 



l-"3G33B33GH5ii 

BaasiHOBDasHa 
GGGHGuaaosaa 



El HOEDOBHQEICD 

Haaaaaaaaaaa 



BQDBHCIBOaSHa 
GGGHGaaCGHGD 
KSBHKDKlKBKHa 

KHDEiaGKHaKiaa 

iBGaaGGHaaaaa 

1 6 12 

Fig. 736. 



Fig. 733 illustrates the first set of the plain weave, or the weave for single cloth number 
one (h type). Warp and filling-threads used are numbered on the left side and the bottom of 
the design, and are indicated by ■ type. " One thread taken and two missed " in each system for 
the other two single cloths. 

Fig. 734 illustrates by □ on warp-threads 2, 5, 8, 11 and on the corresponding picks, the 
interlacing of the single cloth number two (plain weave). 

In Fig. 735 the interlacing of the third or last single cloth is shown on warp threads 3, 6, 9, 
12 and the same numbered picks (■ the type used). 

Next, raise for the picks of the lower single cloth (in the 3-ply structure) each warp- 
thread of the two upper cloths (face and interior cloths) ; also, raise the warp-threads of the face 



147 

cloth on the interior picks. This method of operation is illustrated (successively from Fig. 735) 
in weave Fig. 736 by & type. 
In this is shown : — 

Pick 1, first pick of face cloth. 

"2, " " interior cloth (face raised). 

" 3, " " back cloth (face and interior raised). 

" 4, second " face cloth. 

"5, " " interior cloth (face raised). 

" 6, " " backed cloth (face and interior raised). 

And thus the repeat: 6 warp-threads and 6 picks, allows 2 warp-threads and 2 picks for the 
structure of each fabric. Weave Fig. 736 thus produces three distinct single cloths resting in the 




loom after being woven one above the other, as shown in the sectional cut in diagram, Fig. 737^ 
The next process is the combining of these three single cloths into one fabric, which is 
technically known as the " stitching." To effect this in a proper manner combine the 



In weave Fig. 738 this method of "stitching" is clearly indicated. In this 



BguUHQnnaHBa 

■BHIaBBBIB backing-cloth to the interior cloth, and this in turn to its face. 

BBnBDDBBOBnn 
|DDDC3DBHDnaD 

■BDB«g«i«] ~mmm 

BDdSBHBOOBBU 

iBBBBIM figure the m type illustrates the three single-cloth fabrics, equal to the weave illus- 
1 ql dq 8 trated in Fig. 736 by four different characters of type. In Fig. 738 a illustrates the 

Fig. 738. stitching of the interior cloth to the face-cloth, and the n the stitching of the back- 
cloth to the interior cloth. 




Fig 739- 

Diagram Fig. 739 illustrates the section of a 3-ply fabric interlaced by means of the weave 
previously shown (Fig. 738). 



FOUR AND FIVE-PLY FABRICS. 

Sometimes it is desired to have produced fabrics constructed out of more than three single 
cloths. 

Weave Fig. 740 clearly illustrates the construction of a 4-ply fabric. 
The a type represents the interlacing of the four single cloths. 



148 



■ on picks i and 9 illustrates the stitching of the second cloth to the face (or first) cloth. 

a on picks 2 and 10 represents the stitching of the third cloth to the second. 

on picks 7 and 15 illustrates the stitching of the back cloth to third cloth, and which 
completes the stitchings of the four single-cloth fabrics into one, and technically classified as 
«' four-ply." 



161 



BDnaBiananaDBBac 

DGnOBQDGDGQDBOaC 
BMMHMMM3 il 1MNSBBHG 
H. 1 ). HCiWHB'^H ,1 j 
■■□DM JDQi .11 IfflGBGGG 
IHBDaaQDDBDDDDDDD 
1 16 

Fig. 740 



HJBHBBnBHnFIBBIftHnFin: • • i 
ill K 

1 1; -» ig ; ii f iij 1 ,14. iz t -:--Vj : 

BGGGGHw: XT .: I IBGGG 

DGGGGBDaaGGGaaDBaGGG 
I ii •■• I: II !i I. MIMGMMMNi ISi-11-iy..i 
Ml !>-H 1 11 H !GI I ■ IBBGG 

■■BGGBWGLlGHHaGDBBCDD 
Ml IB I IM !■: id: WSGGGBGGGG 
llBDnDDDaaaDBBrODDDDDD 
Ml 11 I' i ■ ii I 11 1 ■- 1 iHBBB 

a 

BBDDDBBBHDBBDDnBBBna 
BGDDGBBGDDBnDGDBBGGC 
DGGGGBDaaGGDDGGBaaaG 

M ! :' ; . r I ' I - I l"i::. : .- !_j 

BBBBDBBBDGBBBBDBBBDn 
BBBDaB 1 

■■□aaBDDDDBBfflaaBDGoa 
1BBGGGGG. jaaBGaGaaGGGG 

1 20 



Fig. 741. 



Weave Fig. 741 shows the construction of a 5~ply fabric. 

■ type represents the interlacing of the five single cloths. 

■ type on picks 1 and 1 1 illustrates the stitching of cloths 1 and 2. 
® type on picks 2 and 12 illustrates the stitching of cloths 2 and 3. 
type on picks 8 and 18 illustrates the stitching of cloths 3 and 4. 
h type on picks 9 and 19 illustrates the stitching of cloths 4 and 5. 

And thus closes the complete stitching of the five single-cloth fabrics into one, technically 
known as " five-ply." 



Pile Fabrics. 

Textiles classified as " pile " fabrics, form a separate sub-division of woven articles, and are 
characterized by the soft covering which generally overspreads and conceals, to a great extent, 
the interlacing of the warp and the filling. In this division of textiles, are to be found some of 
the grandest and most complicated products of the loom. In every pile fabric one series of 
threads is employed for producing the ground of the fabric, while a second forms the pile, so that 
two distinct systems of warp or of filling are always necessary in the manufacture of these fabrics. 

Technically, they are divided into pile fabrics in which the pile is produced by an extra 
filling, and pile fabrics in which the pile is produced by a separate warp in addition to the 
ground warp. The greatest variety of effects can be produced in the latter sub-division, and 
fabrics produced on this principle of weaving, find a very extensive use. 

Pile Fabrics Produced by Filling. 

Velveteens, Fustians, Corduroys. 

These fabrics require for their construction one kind of warp; also, in most fabrics, one kind 
of filling. If one kind of filling is used the same is consequently employed for the " pile " picks and 
the "ground " or " foundation " picks of the pattern. If two kinds of filling are used, one kind is 
employed for the pile and the second kind produces the foundation-cloth. In preparing the design, 
the arrangement for the ground and pile picks, is either alternately one pick pile, one pick ground, 
or, two picks pile, one pick ground, or, three picks pile, one pick ground, four picks pile, one pick 
ground, etc. The arrangement indicated as the second method is the one most generally used. 
For the ground structure of the fabric, " the plain-weave," or, " the double plain, warp-ways," or, 
" the 3-harness twill," or, " 4-harness even-sided twill," are the ones most frequently used. In 
any of these cases the filling for the pile is floating over 3, 5, 7 or more warp-threads. 

The floats of the pile are afterwards cut open with a knife constructed especially for it. This 
method of cutting the pile for the fabrics is old, and dates back to the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. 

Cutting the Pile by Hand. 

This procedure is as follows: The fabric is stretched on the cutting table, which has (inmost 
instances) a length of from 55 to 70 inches, and is fastened to it by means of clamps. Next, the 
cutter takes his knife for cutting the pile, which consists of a long steel bar formed into a very 
sharp knife at its end, and provided with a guide, consisting of a narrow piece of sheet-iron 
doubled and forming a groove, fitting on the knife ; the part of this piece of sheet-iron extending 
from the knife, is formed into a needle, of a length which is regulated by the length of the pile to 
be cut. The cutter inserts the needle into the row of floats which is nearest to the selvage, and 
pushes the knife (in direction of the warp) through the entire floats in the one direction ; the next 
row of floats is treated in the same manner, and this is continued until all the rows are cut. In 
the lower grades of these fabrics, only every other row of floats is cut, and consequently the 
thickness of the pile is reduced in proportion. Again, stripes of cut and uncut pile (regulated as 
to dimensions in width entirely at will) are produced. 

After cutting open the pile over the surface of the table, the clamps are opened and the next 
length (of 55 up to 70 inches) is fastened. This process is repeated until the entire piece has its 
pile cut. Every length of the table generally calls, in the lower qualities, for 500 to 600 runs, 
while the better grades require from 800 to 1 200 runs in a single width of those fabrics. This 

(14!)) 



150 

cutting by hand is naturally a very slow and expensive job. (Flour-paste is often applied to the 
back of the fabric, so as to make the cutting of the pile easier and safer.) 

Of late years, machines have been invented to cut this pile and have proved successful to a 
certain extent. 

After cutting the pile and subsequently mending any imperfections, either produced during 
the process of weaving or cutting, the fabric is turned over for the dyeing and finishing. 

Designs for Weaving these Fabrics. 

As mentioned already, one warp is used both for interlacing the ground and binding the pile- 
filling. The ground-weave is generally either 5S or, ""So or, ■"■ or, ""38 etc., while the pile-filling 
is floating 3, 5, 7 or more ends. D " n 



BDDDBDOQ 
CnBDDQBa 

1.3. & a h 

■OCJOBQDn 
QDBDOOBD 
QDHDHDHD 

eaoDDHnca 

DDHDDDBD 
i Hi . H E E 

■ 11 •• m on 

acme, j ma 

ieljeledeu 



Fig. 742. 




fr *-'• . B. JS 




Fig. 743. 



Fig. 744. 



Fig. 742 represents a common weave used for these fabrics, and constructed with a texture 
of 4 warp-threads, 6 picks in one repeat of the pattern, a are the pile-picks, □ the ground-picks. 
Pile, 1 up, 3 down. Ground, " plain," two picks pile to alternate with one pick ground. 

Fig. 743 represents the sectional cut of the woven fabric before the pile is cut. 

Fig. 744 represents the corresponding section with the pile cut. The letters and numbers in 
both designs are identical. 

Pick A is the ground pick. 1 up, 1 down, to be exchanged in pick 4 (not represented in the 
drawing) by 1 down, 1 up. Picks B and Care the pile picks, which are duplicated in every repeat 
of the weave. Arrow 5 in Fig. 743, represents the place for the cutting of the pile for pick B. 
S, in Fig. 744, represents the pile as cut. Arrow S l , in Fig 743, marks the place and direction for 
cutting the pile for pick C. S 1 , in Fig. 744, represents the pile as cut. In Figs. 743 and 744 
the ground pick is shown outlined, while Fig. 743 has the one pile pick B marked black, and 
the other pick C illustrated as shaded. Fig. 744 illustrates both pile picks, and equally represen- 
ted in black. 

This change in Fig. 743 has been made to simplify the construction of the fabric and for 
the benefit of the novice in designing. 

BOODODBDODDQ 
OODBODQOQBQa 
EEC .EH:" BE: :EEG 

■ LJI il ' J ■ 'I " 1! 1 

1. in ■ iji :■ m i i 

ECEE EE : EEIJE 
■cor ■- ODD 
dgcb . . , maa 

DEHL EB BE' jEB 

■ ■ 

C! .1 ■ "11 j uaa 

EHOEE' 'HE .BSD 
■DO ': ■_■ LOUD 
COOBQQDQCBOD 
EQEEOHGQHHCE 

■QnonQBnoQon 

auamaaanamaa 

QEECJEBDEEGBfl 

1 G 

Fig. 747. 



■cnnB~.no 
ddbd ■ ma 

EH 1 , EEIJD 

■ .1 I, ■ OO 

OOBOnOBO 
C.i EEl .' EH 

■ . ■' 1 ID 

" ■ ma 

EE ■ HHIJD 
■DDDBDDD 
DDBDdDHD 

oobeddhq 
Fig. 745. 



■cnnnoBcnDDQ 

GOGBOOaOOBCG 
Ei 'Ei E "E H E 1 

■ .1 1 1 1 1 "■;."« ;. I 
CDDBDODDDBDa 
IV.E ! E H C El IE 

»■■ ■ ."!' !' J 

OQQBOC ■ .: 
ECE E E E ED 

■1 , . _■■ il.IJ 

DODBQnQDDBDD 
iDHaHGEDHDEDH 

1 6| 

Fig. 746. 



■DCDDoncBnnnnaDa 

DDUDBDDDDDDaBDna 
DCBDQDDDDaBDQDDD 
DDDDCDBDDDDDDDBD 
EDEDBDHnHDEDHaEa 
BQ JDDDDOBDDaDDDr ] 
DnDDBDDDDDDDBDDD 

DDBaDDODDDBcnnnn 
DDQanaBDDanDDaBa 

1 DEDEDEDEDHaHDEQQ 
1 8 

Fig. 748. 



Fig. 745. — 4 warp-threads, 6 picks in I repeat, m equal pile-picks, e equal ground-picks. 
Pile is produced on 1 up, 3 down. Ground is produced on the common 4-harness rib-weave - 2 , 

Fig. 746 represents a weave executed on 6-harness and 6 picks repeat ; using for pile-filling 
(b) 1 up, and 5 down, while the ground-cloth is formed on the plain (e). 

Fig. 747 is designed for 6-harness, with 9 picks in one repeat ; b for pile-filling, e for ground- 
filling. Pile, 1 up, 5 down. Ground weave, 3-harness twill, warp up. 



151 

Fig. 748 represents a draft for a velveteen fabric, having 4 picks of pile-niling to I ground- 
pick ; the pile-filling floating over 7 warp-threads. The ground is interlaced on plain. 

A careful examination of this draft will show the possibility of obtaining, by means of the 
latter, a fabric which will take up the filling easily and yet hold the pile very strongly to the 
ground-fabric ; a point which is of great advantage in producing a firm and perfect fabric ; a velvet 
resisting the wear these fabrics are subjected to so frequently. This draft is designed for a high 
number of picks to one inch; therefore, if the weight should have to be lowered on account of 
a considerably less number of picks, this weave must be changed accordingly, so as to bind differ- 
ently. For example, take picks 7, 8, 9, 10, and move the raisers one thread toward the right 
hand. If .a sufficient number of picks are not in a fabric to warrant the binding of the pile solidly 



lanBDBnDnaannBOBnnDnnn 

DDDQDBGBaC '"JDDDBGBOD 

DBaaoaaaoB'jBcnaac "~b 

GGGBGBGr 1GGBGBGI 

jobcjb:: : am 

EaEjBJEGB_E ..BGE'_.H .B Z 

GBGBG i ZZZZ- ' B JBGGu _GG 
DaDDDBDBDr Z aaODBCJBQD 

nmnaaozazMDmzjcnG'-iana 
a laBGBnnDannDBDBac 

□OaEjQaDBQBQQaCDQnBaB 
igHDHdHQHQHOHaHaHQHDH 
1 10 



12HC 

DC 
[ 



~bs~ee~beg 
DQBoaaaoBD 
■ ■ 

i 
be :b 
■ 

3BGGG 

: 

3E BB 
~~1Q 



Fig. 749. 



EGaBGI 
DDODB 

nn«DD! 
Baaaai 

DHHDBI 

DaanBL_ 

GDBGC ■ 

JBaaaaaBaaDDD 

1 6 

Fig. 750. 



?eb~:ee :,bb be : 
ddgbdc ggobdcj 
DBDaaaDBanaa 
E bb :bb be e 

"m 1 ". a 

DGGBnC JGBGG 
CEEGEE :jBE :EE 

DBGDaaDBGaaa 
iDanDDBanaaDB 

1 6 

Fig. 751. 



isBGaaDDDnBanDonan 

DDD JBQQaOGDQBODQ 

EaaassGaBHaaBBaa 
bggc laaaBaa: jgg 
aaGGBGaaaDODBGGn 
HaaaEaaBHaaHEDGH 
BGDaaaaGBGGGa god 
aaanBaaaaaaGBGaG 

BB BB BB BB 

BaQGaaaoBQGaaaGa 

GGGGBG G"l GDGGBaaa 

inHEaaaaaGHHGCHEG 

1 6 



Fig. 752. 



to the ground-cloth, by means of binding the former to the latter with one end, two ends up and 
separated by one thread down, must be used. In this manner weave Fig. 749 is executed, having 
five plush-picks to each ground-pick. Repeat: 10 warp-threads, and 12 picks. The float of the 
pile is over 7 threads, and each pile-pick is interlaced to the ground fabric by I up, 1 down, I up. 
All the pile-picks interweave under the same warp-threads (use every alternate warp-thread), 
while one of the two ground-picks intersects over the latter. This arrangement in the 
design allows the picks to go easy in the fabric and naturally adapts itself for high filling 
textures. 

The proportion of the pile-picks to the ground-picks is always regulated by the required 
closeness of the pile. 

Fig. 750 shows the design for a 3-harness (- j) twill-ground in connection with 3 pile-picks 

to 1 ground-pick. The design repeats with 6 warp-threads and 12 picks. _ 

Fig. 751 has 2 picks pile, 1 pick ground; the design repeating with 6 warp-threads and 
9 picks. Designs Figs. 748, 749, 750 and 75 1 have pile-picks indicated by ^ and ground-picks 
indicated by a. 



■ ■ 





■ 




1 


1 


1 


1 


j 1 


1 




■ 


1 


e : 


: e c 


3 ;HT 1 


HI [• 


; e 


:: 


B 


j r 1 


, . B 






1 




■ 




■ 


1 


i 


1 


■ 


1 




B 


. 


1 


' ajH - 


.B^E 


^U^ 


.U^U 


18 



isBGoaaGaaGBm 

QGQBQC B 

B ■ 

BE BB BB BB BB BE 1 1 

B ■ 

IB B I 

B B 

E BE BB BB iBB BB B 
B B 

3GBGC ■ 

B B 

H EEl BE :EB be be. .EB 



GBGBCf B B 

B fl Bl B ; 1 

E E B E B B B B B B 

B B _:gbobgc 

■ a D'JBGBQL 
IB B. B B Bl E B E B B : 

1 i" 



Fig. 753- 



Fig. 754. 



Fig. 755. 



Fig. 752 represents the float ! - ^ for the pile, (b) interlaced in a ground-fabric woven on the 

4-harness even-sided twill (b). The arrangement of the pile towards the ground is 2 to I. 

Fig. 753 illustrates the plain ground in connection with the pile-floating, - 8 . 3 picks 

pile to I pick ground; ■ for pile, q for ground, in design. Repeat of weave: 18 warp-threads, 8 
picks. 

Fig. 754 shows one of the most frequently used designs on a repeat of 9 warp-threads 
and 12 picks. 3 pile-picks to 1 ground. ■ for pile, a for ground. Float of the pile- 
filling ! ,. 



Fig. 755 illustrates the plain ground with the pile ' — r 



T 



2 pile-picks to alternate with I 



ground-pick. Repeat of design : 10 threads in warp and 6 picks. ■ for pile, a for ground. 



152 

Having given a complete idea of the construction of plain-faced fabrics, our attention is 
next directed to corduroys. 

Corduroys. 

These fabrics have stripes running the length of the stuff, but may also have them running 
in a diagonal direction. Again, they may form figures of any description. If forming the 
regular cords, they may also be made to vary in widths. 

Mrinnnn-nnn-rrinnn . nnn Weave Fig. 756. 10-harness and 6 picks 8 S2BB88£53SB8333SBS™R 

yggBS^SRSBgSSRgSSgBa repeat of pattern. Ground-fabric is a plain-weave, .BSB3SRS m ^$ aH . Hn Id 
inSzH-jaGaua^SoaaSddDH pile-float, — B — — 3 . 2 pile-picks to I ground- iL"aa^"aJ_a^"Ha_.Jkida 
Fig. 756. pick. ■ for pile, a for ground. Fig. 757. 

Weave Fig. 757. 12-harness and 8 picks repeat of pattern. Ground-fabric, a double plain- 
weave, warp-ways, pile-float, — g — — 4 . 3 picks pile to I pick ground. ■ for pile, h for ground. 

Chinchillas — Whitneys. (Plain and figured effects.) 

These fabrics are produced upon weaves similar to those shown in Figs. 570 to 572. The cut- 
ting of the pile filling is done automatically during the finishing process by the "gig," and the pile 
thus cut is raised by the " whipper." In the construction of these weaves, as well as in arranging 
the texture, little importance is given to a compact, solid interlacing of warp and filling, especially 
as the condition of a soft and spongy nature is always required in the finished fabric. In some of 
these fabrics only two kinds of filling are used, the ground and the pile filling, while others are 
made with three kinds of filling — the ground, the pile and the interior filling. For fabrics of a 
plain character (as to face) use weaves such as the 4-harness broken-twill, the 5 -harness satin, etc. 
Filling for face, for the interlacing of the pile or face filling, and the same weave, arranged warp 
for face, for the ground filling. Such weaves have been previously explained and illustrated 
in Figs. 570, 571 and 572, page 109. 

Regular double-cloth weaves are also used, arranged : 1 end face, 1 end back, 2 ends repeat in 
warp ; 1 pick face, I pick back, I pick face, 1 pick interior, 4 picks in the repeat. For face-weave 

the 4-harness broken-twill is generally used (filling up). For back-weave the 2 or ?■ j twill. 

On the interior pick all the face- warp is raised, leaving the entire back- warp in the lower shed, so 
that this filling will rest the same as the wadding in the pique fabric — between the face and back 
cloth of the fabric. The object of the interior filling is to increase the thickness of the fabric, 
and to cheapen the cost of manufacture by using a low-grade stock for it, which is neither visible 
on the face nor the back of the fabric. 

As previously mentioned, fabrics of this kind must have a soft spongy nature when finished ; 
so care must be exercised in not weaving them too wide in the loom, as but very little fulling 
will be required. For the stock for the face or pile filling, select a fine but short staple. After 
fulling and scouring, or only scouring, the fabric is gigged. The teasels cut the soft pile filling 
in the centre between the points of interlacing of the latter with the warp, and after running the 
fabric over the "whipper" before it passes to the dryer, the whipping process (beating) raises 
each and every single float of filling (fastened by one or more ends of warp to the fabric) and 
produces a velvet surface. After running the fabric in this condition over the shears, for the pur- 
pose of producing an even height of pile, it is put upon the chinchilla machine to have its velvet 
face rubbed, forming chinchilla rows in the direction of either the warp or the filling, or in a 
diagonal direction ; or forming round knobs known as " Ratine." The size of the chinchilla 
effects or the ratine effect is regulated by the height of the pile, and this by the shearing process. 
(Two- or three-ply spun face-filling is of more advantage to use than the equivalent size in 
one-thread compound.) 



153 



Fancy or Figured Chinchillas. 



These fabrics are produced by arranging the floats of the pile-filling so as to form figures 
(designs) in the way that the above mentioned pile-filling is fastened to the ground cloth, after 
having its floats cut. 

To illustrate this subject designs Figs. 758, 759, 760, 761, 762, j6?,, 764, and 765 are given. 



■■■■^"Hbbbbgggg 


8GH^H^H^H^H~aGH"ra 


'BBBB Bill 


dbbb aaaa. 


■e miGaxii 


E H^HGH a H:0 33 


a mil j : .aaaa 


: ■■■■ ■■■■ . 


■■■■ ] oaii 


CH a .3. ..a a a a :3 


■ ■■b )' :aaaa 


bb bbbb ■■ 


aa . bibb bb 




GGGGBBBBGaaGBBBB 


1CJ "-■■■■_ - ■■■■ 



Fig. 758. 



Fig. 759- 



■■■■■■GGGGCGI 

mill 



■ — :~ _ : 
■aaa : 



BBB 


■aaaBB e 


iaa 












c aaaai i_ 

bbb ■■■■■■ aaa 


1 :; 

1 


ii 





Fig. 760. 



HnaaaaaaanaaaaHaaoaaaGHa 
■ ■ "TQaaa 

333G3 

1BGGG 

aaaaa 



anaa 

GGGG 
■GOD 



lallll 


GG_ 
■ Bl 


■ IB 


BB 


■ 


aaaa ;aaaG 

■ SI _JGGG~ 
GGQaaOBBI 


IGGC 


Bl 


a 


■■■■■■ iaa: 


a 


IB1I13 

Gaaa aaaz 

■ BB 


aac 


v ,,, 




aaE 


— rr 





Fig. 761. 



Fig. 758 illustrates the face-weave for Fig. 759, the complete weave. 
Repeat : 8-harness and 8-picks. 

■ are pile-picks, a are ground-picks. 

Fig. 760 illustrates the face-weave for Fig. 761, the complete weave. 
Repeat: 12-harness and 8 picks. 

■ are pile-picks, a are ground-picks. 

Fig. 762. Repeat : 8 warp-threads and 8 picks. 
Fig- 763. Repeat: 12 warp-threads and 36 picks. 
Fig. 764. Repeat : 12 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Figs. 762, 763 and 764 are face-weaves for fancy chinchillas, to be arranged either similar to 
those given in Figs. 758 to 761 or for regular double cloth, using face and back-warp with pile- 



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Fig. 762. 



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Fig. 763. 



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B 
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B .BBBBBB 


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Fig. 764. 



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1CX 

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Fig. 765. 



filling interior and backing. Fig. 765 illustrates a specimen of the chinchilla weave, specially 
adapted for producing chinchilla rows lengthways in the fabric. 

CHENILLE. 



Chenille is a fringed thread and is used either for filling in such fabrics as curtains and rugs, 
or it is used in its first woven state for ornaments such as trimmings, fringes, etc., for ladies' wear 
as well as for decorating purposes. (In fringe-weaving the chenille part of the fabric is some- 
times produced at the same time that the heading of the fabric is woven. We will later on 
describe this separate method.) 



154 

When chenille is used as filling, its fibres extend forward in every direction through the 
perforations of the fabric, producing a fur-like surface on the goods it is applied to. As a general 
rule for these fabrics, the chenille forms the main part of the fabric. The remaining part, if warp,, 
or warp and filling, is only used for holding the fabric in its position. There are two methods 
commonly used in weaving this chenille. 

1st. Using 4 warp-threads on common plain weave. 2d. Using 2 or 3 warp-threads on the 
gauze weave. A short sketch of each method is given. 

Chenille Produced by Using 4. Warp-threads on Plain Weave. 

Procure a set of harness using a plain weave (2, 4, 6 or more shafts). In this draw the warp 
the same as in regular cloth. By drawing the warp in the reed always put the four warp 
ends, which have to work together, in one dent, leaving as many dents empty as required, accord- 
ing to the size of the chenille. The filling (which is introduced in the ordinary manner) is bound 
in plain at the places where the four warp-threads in one dent are situated (see I, II, III in Fig.. 
766) and floated at the distances where no warp-threads are. After weaving the fabric in this 
manner it is cut in the direction of the arrows vS" and S 1 . 

Two methods are employed for cutting chenille. It is done either on the loom during the 
weaving operation, or after the fabric leaves the loom. 




1. a. i. *. 
Fig. 766. 



I. z. 1 



Every set of 4 warp-threads forms one strip of chenille, hence as many sets as are used 
over the width of the fabric, so many strips are obtained. In figure fabrics where each strip of 
chenille is required to be of a different arrangement of colors for forming the design, the number 
of sets used in weaving the chenille indicates the number of fabrics to be set afterwards in the 
following process. For example : in weaving chenille for dados for turcoman curtains, suppose 
140 sets of strips are woven at the weaving of the chenille, and every pick of the dado is to have 
a different arrangement of colors, the result will give us 70 pairs of curtains to be set. After 
cutting the chenille into strips they are twisted, every 4 threads of warp being thus formed into 
one, with the filling-threads extending from it in every direction, and giving it the appearance of 
a fringed thread. This twisting tends to hold the interwoven filling firmly in the warp-threads r 
and hence, adds strength to the fabric. 

Chenille Produced by Using j Warp-threads. 

The process of manufacture here is the same as in chenille made out of 4 warp-threads on 
the common plain weave. The only difference consists in employing but 3 warp-threads for the 
centre of every part of the chenille strips, and interweaving the filling in gauze instead of plain^ 
This process, which certainly will be found more expensive than the first, will in return, give a 
great deal more strength to the fabric by holding the filling yet more firmly in the warp, and 



155 

making the cutting easier and safer. The process of twisting the chenille strips after cutting, as 
observed in the former fabric, will be the same in this case. (Chenille produced with 2 warp- 
threads is explained later in a special chapter on Gauze Weaving.) 

Arrangement of Design for Weaving Figured Chenille. 

After the design is finished on the squared paper, it is cut into strips in the direction of the 
filling, as every line has to be woven separately for the chenille strips. To explain this process, 
Tigs. 767 and 768 are designed. 

Fig. 767 illustrates the complete design (border in four colors). 

Fig. 768 represents one-half repeat of the design, cut into strips in the direction of the filling. 



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Fig. 767. 



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Fig. 768. 



In examining Fig. 767 it is found that 35 picks are required for one repeat. The design 
itself represents a "point figure," picks 1 to 18 and back again. Indicating the colors by type 
as follows: □ for straw color; a for red; 3 for maroon; a for blue-green, we have : 
Strip I. — All straw color. 
" 2. — One pick straw, one pick blue-green, 20 times for one repeat. 
" 3. — All blue-green. 



7 cont'd. 



4 


and 5.- 


— Al 


. straw color. 


6. 


— 5 P 


icks, 


straw. 




3 


n 


blue-green. 




13 


ft 


straw. 




2 


ft 


blue-green. 




3 


a 


straw. 




1 


it 


blue-green. 




3 


(( 


straw. 




2 


it 


blue-green. 




8 


<< 


straw. 



Strip 7. — 4 picks, straw. 



I 


u 


blue-green. 


3 


(« 


red. 


1 


a 


blue-green. 


8 


a 


straw. 


2 


n 


blue-green. 


1 


a 


straw. 



■I 


pick, 


blue-green. 


I 


<< 


red. 


I 


a 


blue-green. 


3 


it 


straw. 


1 


tt 


blue-green. 


3 


a 


straw. 


1 


(« 


blue-green. 


1 


ti 


red. 


1 


«< 


blue-green: 


1 


(« 


straw. 


2 


« 


blue-green. 


4 


« 


straw. 



Strip 8. — 1 pick, blue-green. 

1 1 " straw. 

I " blue-green. 

3 " straw. 



156 



8 cont'd. — I pick, blue-green. 

2 " red. 

2 " blue-green. 

I " red. 

1 " blue-green. 

2 " straw. 

3 " blue-green. 
2 " straw. 

I " blue-green. 

1 " red. 

2 " blue-green. 

2 " red. 

i " blue-green. 

3 " straw. 

Strip g. — 4 picks, straw. 

I " blue-green. 



3 


a 


straw. 


i 


te 


blue-green. 


6 


u 


straw. 


i 


tt 


blue-green. 


i 


it 


red. 


i 


tt 


maroon. 


4 


tt 


red. 


i 


tt 


blue-green. 


7 


tt 


straw. 


i 


tt 


blue-green. 


4 


tt 


red. 


i 


tt 


maroon. 


i 


a 


red. 


i 


tt 


blue-green. 


2 


tt 


straw. 



Strip io. — 3 picks, straw. 

I " blue-green. 



I 


tt 


red. 


I 


n 


blue-green. 


I 


tt 


red. 


I 


tt 


blue-green. 


I 


a 


red. 


I 


n 


blue-green. 


5 


tt 


straw. 


i 


tt 


blue-green. 


2 


a 


red. 


I 


n 


maroon. 


I 


tt 


red. 


I 


tt 


maroon. 


I 


a 


red. 


3 


a 


blue-green. 



io cont'd. — 3 picks, straw. 

3 " blue-green, 
i " red. 
I " maroon. 
I " red. 



I 



maroon, 
red. 



i " blue-green. 

2 " straw. 

Strip 1 1. — 4 picks, straw. 

I " blue-green. 

i " red. 

I " blue-green. 

I " red. 

I " blue-green. 

7 " straw. 

1 " blue-green. 

2 " red. 

I " blue-green. 

4 " red. 

I " blue-green. 

i " straw. 

I " blue-green. 

I " straw. 

I " blue-green. 

4 " red. 

1 " blue-green. 

2 " red. 
I " 

3 " straw. 



blue-green. 



blue-green. 



Strip 12. — 4 picks, straw 
I 

i " maroon, 

i " red. 

i " maroon. 

1 " blue-green. 
6 " straw. 

2 " blue-green. 
I 
I 

2 " red. 

4 " blue-green. 

3 " straw. 

4 " blue green. 
2 " red. 

I " maroon. 

I " red. 



red. 
maroon. 



157 



12 cont'd. — 2 picks, blue-green. 
2 " straw. 

Strip 13. — 5 picks, straw. 



16 cont'd. — I pick, blue-green. 



Strip 14. — 



3 


u 


blue-green 


6 


l( 


straw. 


1 


a 


blue-green 


5 


It 


red. 


1 


It 


blue-green 


3 


11 


straw. 


1 


u 


blue-green 


3 


<< 


straw. 


1 


a 


blue-green 


3 


it 


straw. 


1 


it 


blue-green 


5 


it 


red. 


1 


a 


blue-green. 


1 


a 


straw. 


H 


picks 


straw. 


5 


<< 


blue-green 


1 


a 


red. 


1 


a 


blue-green 


5 


a 


straw. 


1 


a 


blue-green. 


5 


a 


straw. 


1 


n 


blue-green. 


1 


n 


red. 


5 


it 


blue-green 


1 


a 


straw. 



Strip 15. — 6 picks, straw. 

1 " blue-green. 



1 1 


it 


straw. 


I 


a 


blue-green 


I 


it 


red. 


I 


n 


blue- green 


2 


n 


straw. 


3 


a 


blue-green 


I 


i( 


maroon. 


3 


a 


blue-green. 


2 


a 


straw. 


1 


a 


blue-green 


1 


n 


red. 


1 


it 


blue-green. 


5 


a 


straw. 


Strip 16. — 5 p 


icks, 


straw. 


I 


(i 


blue-green. 


I 


if 


red. 






it 


straw. 


3 


a 


blue-green 


1 


a 


straw. 


4 


a 


blue-green 


1 


n 


straw. 


2 


a 


blue-green 


1 


n 


red. 


1 


n 


blue-green 


1 


u 


red. 


2 


n 


blue-green 


1 


a 


straw. 


4 


it 


blue-green 


1 


it 


straw. 


3 


a 


blue-green 


1 


a 


straw. 



Strip 17. — 2 picks, blue-green. 



4 



Strip 18.— 



It 


straw. 


It 


blue-green 


it 


red. 


11 


maroon. 


It 


red. 


It 


blue-green 


It 


straw. 


a 


blue-green. 


ft 


red. 


a 


blue-green 


a 


straw. 


a 


. blue-green 


a 


red. 


it 


blue-green 


11 


red. 


it 


blue-green 


a 


red. 


a 


blue-green. 


K 


straw. 


it 


blue-green. 


ft 


red. 


a 


blue-green. 



pick, red. 



blue-green. 

straw. 

bl ue-green. 

red. 

maroon. 

red. 

blue-grccn. 



158 



1 3 cont'd. — I pick, straw. 



1 8 cont'd. — I pick, maroon. 



I 


it 


blue-green. 


3 


<< 


red. 


i 


a 


maroon. 


i 


« 


blue-green. 


2 


n 


straw. 


I 


a 


blue-green. 


2 


a 


straw. 


I 


u 


blue-green. 


I 


<( 


maroon. 


I 


<< 


blue-green. 


I 


u 


red. 



i ' 


red 


i ' 


blue-green 


I ' 


maroon. 


i ' 


blue-green 


2 ' 


straw. 


I ' 


blue-green 


2 ' 


straw. 


I ' 


blue-green 


I ' 


maroon. 


2 ' 


red. 



Bjj^ct^,:. v: ^v^ 7 



Pick 19 will equal pick 17. Pick 20 will equal pick 16, and so on until pick 35 is reached v 
which equals pick 1. 

Suppose we have 20 picks to I inch in the chenille, the 
repeat of the figure (40 picks) will be 2 inches, or 22 repeats 
in a curtain 44 inches wide. 

According to the width of the loom on which we have 
to produce the chenille filling and the size of the chenille to 
be made we find the number of duplicate strips produced the 
same time. 

Suppose we have a loom weaving one yard wide in reed, 
and want a chenille of ^ inch diameter (on loom). We 
ascertain the number of strips of each kind of color-arrange- 
ment produced at once, as follows : 

36X4=144 strips chenille of the same color-arrange- 
ment, produced at the same time. This equals 72 duplicate 
strips for 72 pairs of curtains. 

If this border should have to be used twice in each cur- 
tain (4 strips in the complete pair) we must calculate for 36 
pairs of curtains, etc. 

Another arrangement for weaving chenille (lower 
grade) is illustrated and explained in the chapter on cross 
weaving. 




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UUIJHiniUlfU'I'dnnl-OMih! 'I i' ! !■ . - ■_. 11 c ' . H '-' -J'-J - ■" "" 

" TT" 




Fig. 



-Design for Chenille Curtain. 
(Border.) 



Two methods of separating or cutting the web into 
the required strips, are in use. That which separates it 
automatically in the loom during the process of weaving, and that, the most generally used, 
which separates the web after it leaves the loom by means of the 



Chenille Cutting Machine. 



Fig. 770 is a top or plan view of it. Fig: 771 is a vertical section in line x x, Fig. 770. 
(Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in both figures.) 

A represents the, frame of the machine, on which are mounted rollers BCD, which feed the 
chenille fabric into the machine, the rollers B D receiving motion in the same direction. 

G represents a transversely-extending comb, which is secured to the frame of the machine at 
the end thereof opposite to the roller B, and H represents a rotary cutter, whose shaft, mounted 



159 

on the frame A, receives motion from the pulley a. The cutter H is formed of a series of circular 
blades fitted between teeth of the comb G, and washers alternating with the blades, the washers 
serving to adjust the distance between the blades, and in connection with a nut and collar to clamp 
the blades in position. The comb is vertically adjustable and has above it a pressure bar, G" , 
properly secured to the frame A, or a projection thereof, the object being to force the fabric 
against the comb and hold it firmly and flat during the cutting operation. (Pressure-bar G" is 




Fig. 770. 

removed in Fig. 770.) Mounted on the frame, or the attachments thereof, on opposite sides of 
the cutter, are tension-regulating rollers J K. Secured to the frame, and at the rear end, are trans- 
versely extending beams d e, around which the fabric to be cut is passed from the roller D to the 
rollers J. 

L represents a roller at the top of the frame A, and M represents a roller on which the cut 
chenille is wound. Roller M rests on the rollers B D, and has its frictional contact with the 




Fig. 771. 



roller adjusted by means of weighted levers P, which arc pivoted to the frame A, and carry 
rollers Q, which are in contact with the peripheries of the heads of roller M. 

Supported on the base of the machine, or on the floor of the apartment, is a fan or blower, R, 
the pipe 5 whereof leads upwardly and transversely, and opens just in advance of the cutter IT, so 
as to direct a current of air over the fabric and remove fine particles of the same and dust there- 
from. The chenille fabric to be cut into strips is passed under the roller B over the roller C, 



160 

under the roller D, under the beam d, under and around the beam e, under and over the several 
rollers /, and then between the comb G and bearing-plate G", where the cutter H acts en the 
fabric, thus severing it into chenille strips, the chenille strips then passing over and under the 
rollers K and over the roller L to the roller M, on which they are wound. The roller M is then 
removed, and the several lengths of chenille thereon are re-wound or re-rolled on other rollers or 
spools, and subjected to further operations. An excellent chenille cutting machine is built by- 
Messrs. W. W. Altemus & Son, Philadelphia. 

CHENILLE AS PRODUCED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FRINGES. 

In fringes and similar upholstery fabrics the chenille is produced through the warp, the 
filling taking the place of the inside binders. For a practical explanation of this point we refer 




Fig. 772. 

to Fig. 772. In this illustration we represent under A the heading, under B the worsted, wool 
cotton or silk warp for producing the chenille. C, C, C", C", etc., represent the fine cotton 
binders interweaving in the heading and chenille part of the fabric (forming the centre of the 
chenille after cutting). The arrows at the right hand indicate the places where the chenille has 
to be cut towards the heading as indicated by the dotted line between C and C. 



A 

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; IB IB 1 "RjnijnDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDLDDpDD _<x-i 
I >B IB , nBDDDDDDDDODOODDDODDDDDOOODDDDpDpDD ^^ 
II, 1 1. "MBI1B! HI IHl ,HI HDHI ,HI 'Bl H' Hi IE! HI B: 'Hi HIjC 

I IB IB " I " IB Bl H' IB! C BL Bl Bl H' HI B B' B Bl Bl IH 

1MB IB I iMilHnDnaDDDDDDDDDtnDDDDDDDDDDDDDGDDDg 

1 iB' ib ,m iHnRDisDBDKnaaianRDPr ;-,i NDBDBDBDBDBGBa 

1 IB IB 1 IMDBDBDBOBDBnBDBDBDBDB 1BQBDBQBDBDBDB 

i b a - ' its tdr' '[■iLi[-:n[-"ioE'DHOBr..[-"' ir-v 'I 

ib b i iMDMMRr [-il :[-r'i ; ]i' i'-v,:-. ■■ gag 

. : ". T "'I-! " ". ■ V H I I I ■ .■■!", ■ ' I I 

IB B 1 -'HOHBDBI ,H H H H B H H B B B H H B Bl 1 
i B iB .MDMDDBDH H' :B B IB H B H H H H H Hi B.B 

■ ib b 1-i^aBQaoaDDDDDCoaDnuDQDDaaLjDpaDnQpoqD _ ^jjjj; 

t BMB I nMOaaaDDDDDaaDUDDGDQnDDUDDjJDpDDDjgnC-i-^ 
" I, IRQ! IBDB' ''Bl IHI IB B B ,B B H IB B B B H HI 1 
■I 'Il iB IB B H 'HI IB B IH C Hi HI O B HI IB, ,B<? 
iDiinBaDaGaaDaaDDDaDDDDDaDDDDDDaDDDDDD 
c 



Fig. 773. 



Fig. 773 represents the weave for a chenille fringe. A is the heading of the fabric and B the 
chenille part. The width of heading in fabric to be }( inch ; the width of chenille fringe to be 
from I to 3 inches. Three ends of 2-ply loose twisted zephyrs to be used for one end in the 



161 



chenille fringe. Two ends of 2-ply 50s cotton used in ground of heading for one end. Two 
ends of 2-ply zephyr used for one end in figure of heading. 

Specimen Dressing of Heading for Present Example : 

10 ends of 2-ply 50s It. blue cotton for 5 ends (heddles). 



I 

2 
I 

6 
2 

4 
2 
6 
1 
2 
1 
10 



Gold tinsel 

2-ply 50s It. blue cotton " 

Gold tinsel 

2-ply 50s It. blue cotton " 

2-ply It. blue zephyrs " 

2-ply 50s It. blue cotton " 

2-ply It. blue zephyrs 

2-ply It. blue cotton 

Gold tinsel 

2-ply It. blue cotton " 

Gold tinsel 

2-ply It. blue cotton 



end. 



3 times over = 9 



60 ends. 



Dressing for Fringe. (Chenille part.) 



for 32 heddles. 



9 ends Zephyrs. Blue shade No. 1 for 3 heddles. 



9 


!• 


it 


12 


<< 


« 


12 


a 


tt 


9 


tt 


tt 


9 


tt 


tt 


12 


K 


it 


12 


a 


(i 


12 


u 


(< 



96 ends Zephyrs 



Yellow 



2 " 


3 


3 " 


4 


4 " 


4 


1 " 


3 


2 " 


3 


3 " 


4 


4 " 


4 


K 


4 


for 


32 heddles 



The h type in the chenille part of the weave indicates the weave for the cotton cord required 
to be interwoven for the filling. Hence every filling line in the design containing this type will 
require 2 separate picks : 1 pick for the heading ; a, ■, and a up, □ and a down ; 1 pick for the 
chenille ; a up, h, ■, ■ and □ down. 

The process of weaving is clearly indicated in the drawing Fig. 774. 

In weave, Fig. ^Jt,, and fabric sketch, Fig. 774, the letters used for indicating the different 
systems of threads correspond. 

c stands for 2 ends of 2-ply 50s light blue cotton (heading). 

b stands for I end of gold tinsel (heading). 

a stands for 2 ends of 2-ply light blue zephyrs (heading) as used in the different arrangement 
of colors mentioned before. The arrows in both (weave and sketch) are also on corresponding 
places. 

Fig. 775 represents the finished fabric sample. For the filling for heading, 4 ends of 2-ply 
light blue worsted are used. For filling for the centre of chenille strip and interweaving in the 
heading, use 2-ply 60s black cotton. 



162 



Weaves Fig. yj6 and 777 are two additional specimen designs for chenille fringe. 
After the chenille fringe is woven and the heavy cord extracted, the fringe is submitted to a 
steaming, which process will put the twist into it as required, for a double purpose. A for 
general appearance. B for strength, so as to resist a pulling out of threads in the chenille 

part. 

Lately this method of producing 
chenille fringe (in certain fancy effects) 
has been patented for weaving a 
double set of fabrics at the same time, 
thus separately weaving two fillings 
with two sets of heading warps, at 
intervals, alternately interweaving the 
above mentioned fillings with a set 
of body- warps, and interlacing a tem- 
porary filling with these body-warps 
in alternation with said heading-fill- 
ings, and then cutting the body of 
the fabric so produced between the 
insertions of heading-fillings and re- 
moving the temporary filling. 

In diagram Fig. 778 is illustrated 
such a fabric, having the temporary 
filling both interlaced and liberated. 
The body of the fabric is cut and two 
distinct fringes are produced, each 
fringe having a series of spaces, and 
each space of one fringe being slightly 
wider than the width of two pendants ; 
the spaces and pendants alternating in 
the fringe. 

A represents two fringes consist- 
ing of the heads a a and pendants b b. 
The spaces c c between each two pairs 
being slightly wider than the width of 
a pair. The fabric of which the fringes 
are formed consists of a body, B, and 
two heads, a a. 

In weaving the fringe fabric a 
cord d is thrown into the body at inter- 
vals as temporary Aveft, after the pre- 
viously explained method of forming 
"single set" chenille-fringe fabrics. 
Two shuttles are employed for the heads 
a a, one for each head. The threads e 
from the two shuttles for the heads are 
separately woven with the warps a' a' , employed for these heads, thus producing two heads, 
and threads e are alternately and at intervals shot past the heads into and across the body, 
and woven with the warps d' thereof, so as to bind the portions of the body, which afterward 
constitute the axes or cores of the pendants of the fringe, it being noticed that the two 




163 

woven heads are alternately connected with the body by such thread;; e as are shot into the body 
at intervals. The cord d is woven only with the warps d of the body, and is introduced therein 
alternately with the filling e, as shown. When the fabric is finished, the body is cut through 
between the cords d, midway between the fillings e, as usual in making chenille fringe, thus 




Fig. 775. 

severing the pendants, and the temporary filling is removed. It will be seen that by so 
doing said pendants are separated into two series, one series being connected with one head 
and the other series with the other head, and the pendants of one series having left among 
them spaces corresponding with the pendants of the other series. These spaces may be equal 



n~ri-.nH 
DM M' Bi 

I i I :H 

I. 11 : B' 
Hill B 
CM II J, 

m n .1 i_i' 
ci 1 .1 1 ''.1 

l!,M 1MB 
CM .M B 

II ,n 1 iB 

1 .1 !■ r 

Mil II 
CM it I 

1 1 M n 



a n 



a 



d ,? ■ a a a 

!■ ■ m ■ in i :: :b b 

■' ■ ■ H 1 IB B IB 

_ I i '!') I , . j! J 1 .11 , . i I 1 I : B ;B B 

moacmXTMnaDmaoEmOkjaarjmoa nsac 
dh 1 m neaDDi 1 jdcbjgi an ' ; f h 1 ~o 1 ~o 1 



DBDgiawDBiaKDBioBiuKasiD&] ::•; hi inaEicBnEiDEDHus 
•mnnn.iDiDQ Daaamacxraa jnGaaoDanrjaanuna 
a a a a a a a a a a 1a a a a a a a a 1 
□oacaannai SiaaaaGijgaai aaaaDnaaaGananana 
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a in a a 
cdnoDDaoQannnDgaQGunncacDcnnnoouonoa'j 

*j ». . h^ u 1 . 1. k j i. 1.. . . Li . j k J fc -J t . L'j ^J ILJ .1 



I 



II II II 

CM 1 r 
1 r 'i 1 ii 
r ,1 1: ;> 1 

I 1: i 1 , 
ci 1 .1 1 

I I .11 1 

[ ,1 I ;l I 

I I! ill II 

: ,i 01 
r r ii i' .1 h 

[il I 1 B 

I I ,11 :i qi 

[ I_ l_£jl 



a 

a 



1 



1 m ", ,m ■■ 1 m m m a 1 / 

SU II ", II '/ 1 ,11 J : ,1 I ' I 

, ,1 13 "il I ji num.] Mr 1 II I i 

j 1 :, „ , 1 n 

i' 1 II 1 

1 ,1 1 J ,m ni n ■ ■ » i' II 



ib 1; IB 
:: IB B 



IB B 



a a a ,a a a a a a a a 

.1 
:■: :■: :■: :-: : .:•: :■: ih ih :■; ih ;:■: 
: : :•: :■; n :•:: ih ::■; ,•■: ih •: .:■; 

h :•: :!>]i ii-] '.ym-yv. 
:•: it-; ,:; ;:•: :■:■ :•: :■; h ,:•: :•: ■••; 
•: ::•: .:•; :•; .:■: :■: : : :■; .:■: :■: .:■: :-: 



a a 



a a i a 



1.1 



■&3&mamEgmm 



1 1 

:: :: 1 1 ;■ 
,B '■ 



il 



■ ' 



. '.I I 
11 II 

■OGBini 1 

M .MB 

1 c; 1 



a a a a a 



a a a a 



3. 'a 1 1a ana ; c 
a a a a : a 



1 



■ 



I :a r ,a c 

II 11 1 
ii 1; ii ib bi ib 1 1 a a 

II B IH HI 
1 jl IB B IH 
.11,1' II 

JDUIULilJ U. 



a a 



ji i_ 
Fig. 776. 



1 
a 



a ,ai ia: 1 
. :■: ••: h 



to one, two, or more pendants, according as the set of threads e are thrown across the body 
from the two heads. 

Another method of weaving a double set of chenille fringes at once, and with their pendants 
attached, is illustrated in Figs. 779 and 780. This method of operation (patented by S. Steinecke) 
consists in interweaving two separate sets of heading-warps and one series ot ordinary body- 



164 

warps with a single filling or series of picks, and also a series of temporary picks of another 
heavier size filling, which is removed in like manner to that of the temporary filling inserted in 
fabrics previously illustrated. 

Fig. 779 represents a plan of the construction of the fabric, showing the pendants in pairs 
on the opposite headings, some of the fabric being cut so as to form the pendants (as they aopear 
when finished) in pairs on the lower part of the diagram. 



m ' i " ! ii 
n-i ■-> i 

■c j m 
dm _ >n 

BEN I 

am i ■ 

■COT.--)! 

db: -~i i 

■ GH ' II 

obgb: ■ 

BGiBGHI 
OBGBQI 
BGSGH1 
GBGBQI 

m 'i < ■ 

r i : i 

f1 ' ! : ! 
DB -T'l 

B " i ■ :■ 
DB * j I 

b - i ■■ a 

D ! 'I 



^■ni 



A 

"EH 

B i 
S 

s i 

.BE 



B 



.fe'lBBJ 

in« lis 



.. 1GGBG 



I 



II 



!■ 



Tl • ^""^ZGZ'EK^Z^ZDEIGKiGBGSnEiQEGEGSa 

'■: ' e :■' ■ -. s :■: z ei kgegsge g 
':::■. Z-GGBGEDKasiDEaHaEG 

: « V '.' ".' '. T r." [7] ;.' '. T: . "r.- M 

DBCPDDDDa ! _OanDDDDGaDanDDnCDCDDGGDGn 

i E b e_eje~:e b b b e e e b bgeg 

'i BEE E B B E B B B B BEE BIB 

h i i.>a , : i GGGDDDaGDaQai:aaGGaaGaDGGGaGGG~ 
jnjmGDaaaaQaDDanaaaGaGaaaaaGnDGGaaa 
b b b b:b e b b b b b b b b :e ; 
b b b b b b b b b b b b b_.b b 

BGBDBDDDnDGDDDDDaGacaaaaaDDDDDGDDaa 
"■GBDBDKGKIDEiaKlDSDIgiDEDEJDBLEDEIDKiaKiGKa 
■DKiDXiOBOBL : . E "3 

DECEDSDiaDISDigDEiaKiaKDEiaKDlEDiaaKiaKia 
■GKDKDBGIxjDHDEaKraOKDEO&DEiaiSDEaa 

naaaDaGaaaDCDacaaGGnaaaaaDanaaa 

MB 1 'BEBGBEB' Qi 'Bl IB' B 'E 1 B "'H "H'"H"_"HG 
B H B B B H iH' B HEBE E "H 



EFT 



B'-'t I 

DGH 

HBGBBGBBBZG GG-iODDDC 

B l 1 B IB B IB i: l; .rHGG' ..UDDDDDUDDCGGGGGGG 

Hrt •■ 1 |i HI 1 I 1 I IB Hi H ".EaEDEDEDBGEi' E 

HGBaBBBDBBBGBaBaaHDHGHrjHaHaHGHGHan : i 

GBGBBaBBHaBBDBDBGGDGGauCGUDGGGaaDGG 



3GGG3GJGG. 
DDGuDGGGE 
E JEGEZBG 
1 . B B B E 
DDGGDDGDG 



Fig. 777. 



Diagram Fig. 780 shows the method of interlacing binder filling which forms the cores of 
the pendants. 

A A represent two sets of heading-warps at the sides of the usual body-warps, B for form- 
ing the pile-threads of the chenille. The warps A and B are interwoven with the filling C, which 
may consist of a single thread or series of threads, all in the same shuttle. 




B 



B 




Fig. 779. 



The filling is interlaced in the following manner: The filling is interwoven with the left-hand 
heading-warps A, then, with the body-warps B, up to the inner edge of the right-hand heading- 
warp A but not with the said right-hand heading-warp A; then the intermediate or filling weft, 
D } which is to be removed later on, is interwoven with the body- warps B, but not with the headings. 
After three, four, or more courses of the intermediate weft, D, have been formed, the weft-thread C 



165 



is again interwoven with the body-warps B and one of the heading-warps ; but in this case the weft 
C is interwoven with the right-hand heading-warp A, and with the body-warps up to the inner edge 
of the left-hand heading- warp A, but not with said left-hand heading-warp A, and so on alternately, 
so that, as shown in Fig. 779, the weft-thread C is interwoven at regular intervals with the body- 
warps, and is alternately interwoven with the left and right-hand heading-warps A. The warps B 
are then cut parallel with the wefts C, midway between them, and the temporary wefts D are re- 
moved, and thereby two chenille fringes are formed, one on each heading A, the pendants being 
connected alternately with the opposite headings, as shown. 

As shown in Fig. 779, the filling can be interwoven in such a manner that in pairs they are 
alternately connected with the opposite headings, or the first, second and third picks may be 
interwoven with the right-hand heading, and the next, first, second and third picks to the opposite 
heading, and so on. In all cases the permanent filling will ordinarily be interwoven with the 
heading-warps, as shown in Fig. 780, in which case the filling must be severed at the points a at 
both headings. The filling interwoven with the headings, and extending across the warps, form 
the cores of the chenille pendants. 

A S. A 



B 



B 




«*:. 




Fig. 780. 



Fig. 7S1. 



In Fig. 781, the previously explained method of weaving a double set of chenille fringes 
with their pendants attached, is shown as applied to the production of pendants which are shaped 
so as to have a varying-diameter. 

A A are the heading-warps ; B, the body-warps between the two sets of heading-warps. 

C C filling interwoven with the heading and body warps and forming cores or centres of the 
pendants E. The core C of each pendant of the weft is interwoven with one heading warp only, 
and, as shown in the drawing, the cores of the chenille pendants are interwoven alternately with 
the opposite headings. 

If desired, one, two, or three cores may be interwoven with one heading, and the next one, 
two, or three cores with the opposite heading, and the cores may be grouped on the opposite 
headings in any suitable manner. 

Temporary filling M is interwoven with the body-warps between the picks C to form the 
chenille fabric. Then the body-warps are cut with suitable dies, knives or scissors, between the 
permanent picks to produce shaped pendants — that is, pendants in which the diameters of the 
pile-threads vary at different points through their entire length. 



166 

PILE FABRICS IN WHICH THE PILE IS PRODUCED BY A SEPARATE 
WARP IN ADDITION TO THE GROUND WARP. 

As indicated, two kinds of warps are necessary to the production of these fabrics. One 
warp, the "ground-warp," with the filling, produces the ground or body of the fabric, while a 
second warp, known as the " pile-warp," produces the face. 

In any pile fabric, from the common velvet to the most complicated Astrakan cloth, Brussels, 
Wilton or tapestry carpet, the method of entwining the ground structure is of a very simple 
character (either common plain, basket, or a twill of short repeat), while the interlacing of the 
pile-warp into the ground cloth is of a more complicated nature. In all warp-pile fabrics 
two methods of producing the pile are essential. Either the pile is left uncut, which is techni- 
cally known as the "Terry" pile, or the pile is cut, known technically as the "velvet" pile. In 
addition to these two ground principles for producing the warp-pile, an endless variety of effects 
and combinations are produced by using various color combinations for each kind, again varying 
the height of the pile, combining cut and uncut (velvet and Terry effect) pile for forming addi- 
tional designs in one fabric, etc., etc. 

Ground-warp and pile-warp are independent in their operation on the loom, therefore each 
must be wound on a separate beam, as a different tension and "let-off" is required for each. 

In fabrics of a fancy character one beam for the pile-warp will not be sufficient, and the 
number must be increased for some fabrics to a great extent, in fact in such fabrics as Brussels or 
Wilton carpets it must be increased to one miniature beam for each individual pile warp-thread. 

Structure of Warp Pile Fabrics. 

Warp-pile fabrics are constructed by raising the pile-warps from the ground cloth over a 
wire and then interlacing the same into the cloth again. The entire pile-warp may be raised over 
the wire on a pick, or part of it only. In every case we must be careful to arrange the binding 
so as to secure the pile proper to the ground cloth. In case we want to raise only a part of the 
pile-warp at one pick we must, in addition to the binding, arrange the distribution according to 
the effect required. 

Terry and Velvet Pile. 

In all warp-pile fabrics the same kind of warp yarn may be employed to produce the pile 
for either the Terry or the velvet effect; but it will be necessary to use different wires if the fabric 
is to be woven on a power loom. The Terry pile is ^_^ 

produced by using a plain wire, as illustrated in ,^ -^-- -^-^- ^---■-rrra IG- "' 3- 

Fig. 782, which, when drawn out, leaves the loop 

intact. r - — - — — _ _______ ^^_^^^ > FlG - 782. 

If "velvet pile" is desired we must use wires of a 
style similar to that illustrated in Fig. 783, being a wire which has a knife attached to its extreme 
end. This cuts its way through the pile as the wire is pulled out. 

In weaving pile fabrics on a hand loom, frequently one kind of wire is used for producing 
both Terry and velvet effects of an equal size. This wire is provided with a groove for inserting 
the knife of the "trevette" when a velvet face is required. Fig. 784 illustrates the section cut of 
such a wire (see S). The knife of the trevette is shown at A. B represents a warp-thread as cut 
and secured to the body or ground of the cloth by means of picks 1 and 2, which in the present 
example represent the two connecting picks to the pick for inserting the wire. If no cutting is 
required (Terry) the wire is pulled out. Thus it will be seen that the production of velvet or 
Terry effects in the fabric is effected by cutting, or not cutting, certain pile picks, the change to 
either effect being entirely at the will of the weaver. The trevette is a frame having a knife fixed 



167 

in it for cutting the pile, and is illustrated in Fig. 785 by a front view and in Fig. 786 by a side 
view. Letters used for indicating the different parts in both designs are used correspondingly. 






FlG " 785. Fig. 7 86. 

The weaver inserts the trevette on the wire to be liberated at the left side of the fabric and 
runs it quickly over the entire width of the wire. 

Explanations and Illustrations of the Method of Operation in Producing Warp 

Pile Fabrics. 

As previously mentioned, in warp pile fabrics we require two kinds of warp one for the 
ground cloth and one for the pile. Each kind of warp is drawn in on its own set of harness 
arranging in most every instance the pile warp nearest to the reed. 



■□nacoD' 
□Kino&n— c ' 

■GBBDHB' . 
ORDQEID— A' 

■GoanDD 

OKODEO— C 
i l.:-. ' : n 
DHDDK3- A 
1 a a 4 ou 

Fig. 787. 



lanSBfa Istsetof harness 

d— DKEXGQ for ground-warp. 

eHQDDOQ 2n d set of harness 
f— DDDBSg fur pile-warp. 



Fig. 7S8. 



In Fig. 7% 7 we illustrate a weave for a pile fabric. Repeat: 3 warp-threads 4 picks Ar- 
rangement of warp : 2 threads ground (2, 3, 5 and 6), 1 thread pile (1 and 4) = 3 threads in repeat. 
Filling: 1 ground pick heavy (A), 2 ground picks finer {B and C), 1 pick for inserting wire (£» 
= 4 picks in repeat. 

Fig. 788 represents the drawing-in draft arranged, 4-harness in first set for ground warp and 
2-harness in the second set for pile warp. Harness: a, 6, c and d for ground; harness: e and / 
ior pile. J 




6'tfvtl^* 



« < 



Fig. 789. 




Fir;. 



790. 



Fig. 789 illustrates the method of operation on the loom. Every letter or number used m 
this i diagram corresponds with those used in Figs. 787 and 788, and thus will readily explain 



itself 



168 

Fig. 790 represents a reproduction in perspective of the fabric as produced with weave Fig. 
787. Letters used in this drawing also correspond with those used in Figs. 787, 788 and 789. 

In drawing Fig. 789, representing the method of operation for forming pile fabrics, only one, 
wire is shown interwoven. The same will illustrate a principle most frequently observed, i. e., to 
have the pile warp in the lower shed, both in the pick preceding the wire as well as the one 
following. This method has a strong tendency to drive the wires into position as well as to keep 
them there. In some fabrics this method is changed with respect to the pick preceding the wire, 
but in whatever warp pile fabric to be constructed by means of wires, the pick following the 
insertion of the wire must have all pile warp-threads, raised as before over the wire, down. 

We will now give a short sketch of the method of operation on the hand loom when weaving 
warp pile fabrics, thus illustrating also a like principle for weaving the same fabrics on the power 
loom. After the weaver has interlaced the required number of ground picks between the threads 
of the combined warps, a shed is formed either by raising the entire pile warp-threads in the 
upper part of the shed and forming the lower part of the shed by means, of the ground warp, or 
by raising only a part of the pile warp in this pick, forming the lower part of the shed by the 
entire ground warp and also the remaining part of the pile warp. This shed remains formed 
until the wire has been passed through, extending on each end several inches wider than the 
selvage threads. Towards this wire so inserted the reed is brought with considerable force, 
and pushes the wire close towards the previously interwoven ground picks. The shape of these 
wires is of such a form that, by arranging the latter so that the reed when pressing towards the 
interlaced part of the fabric comes in contact with the grooved edge, the wire is caused to stand 
on its lower edge. In this upright position it is maintained by pressing the reed towards the wire 
until a new shed (ground pick) is formed, in which the filling for the ground cloth is inserted by 
means of a common shuttle as is done in the ground pick preceding the insertion of the "wire." 

By this method of fastening the pile warp over its respective wire to the ground cloth, the 
latter is also securely fastened to it, and, if an uncut pile effect is desired, requires some effort to 
liberate it. After inserting the required number of ground picks the process of inserting the wires 
is repeated, several wires always being retained in the fabric to keep the pile-threads from pulling 
out of the texture, which would destroy the face. From 6 to 12 wires, according to the material 
and the method of interlacing the ground cloth, as also the closeness or "height" of texture, are 
required to remain in the fabric to prevent any possible trouble, as pointed out. The last wire 
liberated is always the next to be inserted. 

We will now proceed to explain and illustrate a few of the most prominent warp pile fabrics. 

Velvet and Plush Fabrics. 

These fabrics are constructed with two kinds of warps. The ground-warp consists either 
of silk or cotton, and interlaces with the filling on plain "■, rib gg, g", basket gSSB, or a 3, 4, 5, 
6 harness twill ; whereas the pile-warp being of silk, forms the face, through interlacing with the 
ground-cloth after, or before and after, raising for the wire. 

The ground-warp is woven with a tight tension, while the pile-warp is arranged to " take 
up " easily. The na*me of the fabric indicates the " cut " character for the pile. As previously 
mentioned, two beams are necessary, the beam for carrying the ground-warp, and the beam for 
carrying the pile-warp. The pile-beam must be situated in a higher position (in the rear of the 
loom) than the beam carrying the ground-warp, so that the pile-threads will run in an oblique di- 
rection towards the harness. The proportion of pile and ground-warp as well as the height of 
texture, and threads per dent, vary for the different qualities. 

Arrangements most frequently used are: 

2 ends ground to alternate with I end pile, or, 2 ends ground to alternate with 2 ends pile. 



169 




Fig. 791. 



Or, 2 ends ground, 1 end pile, I end ground, 1 end pile, = 5 ends in repeat. Or, I ground, I 
pile, 1 ground, 2 pile, = 5 ends in repeat. Or, 1 ground, 2 pile, 2 ground, 2 pile, = 7 ends in 
repeat. Or, 2 ground, 1 pile, 2 ground, 2 pile = 7 ends in repeat, etc., etc. 

The ground-warp and pile-warp are each put on a separate set of harness, generally using 
4 successive harnesses for drawing in the ground-warp, and 2 harnesses for the pile-warp. 

For example : 

Fig- 791 represents a common vel- 
vet weave in which 2 ground warp- 
threads alternate with 1 end pile-warp. 
Filling: 3 picks, ground (A. B. C) to 
alternate with 1 wire (D). 

Fig. 792 illustrates the drawing-in 
draft with two sets of harness. Harness 
a, b, c, d for the ground-warp (4), harness 
e and /"for the pile warp (2). 

Technically the velvet fabrics are 
— n 5lM-f^"-w classified as "two-picks velvet," "three- 

^ J (or yi.Ctwa.Tp. L ' 

picks velvet," etc., which means that in 
the two-picks velvet we use two ground-picks between each insertion of the wire, and in the 
three-picks velvet three successive ground picks, and so on. 

In Fig. 793 we illustrate one of the plainest of the velvet weaves and representing what is 
technically classified as " the common two-picks velvet " weave. 















Fig. 7 














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Fig. 794. 



Fig. 794 represents the sectional cut of this weave. An examination of this weave will 
illustrate the following arrangement for each pick : 
Pick 1 raises ground warp-thread I and the pile. 
" 2 " only the pile (wire). 
" 3 " " ground warp-thread 2. 

Repeat: 3 warp-threads and 3 picks. 

Warp: 2 ground-threads to alternate with one pile-thread (this pile can also be a two-fold or 
a three-fold thread). 

Filling: 2 ground-picks to alternate with one pick for inserting wire. 



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Fig. 795. 




Fig. 796. 



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In Fig. 795 wc illustrate a velvet weave frequently used, which has for the 
interlacing of the ground cloth the common rib-weave (2 harness and 4 picks ! 

In this weave we find the ground-picks preceding the pick for inserting the wire, as 
well as the ground-pick following the latt<*r, call for the raising of the same ground warp-threads 
(two picks in a shed in the common rib-weave). 




170 

Fig. 796 illustrates the section of a fabric interlaced on weave Fig. 795. An examination of 
each pick will show the following results : 

Pick 1 raises ground warp-thread number 1 and the pile. 

" 2 " only the pile (for inserting the wire). 

" 3 " only ground warp-thread number I. 

" 4 " ground warp-thread number 2 and the pile. 

" 5 " only the pile (for inserting the wire). 

" 6 " only the ground warp-thread number 2. 
Repeat: 3 warp-threads and 6 picks. 

Warp : 2 ground-threads to alternate with 1 pile-thread (which can also be a two-fold or 
three-fold thread). 

Filling: 2 ground-picks to alternate with one pick for inserting wire. 

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Fig. 797. Fig. 798. 

In Fig. 797 we illustrate the common " 3-picks velvet" weave, which has for its interlacing 
of the ground-cloth the common plain weave. 

Repeat : 3 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Warp : 2 ground-threads to alternate with 1 pile-thread (which can also be a two-fold or 
three-fold thread). 

Filling : 3 ground-picks to alternate with one pick for inserting the wire. 

An examination of each successive pick will show the following results : 

Pick 1 raises ground warp-thread No. 1. (Ground-pick I.) 

2 " pile-warp for inserting wire. 

3 " ground warp-thread No. 2. (Ground-pick 2.) 

4 " ground warp-thread No. I and pile-warp. (Ground-pick 3.) 

5 " ground warp-thread No. 2. (Ground-pick 4.) 

6 " pile-warp for inserting wire. 

7 " ground warp-thread No. I. (Ground-pick 5.) 

8 " ground warp-thread No. 2 and pile-warp. (Ground-pick 6.) 

The section cut of this weave, which is represented in diagram Fig. 798, readily explains the 
advantages of this weave over the preceding ones, in that it more securely fastens the pile to the 
ground-cloth, every pile warp-thread being interlaced by - — - — j before it is raised for inserting the 
wire. Therefore fabrics produced with this weave will be more durable than fabrics interlaced as 
shown in sections 794 and 796; of course, by using the texture and size of yarn alike in all 
three examples, the fabric as produced with weave Fig. 797 will be less dense, in appearance of 
the face, than the others. 

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Fig,. 799. Fig. 800. 



In weave Fig. 799 we represent another "3-pick velvet" weave. Diagram Fig. 800 repre- 
sents the section of a fabric interlaced with weave Fig. 799. Letters for indicating the different 
threads in weave and section are used correspondingly. Two loops formed by the insertion of 
the wires are shown as cut, whereas one is represented as uncut. 



171 

An examination of the weave will show the following results : 

Repeat : 3 warp-threads and 4 picks. 

Arrangement of Warp : 2 ends ground to alternate with I end pile. 

Killing : 3 picks ground to alternate with 1 pick forming the shed for inserting the wire. 
Picks marked I, 3, 4, are ground picks. Pick 2 (= D) is the pick for inserting the wire. If 
using a twill weave for interlacing the ground-cloth in a velvet fabric, we generally use not less 
than 3 successive ground picks to alternate with one pick for the wire. Less ground picks would 
result in a texture not sufficiently strong to resist the pulling out of the pile by the wear the 
fabric is put to. 



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Fig. 803. 



In Fig. 801 we illustrate the design for a pile fabric having the ^ 6-harness twill for weave 

of the ground structure. 

Repeat : 9 warp-threads and 8 picks. 

Arrangement of warp : 2 ground threads, 1 pile thread = 3 threads repeat. 

Filling : 3 ground picks to alternate with 1 pile pick. 

The method of interlacing the pile warp to the ground cloth is, in the present example, equal 
to the one illustrated in Fig. 800. 

In place of one pile thread we can also use a two-fold or three-fold thread. 

In the manufacture of velvets and plushes, in which no dense pile is required on the face, as 
also in fabrics in which the material used is rough or too close set, and so liable to "choke" 
between the raising and lowering of the entire pile warp or vice versa the entire ground warp, we 
raise on every successive pile pick only each alternate pile warp-thread. The proportion of pile 
warp and ground warp in these fabrics is generally equal; one ground warp-thread to alternate 
with one thread of pile warp. 

In this manner design Fig. 802 is executed. 

Repeat: 4 warp-threads and 6 picks (4 ground picks, 2 picks for wires). 

Filling: 2 picks ground to alternate with 1 pick for inserting the wire. 

Diagram Fig. 803 represents a sectional view of the method of interlacing both pile warp- 
threads in the ground cloth in weave Fig. 802. One pile warp-thread, indicated as A, is shown 
shaded and situated behind pile-thread B, which is shown in clear outlines. 5 represents the 
section of a wire as used in hand looms, but which will also demonstrate the section of a wire 
as used in power looms. C represents the section of the knife in the trevctte. The first loop is 
shown as cut, whereas the other three are represented as uncut. 



FIGURED VELVET. 

In these pile fabrics more figuring is possible than in any other kind of textile fabrics. One 
of the first requisites for figuring these fabrics is the use of different colors for forming designs. 
Then, again, we can figure successfully by using uncut pile with the regular cut pile, as also by 
using the common weaving to form figures with the pile weaving. We can also produce new 
additional designs by means of high and low pile. All these latter methods for forming addi- 
tional figures will result in the necessity of using a great many beams, and in some fancy figures 



172 



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produced by harness work as well as all 
figuring done by means of the Jacquard 
machine, the number of beams will in- 
crease according to figured character of 
design until a separate small beam "pile- 
warp spool " for each individual pile warp- 
thread must be used. In using this arrange- 
ment of spools it is advisable to adjust a 
hack (divider) in rear of the loom, so as 
to readily find the place of breaking of any 
thread in the loom during weaving. 



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3 GB 3 ' 3 3' 73 "3 I an'lB'" I' lEGGBD 

-LBGDfflDDDGGDDaDDDaDGEaGBaaBaaBPPCaaD 

3LiliB.il E 31 ,i3 3 3 I7B 3 B.J 31. J 31 , E : B , BI.71.IBGa 

paDappaaaaaBPaBaaaDaDDGaaGDGDQDPoaDBaaBacaDaaaaGu 



^ 



O'BSBEES BBBBBa BBBBBB BBBBBB) 
'BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB .1 
GaBBBBDDGGBBSBLOGl BBBB G GG . BBBaGG 

laaaBBaaaaaGBBaaaGDaaBGaaaGGBBaGG 



figured 



GB' ! a 1 

-BB BB' 

■. a - ' a a 3 ,e 

BBGBGaCaGGGD" 
m DBDGBaDBaGIEGG 

- aaaGGQaaaacBL 

BGDBDDBPPBP ~E 

DaaaapppB""" 
DHOOBoaa- 

B B 

BGI 'BG! iB -I a 

gi ■ a a "" 
GB' o _a 
CGBi. "7 IB' 'L'B 
BGaBQGEG B 
, '" E E B 

1 DHDDHG'~Bi~ "I 
GGB"("B '"GB" 
BLiGB "i 3' 1 ,B 
GGB GfGB' -' « 

E "B B 

GaaaaBDDBGi 
BGcaaGBPaBi 

DDDDDEBDnffl-: 
■'DBDDBDDHDn 

-' . <" ' " " B 



Fig. 804. Combination of 
pile-effects and figure-effects, produced upon 
two systems of warp and one system of 
filling. 

Arrangement of dressing : 



a 



a 



A, 1 end pile, 
1 end ground 

B, 1 end figure, \ 
1 end ground, J 



r 12 times =. 24 ends. 
18 times = 36 ends. 

Repeat 60 ends. 



173 

Lowest number of harness possible for drawing in, is 24-harness. 

Filling: I wire (pile), 2 ground. 

Fig. 804A Motive for weave 804. 

a pile effect. ■ effect produced on ordinary weaving with extra warp. 

In both designs (the motive and the weave) three repeats of the pile part and two repeats 
of the part figured by extra warp (ordinary woven) are illustrated. 

Fig. 805. Repeat: 60 warp-threads, 24 picks. Can be reduced, if required, to 21 
or 23-harness. 

Fig. 805$. Motive for preceding weave. 



A 



B 



IQBGBGEZB BJ'B. B~B7:B~BrJBDHnnaD3GnnaDDCCDGCDDDODDDDDDOnDDnDGnnn 



SgdDOHL— 

staaQoaaa 

1QBGBGBGBI 

sbgggz , _ .-. . esuuLBffljLXJBfluuui 
sogzccgz. :z :■ zz zzz :: : . 

1CEZB' B E E B J3 B B B .B B 

:. : 

GBafflGBGBZjB- B .B B B B .ffl _B 
BaaGZGaGEGZZZCZ :2..ZZZZGZt! 

ddbdddkggg:-: :•. .. .:■: 
ge. be "b :b jb b s e .s b j3 



eg . :■: . : .- .:■: 

gzzzz :■: zz :■;:.". "z. z . 

IB E BE B E S_B-B B"B B 

2: :•: :■: z .z :■: zj. 
gczz: :•: - :•: :•: ;...::•: . z z z. 

GBZB B B B B ..B JS7B B B J3 



z._,z . GHZ,G'-jaaaGBBni.„. 

;ZZGG2GGGZ: )!-,■ ■ ■ ■' 

b .a szaza "b:_,j gcggi_l~" 



I B B I I 

"""■QGBBDBBBDDBaonBa 

" zcczGZGQGaaaaGaa 

DBBDBRB' BIzBGGBGGn 
■ B B ■: BzBUBGGBG 



KG! 

GGKZZZZ z : IZZGZZZ 
24ZBZB E"B_B B JB "H 

zgdgz :.- z:zzzzz: zzz 

ggzzz z ZjZj : :•: 

GBl E B B ;B' IB "E 
EGGGZGCGZGGGZZ: 

GGZZZGZZZZZZ' jc; 
GB_ B B B B B B 

BDOOBOa z ddSdc 

GCZZZZZZC^Z ]QDC 
GB_ B E S B B jB 



1BBBGB 



1L 



BBCBBB ZZ' ■ ■ Bi 

□GBBDD«DCr«I :ZH _ ■ B 

caaaacaGGGCCGQCZGZzzz 

HBGGBGZZBZZCHaGGBaGBB 

GBBaaaBaaaBQaaBGCGBBiz 

ZZZZGCGZaaGGQGGGGCCGC 
i B 1ZGGBGCGHGGCBCCBB 
IBGGCBGGGBGaaBBO 

:_gzzzzzcgcgg : z 

DOGBGCGBCZZHB. r 

iBaaGiaaaBBGB: ■ 

DCaaaDGGGGGGGG: z 

IB F B B B B 



JD 



IMG 

a 



f ; 



ZJGHGGDMGGGH 

BGGaaaaGaacc 

B 

■ ■ 

b e s "B :bggg n r : 

B Bi B 

z z: / :z : . 11 ir 



egg: 

GCZZ. 
GB. B_ 



E IB S "BZB 



Br a a 



;aaca jGQQaaaaac 



. -Q 
B I IZ 

■ B BUG 

:.'—. :zg 

B Bi-Z ca 
BKGGGBG 
' GGGG 
CCGBGDD 
QBGCCPG 

Guaaaca 

GGGBGOa 
^HGGGBD 
GGGGGGG 
BCCBGaa 
Bi 'BZCBG 

a 

fl Br B Z ) 



BBBEBEBB ^B _E 



E E E B JB B IB .B 



B B ".S__B B^B S_EUB_B__ 

_jZ_- 



B Br B M< 
Bi B Bi B 
GB iB B B B B E B .B.B"'B B . 

ZGZQaaaazaaaKaaGsaaGiaaGaBoaa«aaGBBGBi 
laazGGGZGaaKiaGaKiaaGKiaGGSiaaaBaaGfflGaGBQL 



__.IDBB«nDBGGDt 
I Kll r B -GCGHGGr 

□GGaaaaaaQGQGGC^cGaaGQGQQQQGGGaa 

■ i ■ Bi fl ■ B B 

I iB fl i ■ fl. ■ i B 

--ZZ7GZZZZZZZ ■ 1 

IBBaBBBaaBGDGBQGGBaGCBGaBHBQQBBGB 

I ■ m Bi DGBaGGBGaaBaGaBBGGBBGBHB 

zzzczacaaaaaGGQoaQa 

l»BGBBBGBBG7ZBZGCBZ r "riB fl Bi B G 

I Bi ■ Bi B ■ IWCGCI B Bi B BI B Br G 

ZZZZZi -J 



I ■ Bi ZJ 

I Bi I 

zGaaaaaaG 
iBaaaBGGd ■ 

3GGBGQGBG 



(1 represents pile, 2 ground, filling.) 
F G. 805. 

A. Pile Effect. Dressing: 1 end pile, 1 end ground, 12 times, 

= 24 ends. 

B. Figure Effect. Produced upon 2 systems of warp, 1 system 
of filling. Dressing : 1 end figure, 1 end ground, 18 times, 

= 36 ends. 



BBBBBBBBBEBEGZGGBBBBBBBaaaaQGC 
"""BGGGBBBBBBBGBBaaaGQ 
"7 BBBBBBBGBBBBBGGG 
IMIIII BBBBflBfl 
11(111 ■■■■■a 

IBB B ZGQBBBBBG 

IBGBOOGGGGGGBBBBB 
IGBBGGGGGaGGBBBaB 
3BBBG' BBGBB 

■ BBBGG ZGGGGGBGBBB 
■«■■■ B 111 

._ IBBBBBZiZDGBBBBBBG 
BBBEBBBBBBBS.. BBBBBB BBBBBB 
BBBBBBBBBBBBGG BBBB BBBBBBBI jl 1G 
BBBBBBBBBBEE . BB BBBBBBBu Z 
ffiEfflffl&-:Z«>»i-H -- - - - HBBBBBBGGGQG 
— iBBGaGGGGG 
"""IBBGGGG 
■BBBGGG 
■■BBBBBGC 
IBBBB BBBBBB 

IB B ' BBBBBG 

IBBGBCCZGZ BBBBB 

IB BB III I 

I III BB BB 

■BBBB B 111 

■bbbbb 3gggbgbbbg 

_. z bbbbbb zz'/ bbbbbbl 
bbbbbbbbbbebqgbbbbbbggbbbbbbgg 
bbbsbbbbbbsbccgbbbb' bbbbbbbggg 
bbbbbbbbbbbb ■■ bbbbbbbqddo 

IBBBBBBBBBBSSaaaaaaBBBBBBBGGaaa 
1 30 



CTL ^n CQ fS CTJ L7J iTj lTJ lTj LTj C7j tTj 

tDQjCnCHMri. 1 W u r«r ti? ti3 'J 

BBBBBEESEEES 
BBEBBBBBBBBB_ 
B * •!• B B E B B B B B E 
BBBBBBBBBBBBI 



■ BBBB 
BBBBBB 



Fig. 805^ 



In both designs (the motive and the weave) only one repeat is shown, q for pile-warp. 
■ for figure-warp. for ground-warp in pile part of weave, a for ground-warp in ordinary 
weaving part of the design. 

ASTRAKHANS. 

These fabrics are also formed by adding an extra pile-warp to a single cloth, otherwise 
interlaced in plain, basket, rib, or common twill weaves, and are the nearest related (some weaves 
being exactly the same) to the velvet weaves given in the preceding chapter. We may either cut 
this pile (plush) or leave the pile uncut (terry); or we may use both methods in the same fabric, 
producing in this way some of the most beautiful novelties for ladies' cloaking — trimmings, and 
similar fashionable articles. 



Texture of Astrakhan Fabrics. 

The texture of these fabrics requires 2 kinds of warp : a. ground-warp,/;, pilc-warp, and 
one kind of filling (ground). The ground-warp will, by interlacing with the filling, form the 



174 

ground or body of the structure, while the pile-warp through being interlaced to this ground 
structure and raised at certain intervals over wires (as required by the design), forms the face 
of the fabric. 

Ornamentation of Astrakhan Fabrics. 

Fancy effects upon otherwise plain interlaced Astrakhan fabrics can be produced by various 
combinations. Among these are found : The use of different colors in the pile-warp ; varying 



* x 



r 

c' 

B" 

A' 

J) 

C 

B 

i 



Fig. 806. 



$ 1 1 1 * 

















<■ 












I 












" 








* 




II 


s 






^ II fur / ft,titoa*Tp. 



mU! ^i^ ^y T l ' ta, **f 
I 




(j^uvtn.*vya cp 



Fig. 807. 



Stctumeit cat c^ ?v^e «"( > 
Fig. 808. 



the length of the pile ; and combining the terry and velvet effects, forming either terry figures 
upon velvet ground or velvet figures upon terry ground. 

Specimen Weaves for Astrakhans. 

Fig. 806 represents the weave for a plain Astrakhan fabric. Repeat : 3 threads of warp, 
4 picks ; the entire pile warp (indicated by 3 and 6 in the figure) is raised at once over the wire 

Fig. 809. 




1 1 » 



t T+- 

1* 

> 

1 *-■ 

1 .1 = 



f.. Crrmt«voL»««&*t» 



• Zi pet .-(' i-r-.tt 



Fig. 810. 



as shown in picks D, D'. Texture of the warp is 2 ends ground or body-warp (cotton) to alter- 
nate with one end pile-warp for the drawing-in on 2 sets of harness. 

1st set for ground-warp (containing harness a b c d). 

2d set for pile-warp (containing harness e and /). 



175 

Diagram Fig. 807 represents the drawing-in of the warp on its corresponding two sets of 
harness (indicated at the right-hand side). 

Diagram Fig. 808 illustrates the section of a fabric interlaced on weave Fig. 806. Both 
ground warp-threads, as working at the right and left, are indicated by dotted lines. The pile- 
warp indicated in full black is shown in the terry and velvet effect (cut and uncut). 

Fig. 809 illustrates another design for Astrakhans. Warp: 2 ends ground-warp, 1 end pile- 
warp, 2 ends ground-warp, 1 end pile-warp (to alternate with the first end pile-warp in weaving). 




Fig. 811. 

Each pile warp-thread is drawn on a separate harness, as shown in Fig. 810. Diagram Fig. 811 
illustrates the method of operation in weaving a fabric with the weave just given. 2 picks 
ground B, C, E, F; 1 pick for inserting wire A, D. In pick A the harness f raises warp-thread 
3 ; in pick D the harness e raises warp-thread 6. The interlacing of the body-cloth is done with 
the common 4-harness basket-weave having the two warp-threads between the pile warp-threads 
working the same ; also the pick before and the pick after the inserting of the wire. 

Fig. 812 illustrates a weave for Astrakhans similar to the one above. The same arrangement 
for texture, 2 ends ground 1 pile, 2 picks ground I wire, and 4 harness common-rib (filling effect) 



ncnEaHOBDE 

■ 
□ 1a ■ :.a ia r 



G !H 3 H ' 

i ' 'a >a s in 
urn ; ■ 

a a . i^a a : i . 
1 1 1 1 

A B A B 



\ T F' 

f -F 

ts 




Fig. 812. 



3. h. & 6. 

Fig. 813. 



for the ground structure is used ; but the latter weave is arranged to have the two ground warp- 
threads, situated in the fabric near each other, work opposite ; thus the ground warp-threads 
working nearest on each side of a pile-thread raise and lower equally. In diagram Fig. 813, a 
section cut of the two pile-threads, as they interlace in a fabric, is shown. One pile-thread 
marked A is represented in outline (forming loops S and F), while the other pile-thread is 
shown in full black (forming loops S' and F'). The letters and numbers indicating the differ- 
ent warp-threads, picks, and openings of a shed for inserting wires, respectively correspond in 
weave Fig. 812 and diagram of section Fig. 813. 



176 

Weave Fig. 814 has the following arrangement of texture and principles of construction: 
Warp : 4 ends ground-warp, 1 end pile-warp, twice over in one repeat of the weave. 
Filling: 4 picks for ground, 1 pick for inserting the wire, twice over in one repeat of the 
weave. Ground-weave : plain. Raising of pile-warp : alternate ends on alternate wires. 
A and B are pile warp-threads, C and D the shed for inserting the wires. 

BDnBOOBDOBaaaijaBHDBBDEBOBBnBBnnDODLl 
1 13' 1 IB < 13 -13 13..:.. 3..: 3 3 3 .OHCQDCD 
DDDaaDnaDDDDnDnDBaDBDDBanHDDBaaDHHH 
EBOEBDBBQEBQBBaBaaBaZB: 3 IGOQDOOQa 
nnBanBDOEOOBaOBQBEQBBZnB \ 3 -3 DQDD 

HBaaaaaBr.H^ 33 jBacBnziBzuEzzjBzzzziQaiz] 



C 



HDBBnaDBHDHDBHDHDBBD 

7-,/ DaDDBDaanauaaDBcaoDB 

BaDBDEnDHaEnaBDBDDBa 
DESZBQBHZBnBBOBQBBGB 
BOBEQBDBBZBZMBZBZBBa 
13 3 3 B 3 "" 3 3 IZB 
-DaBDDDDCC._ Z B _ , , Z T. 
BDaBGBDGBi_Br,LB..BGGBn 
DEBOEUBBI 3 .BmCBCEBuB 
BQilE ■: 3 M13 .3 ,ftBGB! SBG 

t-, GBaaacBaGaGBQaBaacaB 
Z'-DDDnoaDBar GaaaaGGBaa 

BDOHDBDDSDHnnHDHDDBG 

GBBaBaBBaaaBBaaaBBaB 

QDBBGB r 'BEGB 1 ?GBI BCBEG 
DBGDBDBGGB 3' 'OBI IB! iCB 
-DGBGGGGQGIG .._B_.GDGGaa 
HDGBOB D! IB; IBGGB' B! JGBG 
DBBGBUBHGBGBBGBGBBGB 
I I I I 

A B . A' B f 



C- 



DGBGGBGQ 
GBGGBaaBUL 
E.i B ; 3 3 
G*s3 ME 13 
BGGB 3 3 
GBBGwa. J3 
GGGGG 

EBGBB. 3 1 B 
DGBGGB_, 3 

bhzbm 3 ; 3 

GCBOGB .B 

aBQGBaaBac 

BZ BBS 

DMB ' 13 3 
Hu iS •• 3 3 

GB3: :hE ! 13 
GGGGGGGGCG 
EH 3--1 3 ; IB 
G .3 i;"iB : 3 
EBZEH ;B 1 _ 3 
GGB G B i B 
GBG 



a aaBBaBSGBBaBaaBEGaaaa 



n~nr 



zonae 



Fig. 814. 



GGGBBB 

3m . b= _am 3'-- . BBOoaaua 

3 ."BGG3ZZ3 .3 3 G 
-BM. BSZ3H _B--" 3 ' " . 1 
!B -BZ BZ 3 . 3 BGZGGG 

B ..B - ■ ■ BGGGBBB 
: -B B 3 _ . 3 IB ]G GUGG 
3 ' 3 uS:«-H 3 MB "._i_"GG 
: 3 _E " .3 "B 3 G 
3 ;3 »-3 nB 3 3 1 

1 1 eeb 

Bn B>" 3 1 3 BZ . ,GGGG 
3 3 B / 3 . B BGGGDD 
M3M 3m .BM 3 J BilGGGGGG 
B_ .3 . B. B 3 . 3GGGGC 

b ■ m m b ■ JG' ebb 

B ._E ..3 3 ZiB U ,' I, G 
BGBB_BBG^B "S ilBOZjOQD 
GBI DHDOBZ 3 .3 GGGGGG 
3 13 -3.ZB -3 ■ :3 '. G 

_ .JZjQGQQZQQGDZZZZZuGZSBB 

3 3.3.3 3 ' a 3 3 3 3 : 

aBBCBBaBaaBBGBBaaBaaBacBGcaaaBGGaaa 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
AAAAABBBBB 



3 



3 



a. 



Fig. 815. 



Weave Fig. 815 has the following arrangement of texture and principles of construction : 

2 threads ground-warp, 1 thread pile-warp, 10 times over in repeat of weave. 

Filling-. 4 picks for ground, 1 pick for inserting wire (" cut "), 3 times over ; 4 picks for 
ground, 1 pick for inserting wire ("uncut"), 3 times over; hence 30 threads warp and 30 picks 
in one complete repeat. 

Weave for body of fabric : plain. 

rasa on right-hand side of weave for wires " cut." 

ebb on right-hand side of weave for wires " uncut." 



jy, 







I I I IKKKKLLLL 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

-aBaaaffiaGQEsaGaEBGaafflaGGffloaaBaQaffiaacfflGGafflaaGfflaaafflaaGGGBffl 

I i ,■ '3 ■ >..13 3 3 3 3 "3 '13 :3 3 ' m3')'. MB:. I i 
EM BHT. 3 1 BB Bfl BBDDBBGGBBDDBBDnBBDI BB I HBODOO I IG 



oaaGaaaGaGaaaaaaaaaGaaG!: 

□■GGBBaGBBOGBBaaBBGaBa':. z 
-QGBBGQBBGQBBaQPBGGHB.lGPC 



GBG 

a n: 
3: ? 

GGG 

I B 
GDBI 

EM . 
GGG 

BBGI 

iV-GBGi 

I : HI 

BBGGB: 



B _B 

3zzhbgghb 
:bbggebgge 

XDODDGDOr 

3 i 



GaaBaaaBaaaBaaaaBB- 

3=!""B:. 3zz an jBHaaBBaaaaaaa 

BB.. .['3 L'iBB!")' SBGGBBaaBBGaana 

: Bczz-B _ . uGaaaQQaGGGGaaaaaaGGBB 
DaBBaaBBGGBBGaBaQaBBaaBEaaaaa 
3BaaBBaaBBaaBBaaBBaaBBaaaaaa[: 
. zzDaDaaaDBDaDBnaDBDDDBcaaDBB- 

JBnDBBDaBBnDBBDDBBDDBBnDDaDDD 
- Z «BaOBBDaBBaDBBDDBBDDBBDDDDn 

b :.:b" ,.-,b *' b s ' ■ t bb 

HE ~nBBDDBBDnBBDDPHnaBBaDDan 
MaOEBaDBBDQBBaOBBQOBBOZOJQDn 

b ',-iBznoDDDOQDDaanDDaaoDDi — 

3BZZBH 'ZBr = — 



BBaOEBQCEBQQOUaaQ 
3B B IB < 33 1 33 1 IBaDBBDDBBDDBBDDnDD 

SB. . " E :B .B ' B " 11 SB 

; 3 .3 ; 13 3 MB --3 '3 I 13. H3 1 :B : 3 , 1: ! 

DDBBDC.Br : 3 ' 3" 3.1 3 3n ZBI i: ; 3 I BBDDOGnna 

znGDnaanDD^z ■ ■ ■ ■ . zi jazoaacoaQOQaDBB' 

BBaaBBGGBBZZB; ' 3' ■ 3*' BM 3' 1 3-' "'BnaCJEBOQEBnoaOZOD 

„[.".; ri3 MB MB 13 "1 '3 <3 "E_ 3 3 1 13 ;-!B •'■■■BG 1 . 1 

/^-QBGaOBJ 7ZB "ffl B B B B E B E S . 1 "' " BB 

1 i.-IB' MB" MS '13 ^3 '13 tlH.-HH .3 " i 3 " i-.B' '13 .' . ) 

HBOGBHZZBM 3';' 3 ■ ■ 3 3> i .SlZH' . 3 : 3 ,.3': J 

[ b .Z' m ' b" b ',zGaaaaaaucz r jnGGaaGGGaaaaaBB. 

EH -3=1 31 3; 1 3 3 . BH^JEBGGEBZriB^ZCEBGGBBGaaaaaQ 

., G H3 3 MB • 1 3 '3 MB GBBGGBHDDBHDDBHDDBHODgB'JDDna 

M~' -Ml " ffi E E ""■ B B B B E BB 

I mb 1 MB :3 MB MB MB MB" 'HaaaBBaanaaaBBaaBBaaGoa 
BBQGBBaaBBaaBM ,01 bm ; b. j "jGBBaaEBGGEBaaEBoasBaGaaaaa 
DaBaaaBaDGBDaaBaaaaaaGaaaaaaDGQCinzrirzoi jaQaaaaaaaaanDBB. 

BBaaBBGDBBDGBBaaBBCOBBaaBBaGEl"rzr,3iMr 'if IBIMi I, 31 1 ji ibhzzi: 1. 1 1 1 J 
nDBaaaBBanBBaaBBDDBBaDBBDDBBGDBBGUHBDUHauuHBCDBBaaDOa 

I I I I I I I I I I I I 
AAAABBBBCCCC 



H' 

H 

E' 

E 

D' 

D 



P^-BBBBBBBBHHHH tt 

„ GDDCZDDaBBBB-// 
CJ-BBBBBBBBuODO rr 
n, DDDDDD3DBBBB-// 
A^-BBBEEBBBEBBB t- 

, ■■■■ 

A'-BBBBDnCQEBBB j-. 

n GZ'ZJZBBBBZDDD-A 
^-333333333333 ^ 

1 1 ■■■■ 

M-ZZC . ' 3B3B3333 n 

BBBBaaDDnacn-X' 
Fig. 817. 



Fig. 816. 



Fig. 816 illustrates another fancy weave for Astrakhans, containing the "terry" and "velvet" 
principles. The arrangement for the warp is : 2 ends ground, I end pile-warp (for terry); i end 
pile-warp (for velvet), 12 times over. The warp-threads marked on bottom of the design A, B, C, 
are for the velvet, and the warp-threads marked /, K, L, (indicated on top of the design), are for 
the terry. Picks D, D', F, E ', H, H', are to be the " cut " effect, and picks M, P, N, P', 0, P 



a 



177 

the "uncut" effect. The weave for the body of the fabric is the common 2-harness rib-weave 
(two picks in a shed of common plain). 

In diagram Fig. 817, the motive for the pile-warp is clearly illustrated (representing the 3- 

harness twill 1 g , velvet effect upon a terry ground for motive). It will be easily seen by any 

one that an endless variety of weaves and effects may be secured by combining cut with uncut 



Eeccm,. 




Febrfc ■ 



Fig. 818. 

pile. And whatever designs may be required, the principles given and illustrated in the preceding 
examples, will always apply, as they remain unchanged. 

In the method of weaving Astrakhan fabrics, as thus far explained, the raising of the pile 
has been effected with the use of wires, over which the loops of the pile were formed, and which 
were inserted and withdrawn at intervals. These wires being constructed in a single piece, the 




■■file AS/. 



KieJ'S. 



Fig. 819. 

width of the fabric which can be made on them is necessarily limited, as a very long wire cannot 
be withdrawn and inserted with precision automatically by the loom. Also, the means for 
operating such wires are of a character to prevent rapid weaving; hence it requires a special loom 
of complicated construction. 

In fabrics of a " cut " pile character and in fabrics in which the warp pile is not cut but inter- 
woven very loosely, this process of interlacing and its loom (power or hand) must be used ; while 



178 



in " terry " pile Astrakhans, which have their pile warp rather solidly interlaced with the body- 
structure, a device has lately been invented by T. Harrison, which he claims can be applied to 
almost any power loom, and is not limited to the width of the fabric which it can produce, and 
which can be arranged so as to form the pile at any desired interval upon the surface of the 
body fabric. It consists of a movable frame carrying a series of short " wires " upon which the 




Fig. 820. 



pile loops can be formed, each wire being pivoted at right angles to the plane of its longitudinal 
movement and provided with means for depressing its free end at proper intervals, so as to engage 
beneath the warps which are to form the pile. 

In Fig. 818 an exterior side-view of a loom embodying the arrangement is given. In this, 
as well as in the following drawings, referring to the present subject, those parts are omitted 




Fig. 821. 

which are well understood in their action and whose insertion in the drawings would only tend 
to confuse the mind, and render a comprehension of the special parts to which the present 
arrangement relates, less clear. 

Fig. 819 is a view in detail of a portion of the sectional wire which forms the basis of the 
arrangement, showing various parts connected with the portion of the sectional wire, as also a 
number of warp and filling-threads. 



179 



Fig. 820 is a front elevation of the loom with its attachment for raising the pile-warp. In 
this drawing the working parts are shown in one extreme position, while in Fig. 821 (corres- 
ponding to Fig. 820) they are shown in the other extreme. 

In diagrams I to X in Fig. 822 are represented the positions which the threads assume at 
each stage of the formation of the fabric. 

Two pile-warps may be used, which are indicated respectively by I and 2. The body-warps 
3 and 4 of the fabric are brought from a separate beam. To form a row of loops with the pile- 
warp I, the operation commences, as shown in Diagram I of Fig. 822 — that is to say, the points 
of the wires a are all depressed, and the frame is at the extreme right-hand position shown in 




VI 




Fig. 822. 

Fig. 821. Each wire a thereupon enters beneath a number of warp-threads and raises them 
slightly above the plane of the fabric. A shuttle is then shot through, after which the body- 
warp 4 rises and the pile-warp 1 descends, as shown in Diagram II of Fig. 822. The pile- 
warp 2 rises and a pick of the shuttle follows, and the action of the reed throws the filling-thread 
toward the wire a, so as to close the row of pile-loops thereon, as indicated in Diagram III of 
Fig. 822. The weaving then continues, as indicated from IV to VII inclusive, in Fig. 822, by 
means of both pile-warps and both body-warps, the shuttle operating in the ordinary manner. 
During all this period the taking up of the cloth has drawn over the bottom of the pile-loop 
somewhat to the left in the diagrams, and as soon as a sufficient number of picks have been 
made to securely lock the pile-loops the frame and the wires a are thrown to the right of Fig. 



180 

820, or toward the observer from the point of view in the diagrams. This disengages the wires 
from the loops which they have heretofore supported, and leaves them as shown in diagram VIII 
in Fig. 822. So long as the wires have been surrounded by the loops and have rested upon the 
body of the fabric they have been maintained in a horizontal position ; but upon their being 
withdrawn from the loops and upon the rise of the frame bodily, this support ceases and the 
ends of the wires a dip downward by the tension of the spring. This position immediately 
follows upon their withdrawal, and occurs when the frame is at the extreme right-hand position 
(shown in Fig. 821), or, in other words, is ready to engage with a fresh set of pile-warps. 

Returning now to the Diagram IX, Fig. 820, it will be seen that both the pile-warps are up ; 
but in the Diagram X, Fig. 820, the pile-warp 1 (which has just formed the first series of loops) 
is down, and with it the body-warps 3 and 4 have descended, leaving only the pile-warp 2 up and 
ready to be engaged by the wires a, whereupon a repetition of the ten positions indicated will 
occur with the pile-warp 2, and so on throughout the weaving operation, the rows of pile-loops 
alternating from the warps 1 and 2. 

In the method illustrated in the diagrams six picks of filling are represented between the 
rows of pile-loops ; but this number can be varied by varying the frequency of movements of 
the frame and wires relatively to the picks of the shuttle, and in many cases a much less num- 
ber of picks will be found sufficient to lock the pile-loops, so as to prevent them from pulling 
out. 

The invention claims further that the frame and its sectional wires can be applied to almost 
any well-known form of loom without interfering with the general arrangement thereof, and by 
merely increasing the number of wires a the fabric may be produced of as great width as the 
loom is capable of weaving. In the drawings the number of wires has been arbitrarily reduced 
and their individual proportions exaggerated, in order to more clearly show their construction ; 
but in practice for making Astrakhans good results are obtained with wires one-eighth of an inch 
gauge, each about four inches long. Wires of any gauge may, however, be used, according to 
the fineness of pile which it is desired to produce, the only limit being in the stiffness of the 
wire, which of course may be relatively increased by diminishing the length of the individual 
sections. 

Machines for Curling Warp-threads for Astrakhans. 

In the manufacture of "Astrakhans" (and similar fabrics) it is necessary to impart a perma- 
nent curl or twist to the warp threads which are to form the face of the fabric. The yarn is 
crimped, the length of the crimp being regulated by the amount of waviness it is desired to give- 
The crimping is set in the yarn by a steaming process; the yarn is then made into a warp and 
woven over wires and cut, or the wires are withdrawn without cutting, as explained in the preced- 
ing articles on weaving these fabrics. The moment the wire is withdrawn (cut or uncut, as 
required,) it falls into crimps again, and thus is produced that wavy shagginess which characterizes 
the surface of these fabrics. 

Until lately, the method of producing these wavy yarns was a very slow one, the operation 
having been performed by hand. At present, however, they are produced quickly and entirely 
automatically by one operation of the machine. 

Figs. 823, 824 and 825 illustrate a machine for performing this work. 

The main part of the machine is a solid metal spindle, on which the thread is wound from a 
bobbin having a rotary motion around the spindle. As soon as the thread begins to wind on the 
spindle it is forced between two rolls, which are pressing against the direction of the winding of 
the thread on the spindle, and through their rotation draw the thread from the spindle. 

These rolls are heated by a gas jet and transfer their heat to the thread. Through the pres- 
sure and the heat the required curling of the thread is fixed. 



181 

Fig. 823 represents a side view of the machine. Fig. 824 represents the top view. Fig. 
825 represents the mechanism for curling the thread (enlarged from Figs. 823 and 824). 

In Figs. 826, 827, 828, 829 and 830, we illustrate another machine (patented by T. Harrison) 
for preparing these pile warp-threads for Astrakhans or similar fabrics. Fig. 826 represents the 
front elevation of the machine. Fig. 827 a vertical central section through the coiling device. 
Fig. 828 illustrates a side elevation of the uncoiling device. Fig. 829 represents the top view of 
the latter, and Fig. 830 a view of the stop, by means of which a positive motion is imparted to 
the coiling mechanism. 

We will next give a description of the different parts of this machine as mentioned in the 
invention. 

B represents the frame of the machine, consisting of two parallel housings, with an inclined 
upper portion marked B 1 . 

A z is the driving shaft, to which the power is imparted by a belt upon the pulley A 1 . Upon 
the driving shaft is mounted a drum, extending entirely across the interior of the machine, and 





Fig. 824. 



Fh.. 823. 



which is provided at intervals with grooves to receive a series of small driving cords or belts, 
which, after being brought into a horizontal plane by passing the inclined part of the belt over 
idlers, pass around a series of horizontal "whirls," which are journaled upon vertical rings H 
secured in a series of openings formed in the transverse platform L 2 . These whirls are formed 
with a circumferential flange on their upper side, thus providing seats for the " fliers " G and F. 
The three fliers marked G arc coiling devices, the three marked F being the uncoiling devices. 
The coiling fliers each consist of the two uprights, mounted at the bottom upon a ring which fits 
snugly within the flange of the wheel. At the top the two uprights are connected with a central 
sleeve which revolves upon a vertical tubular stem, which passes downward through the axis of 
rotation of the flier and for some distance below, where it is secured in the transverse piece 
E l , extending across from side to side of the machine at the front thereof. The spool upon which 
the warp that is to be coiled is wound in the first instance, fits snugly, but so as to revolve freely 
upon the outside of the before mentioned stem and rests upon a standard, through whose centre 
the said stem passes freely. 



182 



The last mentioned standard passes freely through the ring // and is supported upon a 
fixed platform K. The coiling flier is provided with eyes I l l L, the latter of which is situated at 
the top of the sleeve G 4 , and is at right angles to the axis of rotation. At the bottom of the 
coiling fliers are stop-pins K 2 (see Fig. 830) projecting into slots in the flange of the whirls. 
These stops make the rotation of the coiling-fliers positive. 

As before stated, there are in the machine shown in the drawing, Fig. 826, six of the horizon- 
tal whirls, three of which drive the coiling-fliers, the other three driving the uncoiling-fliers. 
These latter resemble the coiling-fliers in shape, having uprights connected by bottom rings, 
which rest loosely within the flanges of the whirls, but which (unlike the coiling-fliers) are not 
positively connected therewith, the weight of the flier alone being the means by which it receives 





F.c. 825. 



Fig. 826. 

its motion from the whirl. The uncoiling-fliers have eyes i i 1 at top and bottom, respectively, 
the latter being the eye which delivers the thread to the spool or body. They have also at the 
top a brake mechanism. 

A tubular stem extends down through the axis of rotation of each of the uncoiling-fliers, 
and is held in the cross-bar E' . These stems receive bearings at the top of the uncoiling-fliers. 
The spools or bobbins of the uncoiling-fliers fit snugly around the stems and are supported upon 
standards which also surround said stems, but which are mounted upon a vertically-movable 
cross-piece arranged to be reciprocated in a vertical direction. The spools or bobbins of the 
uncoiling-fliers are thus adapted to receive a rising and falling movement within the flier during 
the rotation of the latter, and in this respect differ from the spools of the coiling-fliers, which are 



183 

stationary so far as vertical movement is concerned. The upper ends of the fliers extend into 
openings in the shelf or platform, provided with rings, and are thus shielded during rotation. 
The latter shelf is hinged at the rear, so as to be thrown back when the fliers are to be 
removed. 

The brake mechanism of the uncoiling fliers is constructed as follows : Upon the top of each 
sleeve there is pivoted upon one side a lever, through the centre of which there is a vertical hole 
coinciding with the opening of the stem. This lever has at its rear end a cam-surface, which, 
when the lever is in a horizontal position, rests without substantial pressure against the stem. 
At the front end of the lever is an eye through which the thread, which is being uncoiled, passes, 




Fig. 827. 




L* 



828. 



and thence rises to the eye i, mounted upon the top of the flier. So long as the portion of the 
thread between the eye and the axis of rotation of the fliers is substantially horizontal the lever- 
will remain in a horizontal position ; but if that portion of the thread rises to an angle with the 
horizontal, then the strain upon the eye will raise the front end of the lever and bring the cam p 
gradually around, so as to press upon the top of the stem. The cam-surface being eccentric, ast 
it turns in the direction of its longest axis, it will raise the flier F bodily by bearing upon the top 
of the stem, and in so raising it will lift the flier clear of the whirl, so that motion will be no> 
longer imparted to the flier If desired, the lift may be such as to bring the upper part of the 
flier into frictional contact with the under side of the rin<r. 



184 

At the top of the machine is mounted upon suitable pins the spools or bobbins M, which 
contain the cord which is to form the core for winding the Astrakhan warp upon. These bobbins, 
like the coiling-fliers, are three in number, and the cord from them passes through feeding 
mechanism, down over pulleys mounted upon a horizontal shaft, and through the central stem of 
the coiling-fliers. 

A belt conveys motion from the driving-shaft A s to a pulley, and thence by gears and pinions 
a very slow rotary motion is imparted to the shaft, which extends entirely across the top of the 
machine, near the bottom of the incline. Upon this shaft are mounted friction-rollers S, three in 
number, over which the cord passes on its way from the spools M. Upon the cross-piece v are 
mounted overhanging arms which support the shaft Q, on which are mounted friction-rollers 
bearing down upon the rollers 5. The shaft Q is provided with a spring pressure device, con- 
sisting of a vertical stem having a sliding collar with a hook-shaped projection, which engages 
with the shaft, and a spring whose tension is adjustable by means of a thumb-nut. By means of 
this tension device the rollers s' can be caused to bear upon the rollers .S with any desired degree 
of pressure. Therefore, although the take-up devices at the bottom pull the cord with some 
strain, it is fed to them by the positive motion of the rollers vS", and cannot be drawn more rapidly 
than the rotation of the latter will permit. A similar set of feeding-rollers, w w' , the latter 
mounted in similar spring-bearings, are arranged to deliver the cords from the bobbins to the 
three uncoiling-fliers upon the other side of the machine ; but the diameter of the positive feed- 





Fig. 829. Fig. 830. 

ing-rollers w is less than that of the feeding-rollers 5, and with the effect of feeding more slowly 
to the uncoiling-fliers than to the coiling-fliers. 

The take-up bobbins 0' M for the cords, which pass from the coiling-fliers and uncoiling- 
fliers respectively, are mounted upon horizontal rotating seats R, placed at the bottom of the 
machine and driven by the twist-belts passing around pulleys secured to the seats. The twist- 
belts are so arranged that they can slip upon their respective pulleys, in case the feed from above 
requires such slipping. 

In order to wind the cords upon the respective bobbins 0' M' evenly, a traveling guide-bar, 
E, is provided, which receives a slow vertical reciprocating motion. This traveling bar carries 
vertical rods, which rise and fall with it, these rods being guided by suitable openings in the 
cross-bar E. The rod f serves merely as a guide-rod, but the other two rods f, carry at their 
tops a cross-piece, which supports the standards of the bobbins E. Thus if a vertical reciproca- 
tion is imparted to the traveling bar E its motion will cause the bobbin to rise and fall in the same 
manner. 

The traveling bar E is provided with openings or eyes opposite to the bobbins 0' M, which 
openings guide the thread during the rise and fall of the bar, so as to distribute it equally upon 
the 'bobbins. 

The operation of the machine in coiling and uncoiling the yarn is as follows : 

Upon the three bobbins M, at the top of the machine (see Fig. 826), are .coiled cords which 
are to form the cores for winding the Astrakhan warp upon. These cores are carried down be- 
tween the feeding rollers 5 S', over three of the rollers v, and on down through the axes of the 



185 

three coiling-fliers ; the passage being of course through the tubular shafts. They then are 
brought down and passed through the three left-hand eyes of the traveling guide-bar E, and are 
secured to the three bobbins 0'. The Astrakhan warps which are to be coiled are wound in the 
first instance on the bobbins G', and placed in position within the three coiling-fliers. The ends 
of the Astrakhan thread, having been brought through the eyes / P L, are tied fast to the three 
cores at a point just above the fliers G. Assuming now that the proper feeding and take-up 
movements occur at top and bottom of the machine, respectively, and that the fliers G are rapidly 
rotated, it will be seen that the Astrakhan thread is drawn off from its bobbin and coiled tightly 
around the core. As the coiling progresses the feeding and take-up movements cause the com- 
posite cords to pass down through the tubular shafts, and thence to the bobbins 0'. The travel- 
ing guide-bar E causes the composite cords to be evenly wound upon the bobbins 0'. 

When a sufficient quantity has thus been formed, the composite cord — that is to say, the core 
with the Astrakhan warp wound tightly around it — is removed, steamed, or otherwise treated to 
render its twist permanent, and is then ready for uncoiling. A portion of the core m at the end 
of the composite cord is left uncovered for a clearer illustration. 

The uncoiling operation is as follows : The uncovered end portion of the composite cord 
(now upon the three bobbins at the top of the machine) is brought down through its feed- 
ing-rollers w w' over the three right-hand rollers v, and thence down through the tubular shafts, 
through the three right-hand end eyes of the guide-bar E, and secured to the three bobbins M . 
The uncovered portion having been fed down until the commencement of the covered portion or 
composite cord reaches the top of the uncoiling-fliers. Then carry a loose end of the Astrakhan 
warp through the eyes of the lever P up to the eye i, and then down to the eye z'at the bottom of 
the uncoiling-flier, when it is taken across to the bobbin and there fastened. The feeding move- 
ment at the top and the take-up movement at the bottom being continued and the uncoiling-fliers 
being rapidly rotated in the proper direction, they will uncoil the warp from the composite cords 
and wind up the now twisted warp upon the bobbins. These bobbins have the proper rising and 
falling motion to distribute the warp evenly upon them. The uncoiling movement is necessarily a 
trifle slower than the coiling movement, hence the composite cords do not require to be fed so fast as 
do the cores upon the other side of the machine. This difference of speed is produced by smaller 
diameters of the feeding rollers w as compared with the feeding rollers 5. The uncoiling operation 
continues and the cores m are wound up in a proper manner upon the bobbins at the bottom of the ma- 
chine so that they can be again transferred to the positions indicated by M and the operation re- 
peated. If the uncoiling tends to progress too rapidly, it is checked by the brake mechanism 
upon the uncoiling-fliers, which are operated by the portion n' of the warp assuming an inclined 
position, instead of substantially a horizontal one, between the eye and the core from which it is 
unwound. If the uncoiling takes place too rapidly, relatively to the downward feed of the core, 
the point of the uncoiling will rise higher and higher upon said cord, and will thus produce that 
inclination of the warp necessary to operate the brake mechanism. The uncoiling of the warp is 
thus automatically regulated by this brake mechanism and cannot progress with such rapidity as 
to tangle the warp or to break it 

TAPESTRY CARPET. 

Tapestry-carpet is a warp pile fabric in which the loop formed by the face warp-threads is 
not cut. The demand for its production is found in the need of a cheaper and more economical 
imitation of what is known as Brussels carpet. In its general appearance it resembles the latter 
to a great extent, but in its method of construction differs wholly from it 4 as may be seen by any 
one that examines the two methods. In tapestry carpets three different systems of warp-threads 
are used: A, the ground-warp ; B, the pile-warp or face-warp ; C, the stoffcr or thickening-warp. 



186 

The general arrangement for the warp is : 

I end ground or binder-warp, 

I end double or three-ply thread, of stout linen for strengthening or thickening the body of 

the carpet, resting in the fabric below the pile-warp and actually forming the main part 

of the back of the structure. 
I end double thread of worsted for face-warp forming the pile, by being interlaced into every 

third opening of the shed over a wire, as required for the face of these fabrics. 
I end ground or binder-warp. 

4 ends in repeat of arrangement of warp (= one set); to be reeded into one dent. 

The pile or face-warp, before being wound upon the warp-beam, has the pattern printed 
on it by wrapping the threads around a large cylinder, and coloring them according to the 
design. 

The length of a certain color for each pile-thread, required for each individual loop when 
woven, is regulated by the size of the needles used. 

Fig. 831 illustrates the example of a pile-warp printed as required before weaving. The 
same illustrates four different colors : black, white, heavy-shaded and light-shaded. 

Fig. 832 illustrates the same pile-warp as it appears when interlaced into the fabric ; each 
effect in the warp being reduced to its required size or proportion to the corresponding effect in 
the design. 

Fig. 833 illustrates the sectional cut of the fabric. 

A and A' represent the ground-warp; B, the thickening-warp; C, the pile-warp; W, the wire 
requiring every third opening of the shed. Picks 1 and 2, requiring the first two openings of 
the shed in the repeat of three, are the means for interlacing the ground-cloth as well as fastening 
the pile to this ground structure. 

Fig. 834 illustrates the complete draft, or weave for producing a tapestry carpet. Each 
warp-thread and pick is marked in accordance with previously given explanations. 

Different Qualities of Tapestry Carpets. 

The fineness as well as the value of these carpets is regulated by the quality of the material 
used as also by the height of the pile and number of pile-pick (technically known as number of 
wires) per inch. Seven to eight wires per inch are about the usual number in the arrangement. 

Method for Ascertaining Size of Designing Paper Wanted. 

The designs for tapestry carpets are generally painted on the squared designing paper in 
about a size equal to the design upon the face of the fabric when woven. Thus the number of 
small squares to one inch in a horizontal as well as a vertical direction on the designing paper is 
regulated by the number of loops in the woven fabric, both in the direction of the warp and the 
filling. 

In some cases the number of loops is equal in both directions, while in others it differs to 
some extent. Designing papers known as 8 x 8 to 1 inch and 8x7 to 1 inch are those most 
frequently used. Tapestry carpets are generally produced 27 inches wide ; therefore the design 
will have to be of equal width. That arrangement for the design may be selected known as 
the " half-over pattern," or one that has one complete repeat in one width ; or a design may be 
produced which repeats twice (or oftener if small figures are wanted) in one repeat of 27 inches in 
the fabric. 

Lately a method of producing effects in tapestry carpets, classified as " sheeny " or " varie- 
gated," has been patented in this country, England and France, but is nothing more than a 



187 

method of arranging the design of the carpet so as to make use of more or less solid colored 
pile-warp yarn, hence requires no printing for this amount of warp. In Fig. 835 such an effect 
is illustrated ; a represents the solid colored threads, b represents the printed threads. Each 




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kind of pile-warp is operated from a separate beam ; so it will be seen that a general range of 
effects can be produced by simply varying the solid colored threads in each style, leaving the 
printed warp entirely undisturbed. 




188 

BRUSSELS CARPET. 

Brussels carpet is a warp-pile fabric in which figures are produced by raising over the wire 
different solid colored warp-threads at certain places according to the design. Brussels carpets 
are of a far superior character, as respects color, quality of material used and the structure, than 
the tapestry carpets which have been just explained. 

In Brussels carpets the colors used are generally " fast," as the yarn is hank-dyed and not 
colored in the warp as is done with the tapestry carpets. 

Brussels carpets are technically classified by " frames," or in other words by the number of 
different colors called for in a vertical row of squares on the designing paper, as also one row 
of loops in the direction of the warp in the fabric. 

In tapestry carpets one double thread of worsted, printed according to the design, is 
used for one row of loops (warp-ways) while in Brussels carpets a similar double thread is 
used for each color as required by one row of squares warp ways in the design. One color 
only is raised at the time, while the threads then not called for rest in the body and partly 
on the back of the fabric ; therefore the thickness and substance of the fabric is not due to 
cotton or jute thickening threads, as in the body of the tapestry, but the same pure wool- 
thread which forms the face will at every place not called for by its color in the design, form 
part of the " body." 

The ground-warp in Brussels carpets is interlaced with the filling on the common four- 

harness basket-weave ( gggg ) arranged so as to have each 

^^^^^^ two successive picks insert in the same opening of the shed 

(of the ground-warp) and only separated by the pile warps. 

FlG 836 One pick passes above, and its mate pick below the 

pile warp-threads holding the latter firmly secured between; 
thus, if the raising of the pile warp over its wire for forming the characteristic loop should be 
omitted, we would produce nothing more than a fabric interlaced on the common four-harness 
basket-weave having a stout packing or thickening thread in the centre. 

As mentioned before, Brussels carpets are graded by "frames." There are three-frame, four- 
frame, five-frame and six frame Brussels carpets. 

Under "frame" we classify the number of different colors found in the different rows of 
squares in a vertical direction on the designing paper ; thus a three-frame Brussels carpet has 
three different colors in one row of loops (warp-ways) in the fabric. Any of these three colors 
can at any other row of loops (warp-ways) be exchanged to a different color without changing 
the principle of a "three-frame" carpet. 

A "four-frame" Brussels carpet will extend the number of colors for each row of loops to 
four colors. Thus, a "five-frame" Brussels carpet will show five different colors in one row 
of loops warp-ways. A "six-frame" Brussels carpet will extend these number of changes to six 
colors. 

Having an individual warp-thread for each color in the formation of the loops will also 
speak greatly in favor of the Brussels as compared to the tapestry carpets. By means of these 
separate threads the design will be more clearly defined and its various parts more pronounced, 
while in tapestry carpets the figure is always more or less indistinct, which arises from the 
method of operation by which the pattern is produced. 

In Brussels carpets the different colors used are variously distributed, one color being used 
to a greater extent than the other, etc. This method of using every pile warp-thread at will and 
in a different amount than another, requires us to use instead of ordinary warp yarn beams, 
bobbins or miniature beams fixed in frames, or a huge creel, stationed behind the loom. The 
manner in which the different colors are controlled, in other words, in which they are concealed 



189 

from or brought into view upon the face of the fabric is of great importance in the manufacture 
of this article. 

Method of Structure of the Brussels Carpet. 

The pile (loop) is formed the same as in common (uncut) velvet fabrics by the insertion of 
wires (see Fig. 836) under the pile-threads; but the method of selection is different. In producing 
a common velvet fabric we raise either the entire warp or one-half, etc., over each wire, while in 
Brussels carpet we select for each individual loop from a series of duplicate threads (set-frame) 
each of which has a different color. Another difference between a common velvet fabric and a 
Brussels carpet is found in the manner of operating the pile-warp during the insertion of ground- 
picks. In common pile fabrics, as explained in preceding articles, the pile-warps interlace up 
and down in the body of the fabric, while in Brussels carpet the face or pile-warp rests during 
the time it is not used for forming loops in a straight line in the body of the fabric. 

Three-frame Brussels Carpet. 

Fig. 837 illustrates part of a design technically known as a " three-frame " Brussels carpet. 
In the same the different colors for 8 loops, warp and filling-ways (which equals in the present 



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533' ! :333 eth wire. GaanGGaHaaaGBGaaaaHGGGa«GQCHGaaaHcc ddhdd 

i E^-S-iiPS taBBEKIOBBSDElEBEKiaSGBaKBBBiaaBEBBEBBSEQBEEa 

lBfcflBBHBl.il BGGGKiaaaaaKIQQGKlCQGGaKIDGaKIGQaaQKiaQaKiaGGGa 

1 " 5th wire. GBBBUGBaGDGBUBQDBGGB[:jBBaGOaGBBaBBnaBBHag; 

ITr/- 8-7T □SBBQgEBE:-: :■■_:■:•■ \3EQDBGQBgj 

riG. 03/. GaaaaKaaaKiaaGGasaaaKiGaGacfeQaaKanaaaKiGaca 

4th wire. DGHaaaBGaaaaaBaaBa k ' ibgdoc lG«aaBGaaaaaBa 

KHBEKDEBEGEBSBEiaBBBaKlGBG; ■: ■ EBG 

j . BDDnBDQDDQBIDDOHDDCDDKIDGDKianDDniSlDDCKinDGDa 

3rd wire. OGHaCGGBGC 3GHGGGC JBaaQaBQGaHaGQQHCGQGHQa 

GBBBOEIBaG:-. ........ ....... ;■..,..;•] 

. . aaaaaKiaaaBaaGGaKDaaBQaaaaiaaaagiaGaaaiaaaaKi 

and wire. DDHGDDaHDaDDHDC B B B 1 

EBBBEDBBSBBEEBKDGBEaKiBBaEiaEEBaEHBSKiaBEBa 
HODDBIODnCOaaDDiaDOC"CDiaDDDKDDnGDBlDaGBDDDaa 



ist wire. □BaaaaaaBaaBan a 



aaHQGGBaac rnacaBaaa. 



BBBGaEIBBBKlQESSaKIGBBBGEBBGHBBaKiaGBBaiSlBBBEll 



|1 

ist 2nd 3rd 4th 

dent. I dent. | dent. | dent. 



5th 6th 

dent. I dent. 



*i| 

7th 8lh 

dent. dent. I 



Fig. 838. 



example 8 by 8 = 64 loops) are indicated for each color by a separate kind of type. In the same 
line of the design (looking at the design lengthways), apparently in the same thread, three colors 
form the pile in succession, which is practically produced by employing three distinct threads, 
each of which is so controlled that it only appears in the pile when required to produce the 
design. 

In Fig. 838 the ground plan of the method of interlacing is shown. On the top of the plan 
the arrangement of the warp is indicated. 

1 end binder-warp. 

3 ends face or pile-warp, each representing a two-fold end of worsted and each of these 3 so 
indicated pile-threads to be of a different color than the other. 

I end binder-warp. 



5 ends in the repeat of arrangement for the warp. Thus 5X8 = 40 threads of warp in ground 
plan, representing the construction of a 3-frame Brussels carpet, similar to the one shown in 
design Fig. 837. 



190 



In plan Fig. 838 every shed for inserting the wire is represented on the left side of the 
design ; and on comparing with the part of the design of the face, Fig. 837, it represents the 
threads as indicated in the latter raised from each set. 

Pick 1 in the design calls for 1 i, 1 1, 1 1, 2 a, 1 i, 1 i, it, Examining wire 1 in the plan we 
find the selecting of the different colors from each set arranged accordingly. 
Thus we select — 

From the first set 
second " 
third " 
fourth " 
fifth 

sixth " 
seventh" 



eighth 



1, etc. 



Pick 2 in the design calls for 3 □, 2 a, 3 s, and the colors of the face-warp for raising over 
wire number 2 in the plan are selected accordingly. 

From the first set of 3 pile warp-threads we call for □. 



a 


second 


(t 


a 


a 


a 


third 


«i 


a 


ti 


tt 


fourth 


a 


a 


a 


it 


fifth 


a 


a 


a 


tl 


sixth 


« 


a 


a 


it 


seventh 


n 


a 


a 


It 


eighth 


u 


a 


tt 



• Pick 3 is a repetition of pick number 2. 

Pick 4 in the design calls for 1 h, 1 ■, 1 ■, 2 ■, 1 ■, 1 ■, 1 ■, and the colors of the pile-warp 
raising over wire number 4 in the plan are selected to correspond. 

From the first set of 3 pile warp-threads we call for a. 
" second " 



ti 






third " 
fourth " 
fifth 
sixth 
seventh " 
eighth " 



Pick 5 in the design calls for 1 ■, 1 ■, 1 ■, 2 ■, 1 ■, I ■, 1 °, and the colors of the pile-warp 
raising over wire number 5 are selected to correspond. 

From the first set of 3 pile warp-threads we call for o. 
second <r 



third " 


tt 


fourth " 


ti 


fifth 


tt 


sixth " 


a 


seventh " 


a 


eighth " 


n 



11 


It 


m. 


It 


(( 


m. 


tl 


tt 


u. 


it 


II 


m. 


it 


a 


m. 


tt 


u 


m. 


U 


it 


a. 



Picks 6 and 7 are duplicates of picks numbers 2 and 3. 



191 



Pick 8 in the design calls for I ■, I ■, I ■, 2 a, i ■, I ■, I ■, and the pile warp-threads raising 
over wire number 8, as shown in the plan, are selected to correspond in colors. 

From the first set of 3 pile warp-threads we call for 



second 


tt 


tt 


it 


third 


It 


n 


« 


fourth 


tt 


tt 


it 


fifth 


a 


a 


tt 


sixth 


tt 


it 


a 


seventh 


tt 


a 


it 


eighth 


tt 


tt 


it 



a a 


m. 


n a 


m. 


it it 


□. 


tl a 


□. 


it it 


■ . 


11 tt 


■. 


It n 


B 



Any pick that will be called for in any complete design always has its method of interlacing 
arranged similar to the principle explained in the specimen 8 picks of part of a design given for 
example. 



Pile. 



cde3~~z3 

dgeezigee 
el-; ■.:..■■ ~n 

GDKHQQEK] 

Fig. 839. 




Fig. 840. 



The two binder warp-threads working between each set of threads in Brussels carpet of any 
"frame," interlace with the filling as shown in Fig. 839. 

The reeding of a 3-frame Brussels carpet is arranged for " 1 binder, 3 pile, 1 binder," in each 
dent; thus splitting by the reed akvays the two binder warp-threads. 

Fig. 840 illustrates the section of a 3-frame Brussels carpet. In the same, threads marked 
d and e represent the binder-threads. A, B, C, represent the 3 different colored pile warp-threads. 
Wires 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, illustrate the section of the wires as used in the opening of the 3d, 6th, 
9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, and 21st opening of the shed. Picks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, n, 13, 14, 16, 17, 
etc., of the ground structure of the fabric are indicated by shaded circles. 




[■: . i :.-; / r,.-.." , .-., . .■ 1 : 

QHQBaa0QQKnBQHCH3GQ8! 

1 ii,;-..; .:■; > - - i:-: ■: 

[■:■:■•.• : •.-.• !•■••,:•;■! , 

Ea.jaacanaDgDLoSoDaDa 

L^BHaESHQElDBEXEiagQBHia 



Fig. S42. 



CTOvuvd-fii 



Fig. 841. 



The binder-warp is drawn in two common harness frames which are placed in front of the 
Jacquard-harness. The face or pile is drawn in the Jacquard-harness, which is tied up for as 
many sections as there are frames in the carpet, so that in the present example of a 3-frame car- 
pet we must use a 3-section tie-up. (See section on "tie-ups" in my treatise on The Jacquard.etc.) 
By forming the shed for the insertion of a wire only one pile warp-thread from each set is raised, 
as is required by the design. If the pile-warp in a carpet, constructed as thus far explained, is 
cut, the name Brussels is changed to Wilton. 



192 

Diagram Fig. 841 illustrates the method of interlacing a 3-frame Brussels carpet. This 
diagram readily explains itself on examination. Warp-threads indicated by A, B, C, are the three 
different colored pile-threads required (as explained before). Thread A is shown blank, thread B 
shaded, and C black. The binder or body warp-threads, situated in the fabric on each side of the 
face-threads, are indicated by / and 2. The ground picks and places for inserting the wires are 



"O q; — flj •— oj •« qj --. <j .— ^j .— u — jj 73 

c ui cq ^i CQ ui w cnCQtnOcn M en a c/i s 

DBnPlBrjCBBBBGBBBtilBBGBHBBGGBaaBGEBaBBGBBBBBGBBHBBa 
BBBMEGLJBEtelffiLfjBBBBGBBHBBGl 1BHBBBC 1HBBQ JBBBBDBBEIBBa 
DBSBBf!! JBHBBUDBEtflB'J' BBNIBOBBEBBUGBEBBBBBBBffiaBBBBBa 
EBB «' : BBtSBE .iBEeiS BE' SB BE>'1B r BHmBQ BB^BEGBEBED 

DDaQaQaaaaGnaaaaaaQaaaaaaaaGaaaaGaaaGaaGaaaaaGaa 
QaGaGaaQaGaGGaaaaaGaaaaacaaaaaGaaaaaaaaaaaaGaaGa 

ODDDDDUnaUDHZiaaaDQKinDDDiaaDaDnDBDDGDElDDQDaDIIlDDDD^* 

8th wire. aBaaaaaaaBaaaGGHGaaGaaBaGGaBaaaaoBaaGaGBaaaaEaaa 

fBBBBBBBH BSBES3DSBSSBBBBSBBEBBSSEEBBBBSuBSBBBBEEBEaESEEaa 

BbbBbkhb EDBBBEBBBBEUBlOJUEBBBBBEEDBBBBBEBBEBBBBBaBEBBBQa 

mSmEBW 7th wire. BBEBEaBBBDBEBDEBBBBBBBBEBEBeaBBBBBOEBBEBaBEEBBnB 

■IIIRUli BBBBBDEBBEBISIBBEBBBEBBBBKlBBSBBBEBSBBEBBSEaEBBBaBKI 

liflaBJHl aacGGGKiaaGaBGaaaaaixiBnaQHaaBaaGBaGBGEiacaaGaKiGBaQKi 

■IbbIIPI 6til wire > aBaBaaaaaBaGaBnGaGBaGBaGBaaBGGaanaccGaGGBGaacBaa 

■§■11511 BGEEEBDEEBB :: E : -133 'JEBBE; jaBSBBSEBEBBBBBESEBBBBBEE 

lSyilllll t . bbbbbebbbbebbebbbbbbblgbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbebbk jggggg 

ysssmasB th Wlre> oarjBaaaaGBGGaaGBaGaBGaGaGaHnGQGGnBGGGaaBGQaGGGBa 

„ _, BSESEBKISBBSSBSBSBBBSBBBEESBSEBaBBBEglBBBaBBBBBBBK] 

Fig. 84^. . . GGGGGGBGaaGEGaGGGaBaaaaKiaaBaaaBCGaGBGaGGaGaaaaGKi 

HO 4th wire. aBBBBn.-ircnaBEEBMEBBBBBEBBBBBEBBBBBBBBBEBBBBBEBBB 

EimB0aBBBBBBB3SBBSSBE0SBBEEEFF3BE3EG.a3SEBBEBBEESB 

. . KEGGGKiaaGaGaKiQGaaHaaLjaaGKiaaGaaaaaGaca'.jaaaRiGaaaua 

3rd wire. BaBaBaBBBEBBBESBBBEBBBBBBEBBBBBBBBBBBBBBEBBBBBBE 
GBBBBGBBBBBaGBaaa I IE1SBBBEIBBBBBI :SBSBSBBBESBBES3BSKI 

. , . aGaGGaEaaEaBGaa'jaaEGGQGBGCQGGGL-oaaaEiaaaaaQKiaaaGKi 
2nd wire. bbbbbbbbebbbbbbbbbbebbbbebbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbe 

BBSEBKIBBBESBKBSBBBBBSEBB0SSBBEBESBBBBBBSBKBSBSBB 
BEBBBK]BaBBBEK]BBBBEBBBBBB0BBBBBEBBBBBBEBBBEBBBBBB 
1st wire. aBSBBBBEEBBBBBBBBBBBBBEBBEBBBEBBBBr-EBBBBC EBBBBBB 
BBBSBBBSBSSEBBBBBBKBEBBK1BBS0EBBBBBEKBBBBBBKEBBEK11 
II I I I 1 I I- 48 1 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th I 5th 6th 7th 8th ! 

I dent. I dent. ] dent. I dent. I dent, I dent. I dent. I dent. | 

Fig. 844. 

marked on the bottom of the diagram. P on the top of the drawing represents the interlacing 
of the fabric, omitting the loops, and thus giving, at a glance, the correct principle of interlacing 
the body. 

Fig. 842 illustrates the weave for this part. Shed for " wire " omitted. ^S on the top of the 
drawing Fig. 841 represents the entire procedure. The wire marked 1 calls for the raising of 
warp-thread C (= black) for forming the face of the fabric. Wire marked 2, the successive wire, 
calls for the raising of warp-thread B (= shaded) for forming the face of the fabric. 



nBHBfflOanBHBBncaBHBBnnaBHBBQDGBElBfflQDnBEBBnDDBHBBnDDBHBBnn 

GBB SO ' ta-HD .EBBMED I IBBEBQL BECECIBL BBl- BD 3C BEMBQEEBEBBEIB 
□BBWBQ '' IBB'-IBD : BBsBEriGBBBBnt BBEBEEJBI BBBBQE! BBssBEIBBBEBEaB 
GBB'-'BQ BB'^BD BBrtBQ , DBSWBCJBI BBt ,ED._ BBi .EQ BB; QD : . BB; BD3 

GacaaacGaGGaaaaaaaGaaaGaaaaaGGaaGGaGGaGaGaQaaGGccaaaGaaa 
aGaaaGaaaaGaGaaaaaaaaaaaaacGQaaacaGaaaaaaaaaaaaacaaaaGGa^, 

BBBBBBBBBEBBBEBBBBBBBKlBBBBBBBBaBBEBBEEBEEEBBEBBBBBBBBBBBM 
„==__^_,r, 8th wire. GGHnEEEUBGHBEa: jBEBBBBBBBBBBBBBBEBBBBaBBBBBBBEEEnEBBBBBBB 

H ! jIBSRS H3SBESHBBSBBEBBBBBSB!3BBBESSBEBSSBBBEBBBBEEEEBBEBEBBBBBEB 

i^WSIBER KiaDBBBBacaBBBBKBBBBBlBBBaBBBKBBBBEEBBBBEBBKBBBBBEEBBBBBB 

HSlMlIBS 7th wire. BBBBBBBaEG3EBEBBBBBBBBBBBBEBBBBEBEBEBEBBEBBBEBBBBBBBBBnB 

ERS G MilB ESBBB3BKIBBQQEKDEBBBBBBSSBBBBBBEEEiEEEEB3EEEBBEEBEEaBBEBBEl 

BBaBHBHB - BBBBBBBBBBnaBBBBaBBBBBBBBBEBBBBBEBBHBBBBBBBEBBBEBKBBBBEKi 

1B2RSSHI 6th wire. BBBBBnBBBaBBBBBBaaBaBBBBBBBBBEBBBEBBBBBBBBDBQEBBBBBBBEBB 

nlHHSRSSl EEBBBBBEBS3B33S333SSHBBSBBBBSBSESBSBEBBBBEEBBSBBEBESBE0B 

ibbbbedbe KanGaaEaaGGGGGKiaGGaaKiaaaaaaaKiGaaGaBCGai ibbbkbbbbbeebbbbbb 

Vir C, M Sth wire. BBBBBBBBBBBaa "JBEBBBBBBESBBBBEEBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBa 

tig. 845a. 3 beebebbebbabbh_,bsbb3besbbebbbbsbsbeef333~3bbssssbbssseb[a 

bbbbbbbsebb3EE3ebbbebb'3bbbehbbbbebbebbeebbbbbbee[:ebbbeb&i 
4th wire. OBGaauDGOHGaGaGaQQanGaaanfflGDOGHaaoQGODBanDDaoBDaDaBQDana 

0BSBBB0BaBSEBB8iaBSES3BSBS3SBESBSBSBBBBSSBBSBSBBBaBBBEBEB 

HGaaGGEGGGaaaGEGGaaGHGaaaaaGKiaaaaG^aaaaaGGBaaGaQEaaaaQGa 
3rd wire. aBGaaaaaBaaGaaaaaaaGaaaaaanDGaaaBaaaaHaaaaaaGBGaGaaaBaaa 

BSSBaaBRBSBSEiSBBBSBBDBBSSBSKIBBBEBBBESBSEBaBEESESBSBBBBSKI 

aDaaGQGKacaGGEaaGaGGGEGOijjagaaaa L BEtaBBBEBKBBEBEBBBBEBBBKi 
2nd wire. bbbbbbbbbbbebebbebbbbi inHaaGGGGGaaaanaaGBGCGaHGGGGGGaBGaa 

8SBBSBKBEBSSBBK3BSBSSBBSBBBBK1ESBSBBBB3BBBBSBSBSBBBBSBESB 
KGGnEnEEDEUaaagiaonnDHEGGEGuBBnGGnGEEGaGBBGHGUEijaHGGBGBIjn 

1st wire. aaaBDaaaaawaaGaBaaaaGGBGaaGGGaHaaaGaaGaanGGGGGBGGaaHGaGa 

DBBaBBrjEEBBBEHEBEEBBGKIBBBBEKIDBBBBBCDEBBBBBEEBBBBBGHBBBEBNl 
|l 1st 2nd 3rd I 4th jth 6th I 7th I »th 66 

I dent. dent. ) dent. 1 dent. dent. I dent. I dent. | dent. I 

Fig. 8456. 

Wire marked 3, the next successive wire, calls for the raising of warp-thread C (== blank) 
for forming the face of the fabric. 

Warp-threads 2-C-B-A-1 are drawn in one dent of the reed, as indicated on the left-hand 
side of the drawing. 

Fig. 843 illustrates part of a Brussels carpet design classified as a "four-frame." 



193 

Fig. 844 furnishes an analysis of the latter. The difference in the construction of a " four- 
frame," as compared to a "three-frame" carpet, consists in its having four different colored pile 
warp-thieads, instead of only three, as in the latter, so that the figuring possible in both carpets 
is equal in proportion as 4 is to 3. 

Having thoroughly described the method of constructing the " three-frame " carpet, the 
present " four-frame " design will the more readily explain itself. 

Fig. 845 a illustrates part of a design for a " five-frame " carpet, which in Fig. 845 b is also 
analyzed. 

Brussels and Wilton carpets are made up to and including " six-frames," also " in part of 
full frames " (after the " three-frame "), as may often be required in order to cheapen the fabric. 



DOUBLE-FACED PILE CARPETS 

In which the Pile is Produced by Inserting a Special Heavy Filling-Cord 

Instead of a Wire. 

The construction of these fabrics has for its object the production of a cheap, strong, firm 
and durable double-faced carpet, wherein the figure at each side of the fabric is derived from 



A. i t. K. 1. c A" 




PiraWwfr 



Fig. 847. 



Fig. 848. 



face-warps appearing upon one and then upon the other side of the fabric for one or more 
rib-picks. In addition to the face-warp there is also used a binder-warp, usually having two threads 
worsted face-warp alternate with one end binder-warp. These face and binder-warp-threads are 
interlaced into one fabric by means of two kinds of filling, the interior (heavy) filling and the 
binder-filling. The binder-filling at alternate picks passes above all the face-warps and then 
below all the face-warps. The binder-filling is tied to the upper and then to the lower side of 
the face-warp by the binder-warp, two picks of binder-filling and two picks of stuffer (interior, 
heavy or cord) filling being put in in succession. The binder-warp is lifted into the upper half 
of the shed between the insertion of the first and second picks of stuffer (cord) filling, the binder- 
warp thus splitting the stuffer or interior filling. The crossing of the warp and filling is such as 
to enable the two picks of interior or stuffer, when beat up into the shed, to lie nearly one over 
the other, forming ribs opposite each other at opposite faces of the fabric. 

Fig. 846 represents a longitudinal section. 

Fig. 847 is a diagram representing the arrangement of the warp and filling as they interlace 
in the fabric. 



194 

Fig. 848 illustrates part of a design (face and back) corresponding to diagram Fig. 847. 

The threads shown in Figs. 846 and 847 are separated for a clearer understanding of their 
■working ; but in the actual fabric they are beat closely together by the reed and appear somewhat 
similar to those illustrated in part of a design (effect) Fig. 848. 

Method of Operation. 

These carpets are produced on an ordinary two-box Jacquard loom with the addition of front- 
harness. For the binder-warps an independent harness or set of harness is provided, being 
operated through a cam on the picker shaft. The sheds for the binder-filling are formed by the 
binder-warps on the one hand and by all the face or body-warps on the other hand. The face- 
warps (indicated by letters E, E', G, G' in Figs. 846 and 847), which are generally of worsted and 
of different colors, and dyed or printed according to the colors and patterns it is desired that the 
carpet shall show, will be operated on by a Jacquard machine of the usual construction, so as to 
split the face-warps at suitable intervals to form sheds for the introduction of the stuffer or 
interior filling (indicated by letters E, A' , in Figs. 846 and 847) carried by a shuttle. The face 
warp-threads uppermost or at one side of the fabric remain at that side of the fabric for as many 
picks as desired, and then are carried to the other side of the fabric. 

The binder-warps (indicated by letter d in Figs. 846 and 847) are carried by one or two 
harness frames and are distributed at suitable intervals between the face-warps. They are 
arranged so as to appear at both sides or face of the fabric between each two picks of interior 
(or stuffer) filling. 

Method of Successive Interlacing of the Warps and Fillings. 

Examining Figs. 846 and 847 from the right to the left, it appears that pick 1 has all the 
face-warp down and the binder-warp raised, thus forming a shed between all of the face-warp 
and binder-warp to receive a pick of binder filling. 

Pick 2 — the second binder-pick — has all the face-warp raised and all the binder-warp 
lowered. 

Pick 3 has one-half of the face-warps raised, which with the binder-warp then down, forms 
a shed for receiving the first stuffer or interior filling. 

Pick 4 has one-half of the face-warp and the binder-warp in the upper part of the shed, and 
the other half of the face-warp in the lower part. (This pick is not illustrated in Fig. 847, it being 
opposite to pick 3.) 

This operation is repeated until such time as it is desired that the face-warp uppermost in 
the last shed to receive the stuffer or interior filling shall be made to appear at the opposite side 
of the fabric. When it is desired to make the warp upon one face of the fabric show for one 
or more sheds upon the opposite face of the fabric, these face- warp-threads are themselves bodily 
carried, as indicated at the line F, from the upper to the lower part of the shed. 

DOUBLE-PILE FABRICS. 

Principles of Construction of the Plain "Double Plush." 

The end to be gained in the manufacture ot warp pile fabrics of the 
present division is, the production of two single velvet (or similar) fabrics 
with one operation of the loom. In the manufacture of double plush the 
^■H wires so conspicuously referred to in speaking of warp pile fabrics, arc 

omitted. The pile-warp-threads, after interlacing into the "body structure" 
of one of the single fabrics, pass across to the " body structure " of the 
other fabric, where in turn they are interlaced before returning to the fabric from which they 




195 

started. Constantly exchanging pile-warp-threads from one cloth to the other forms the principle 
of double-pile weaving, and is illustrated in diagram Fig. 849 by a. After combining the 
pile of a two-ply fabric in the manner previously explained, its pile-warp-threads, running 
across the centre or interior of the fabric, are cut automatically by means of an attachment on 
the loom known as the " cutting knife!' The variously constructed knives in practical use, as 
well as the methods of their operation, are treated later on. 

Metlwds in Use for Interlacing the Pile-warp in Double-plush Fabrics. 

Various methods for exchanging the pile-warp in weaving " double plush," as also the different 
ways of interlacing (or fastening) these pile warp-threads to the ground-cloth of each fabric, are 
in practical use. An explanation of a few of these is given, whereby a pretty clear conception 




Fig. 850. 

may be had of the method of interlacing double plush. Diagram Fig. 850 illustrates the section 
of a double-plush fabric. In this, four distinct warp-threads are visible, and are indicated by the 
numbers I, 2, 3 and 4. These four warp-threads and the sixteen sections of the filling illustrate 
one repeat of the arrangement of the warp and filling, as well as the method of intersecting 
both systems, technically known as their weave. Line A to B in the diagram indicates the direc- 
tion for cutting the pile-warp. 

In diagram Fig. 85 1, another method for forming double plush is shown. The diagram 
illustrates the section from a specimen fabric. 

In this, two distinct sets of warp-threads (shown by dotted lines) form the body structure for 
each individual single "plush fabric," while the pile is produced by a separate set of warp-threads 
which alternately interlace into one and then the other body-structure. The body-warp for the 
upper fabric is indicated by letters A and B, and that for the lower by D and E. Line F to G 
shows the course through which the pile is cut to produce the two separate plush fabrics. 



nQHDn-5t Picks for the top fabric. -n ■• .T^A^--*1 ■•^^.•^'^•n 

■oxjp-4} J>- y Y ^^ 7 V"' ^rr^ v T>- 

fflHffl jB-2 1 Picks for the bottom fabric. T\-- _^^~ . -V / r-i \ --- "Q 

(1 denotes face fabric, i bottom Qt^r ••-.. -^^^. ^^r----'^^J- E. 

fabric, 3 pile-warp.) 

Fig. 851a. Fig. 851. 

An analysis of the section shown in Fig. 851 gives as follows: Picks 1, 2 and 3 for the 
lower fabric and picks 4, 5 and 6 for the upper fabric. 

Fig. 851a is a plan of the method of interlacing, technically known as the "weave." 
2 harnesses are required for the body-warp of the upper fabric ; 2 harnesses for the body-warp of 
the lower fabric and 1 harness for carrying the pile-warp; thus 5-harness in repeat. In reeding 
the warp five threads must be put in one dent. 

To produce a well covered full face in the fabric, two kinds of ground or body-warp must 
be used. One kind for threads working as shown by warp-threads A and E, or tighter than the 
other body-warp, or threads working the same as warp-threads B and D, which operate with less 
tension ; hence two beams are necessary for the body or ground-warp, with one beam for carrying 
the pile-threads. 



196 

The adjusting, or " setting" of the harness is such that when the loom is at rest the set of 
warp-threads for the upper section of the fabric is in a sufficiently elevated position as compared 
to those for the lower cloth. The method of operation for the harness is such that for the picks 
of the upper cloth harnesses are lowered, and for picks for the lower fabrics harnesses are 
raised. This method of weaving double plush only requires one shuttle, and the weaving is per- 
formed the same as ordinary weaving. 



73 

c 

a 

v o 



CL, 



O 



adcdi 212 

BGBHGGQH 
■■GBHHDG 
■■■DHHCD 

■ r i i ii ,□□ 

DMHQOHH 

HGBIJHHGG 
M-il liGHDD 
DBMDGHH 

8BaaaDDaa 

» 1 BHH: ., J 

(Mil IHHGG 

■um-UOQH 
GBMHGOHH 
HI Ml IHHCO 

■■DBHaaa 

lGBfflBGGEia 
1 8 

Fig. 852. 



DflB 



nnmnnnnnnnuaoaan 
□□BGHGBBHBBanai— 

DDDaHDDBnDanHDu 
□□■■HI J! IBHHBBHGC 
DDDaHQBDDGQDHnl_ 
HGBBHHB' H BHHHBG 
HOBOGGI 1DHDBDDDDD 
BC11I IHHBBHI M UHBB 

Diun ighuubi ilii »:: 
□hgbhi ibbhhgbhcbb 

1 1' r 1 IHmB ;' 'GGGHl iBD 

ehbbh.b .hebbhgbg 
;; ■ ' : -j .hi » ■ 

HGBBHH' BH JBBHH ■ 

hi r«i 1 j , hi jgbi jggg 

BGGBHHBBH' J ■□□■■ 

"BOB ii |i II ■ 1H1 BGf I 1 HID 
HHBGHi BBBBB JH. :■■ 
I 1 1 IGSi . B ' ', . HI Jl ■ 
BBBBB 1' BBEBBHGI IB 
GGGGBGB ' ..'."j iBGBG 

a ■■:;::■ ihi bbebbg 

egbggc » I'jHuii naaa 

a H IB3BBBI ■ IBEBB 
HI II ■ H' I' «i I. 11 II 1 

BHGBB ;ilQQGIEiriH 

COG 1 b m n dgghi :■□ 

BBBBB ■ iBEBBBGBG 

1 i- Jl J H ■ , . iH I, ■ 
EGBBBHGBH IflBBBGB 

hi 11 a ii 11 re jgbgi.ji n 

IHUUBQHBBHGQBHQBB 
1 8 

Fig. 852^. 



GGHG 
EGEG 

GBGH 
r !K B 

4EGBG 
HGHG 
GHGH 

1GHGH 

1 2 



Fig. 852a. 



□BEGHBE31 . 

DH'E!-;t «aG'.-M 

GBGBBGGBtaEBKl 

□BGji ixaiyjina 

E&BGBHEBBGeKI 
GKBHBSIQKIHHBKI 

GHBHGBaBBEGB 
EKBI •'.-]: IH; il"i!0l I 
8EBG1 :;"]! IHBG' I[-jH 
GMGEGB' mgexb 
ghghb'-: ;t-.hbg 
eb>; i.-:hb:-; ■ <a 
ggb '; ::■:□:-:■ .1 H 

DG'.-IHB.-; jSt,HBa 
GHHEGBGGBEGB 
1 HBBQBBHBBQBI1 
1 6 

Fig. 852^. 



BOI ■'■BOGH 

am i-.bb! .:•] 

RGBDEOBn 

: na as 

QB QB 1 
BQGOBQGG 
I jDB □■ 
I MB :' JD 

8BDGS1BDGSI 
CBLjGaBCfi 
BGBQSGBD 
EOQBG QB 
DBEDCIBKO 
BDHGBOGG 
1 ).□■ ,:-.M 

11 IMD i/JH 
1 4 

Fig. 852^. 



J* 




1. 



■s- 



qo:qo:qo:qo:qd:qo:qo 



s.< e- 



S- 



aonao.DxiDio.oiaDnD 



QOIQOIQDIQDlQaQXXQlDj 



»A. 



< e- 



w w 



ojd:od:o&od:od:od:od 



Fig. 852^. 



>B. 



The arranging of three successive picks alternately for each fabric is of no disadvantage to 
either structure. Each plush fabric will show the same smooth surface after cutting. Diagram 
Fig. 800, on page 170, in the chapter on the construction of single plush and velvet fabrics 
represents the section for each separate single cloth of the double plush illustrated in Fig. 851. 

Fig. 852 illustrates another plan for weaving double plush. In this instance a double shuttle 
loom is used (cam-loom principle), using each shuttle for interweaving in the one system of the 
structure. Consequently two sheds must be formed at one operation of the loom, which is effected 
by using for the pile-warp " Cams " which are capable of holding- the harness frames in three 



197 



ftwTb P ° S ^ nS ' "0* b °^T" " the Centre '" ° r " the t0 P" P art of the ™ m P>^ double shed. 
It ,11 be readily understood that « the eeutre " refers to the upper division of the lower shed as 
well as the bottom division of the upper shed. 

In Fig. 852 the first 4 harnesses, for future reference indicated by letters a, b, c and d repre- 
sent the pile. In the same the . type indicates the raising of a harness in the top division of the 
upper shed or " the top," the . type indicates the placing of the harness for forming - the centre » 
(being also the temporary - shuttle-race " for the shuttle interlacing the upper ground fabric) 
This position ,s also technically known as - dwelling." The type indicates the lowering of he 

the : s :i°:i or m f in i the bot r " of v ower shed in the io ° m - ^ ~ * *~^i 

the working of the ground warp. Harnesses indicated by , form the one body-structure 
while the harnesses indicated by 2 form the other body-structure. Each set of the ground- 
harnesses (., , and 2, 2) is placed by a respectively high or low strapping into its proper 

Th TZt l U rt nS 7 the gr ° Und ° r b ° dy ™ rP ° f * e ^ "^ g^und'clot r 

The drafting for the present weave ,s 1 end ground-warp for the top cloth, , end ground-warp for 
the lower cloth, 2 ends pfie-warp, thus 4 threads in one repeat 

mon!^ 852 * "'^T? ^ Separate WeaTC for '"'"lacing each body-structure, being the com- 
mon (2-harness, 4 p.cks) nb-weave, or the common plain two picks in a shed 

Fir L U " X J eSPe fr diagramS arC given for Nustnrtuig the compound weave 

rh A $ H g ' Cated by " represents the sectio " of the corresponding pile warp- 
thread . ■„ the weave ; diagram i shows the section of pile warp-thread ^in the weave; dial ran, 

h ad d tthe 6 SeCt '° n T, Pi ' e Wa ?- thread ' m the WeaTC ' and d '^ m d rete '° ^ - p 

h dotted lie WeaVe K J 6 gr ° Und ° r b ° dy - Warp W ° rWn S dose ^ «* pile-warp is shown by 

the dotted fines in each diagram. Letter A, in all the diagrams shown under Fig. 852 b indicates 

uZfthe oT 3nd T T: b ° tt0m fabrk ' H0riZ0mal !i - < to / 'ndicates'thidtect 
all S n th ^H r ! enVardS ' In d ' agram ' ° f Fi * 8 ^ the c ° m P kte '"'-lacing of 

om tt d so a t '" ' , ' S Sh ° Wn ' ^ thC Same ' g™- d -™r P s (as previously shown) are 

omitted so as to give a clearer understanding of the subject. Letters of reference are also 

th S m TTT Wfth tHe PreVi ° USly eXP ' ained dia »" ramS "■ *■ « »«« « » well as to dTgt 
* n F s SeCt '° n ° f thC f ° Ur P" e ™ r P- th ™ ds »"en cut (ground-warp again omitted). 

„ J T I a a SePar f e analyS '' S ° f ° ne fabric from the double s '™ c ""e is given, showing 
4 Pfie : and 2 body warp-threads and 8 picks for its repeat. Warp-threads , and 4 or body 

T the bod 2 ' 3 ' 5 "t 6 f0r , Pi,e ' " Sh ° WS ,he raiSing ° f the b ° d ™ > ° sh °- ** .owe ring 
of the body-warp ; . shows the raising of the pile-warp ; a shows the lowering of the pile-warn 

en Ik' I r™ ^K 35 ,' inter ' aCe WitH ' he bod y str -'"« ^ ™ans of raising in both adj.' 
cent p lcks , .shows the lowering of pile-warp for four picks so as to form the pik by means of 
interlacing with the mated body-structure (not shown). 

Fig. 8 5 2rf shows the complete analysis executed in the regular double-cloth principle ordin- 
8 wa7T S, r e f T- T° rk ; * US ° n ' y rai,erS ° r Sinkers a " d "° «" tre ° r " A" and hence 

pst:?- .i^pjsr -1 '■ 2 ' 5 and 6 are for the body - arp and the -*■ 

Methods of Operation in Use for Producing Double-Pile Fabrics and the Different 

Systems of Cutting the Pile-Threads. 

cloth^rfri ^ thC beginnin ? ° f thC PreSCnt Chapter ° n dou blc-pile fabrics, both single- 
Cloth fabncs after bemg woven on the double-cloth system must be separated, or the pile cu? in 
the centre of the float from the one body-structure to the other. Two methods are in pract c 1 



198 

use for cutting this pile. First, the pile-warp is cut automatically on the loom on which it is 



■H C 



A* 



Jir 



woven, and second, the pile-warp is cut after the fabric has left the loom. 
The first method is the one most generally adopted, and the illustrations 
and explanations of some of the processes most frequently used are given. 
Fig. 853. Diagrams 853, 854, 855, 856, 857 and 858 illustrate C. R. Garratt's inven- 

tion as to the mechanism for cutting double-pile fabrics. 

Fig. 853 illustrates at M the section of the double-pile fabric, at D the section of the cutting 
knife, liberating with it both separate pile-cloths as shown at N N. 

Fig. 854 illustrates a plan-view of part of a loom having the before-mentioned arrangement 
attached. 

Fig. 855 is a front elevation, with the bracket, which supports the operating shaft as well as 
this shaft and its driving-pulley and bevel-gear, removed. 

Fig. 856 is a plan-view of the knife, showing the manner in which the cords are attached. 
Fig. 857 is the side-view of a loom (of a different make than the one before) which has the 
cutting arrangement attached. 




"'I. \ YW'!fc 




Fig. 854. 



Fig. 855. 



The letters used for indicating the different parts in these five diagrams are identical. An 
examination of the same gives us as follows : 

A illustrating the framework of a loom. 

B representing the mainshaft, journaled in the framework, and provided with a driving 
pulley. 

C is a cross-piece located at the front of the loom, provided with a groove extending across 
the loom, in which the knife D reciprocates. The main portion of the cutting-edge of this 
knife is straight, but the ends, or corners, are rounded, so that the knife will cut equally well 
when moving in either direction, while the straight cutting edge between the rounded corners is 
adapted for cutting the pile in a smooth and effectual manner through very short reciprocating 
movements of the knife. At the opposite ends of the knife cords are attached, which pass over 
pulleys F. One of these cords is attached to a spring G, 
which is secured to the floor. The other cord or wire is 
attached to a lever, which is pivoted in a bracket secured to 
the framework. This lever can be arranged to vibrate either 
by means of a cam or crank. 

In the present illustration the first mentioned arrangement is used. The acting of the cam 
upon the lever H forces the latter outward, and consequently forces the knife to the extreme 
right of the groove against the power of the spring G. The action of the spring as it contracts 
is to draw the knife to the extreme left of the groove, and at the same time to draw the lever 
inward. 




Fig. 856. 



199 



Fig. 853, as previously alluded to, illustrates at TV the two separate single pile fabrics. In 
diagram Fig. 857, the method of " taking up " these fabrics without injuring the pile is shown. 
After drawing the fabrics over the edges of the " breastbeam " of the loom, they are guided over 
two " take-up rollers," X, opposite each other, which have a roughened surface, and by which the 
fabrics are held taught and drawn backward from the knife, so that the centres of the uncut pile 
will be evenly presented for the cutting. After passing the " take-up " rollers N, the fabrics fall 
into the cloth-box 5. 

This method of keeping the fabric loose, and not tightly wound around its " take-up " or 
cloth beam as in common weaving, preserves the beauty of the pile. The previously explained 
method of operating the cutting knife may also be changed so as to have it operated on by the 
lay. This principle is illustrated in diagram Fig. 858. In this, the one cord (formerly con- 
nected to a lever) is shown attached to the lathe of the loom. This lathe is operated in any 
ordinary manner, so that the knife will be reciprocated in its guiding-groove at each throw of the 
lathe. 





Fig. 858. 




Fig. 857. 



Fig. 859 a. Fig. S596. 



Another kind of " cutting knife " is shown in Figs. 859*2 and 859/7. Fig. 859a illustrates 
the plan-view, and Fig. 859^ the section. In operating this " cutting knife " the long teeth 
enter between the two pieces of cloth while the lateral movement of the top blade cuts the 
pile-threads. In the diagram blade A, shown shaded, is the movable blade, and is situated upon 
B, the fixed blade which is shown in outline. 

Figs. 860, 861, 862, 863 and 864 illustrate a mechanism for severing double-pile fabrics in 
the loom in which it is woven, as invented by A. Bacon. 

Fig. 860 is the side-view of a loom necessary to illustrate the construction and mode of 
application of the attachment for severing the double-pile fabric produced on the loom. 

Fig. 861 is a front-view of the same loom and the cutting device, with the sharpener for the 
cutting knife removed. 

Fig. 862 is a plan-view of the same loom and the cutting device. 

Fig. 863 illustrates a perspective view of the cutting device; the sharpening attachment for 
the knife is illustrated separately, in front, and detached from its supports, so as to give a clearer 
understanding of the main features of the device. 

Fig. 864 is a transverse section (enlarged) on the line 1, 2, in Fig. 862. 



200 



The letters indicating the different parts of the cutting device, as well as the loom, are 
identical. The following description will readily show the manner in which the cutting device 

is attached to the loom. Also the method of opera- 
tion of the former, with a general description of its 
construction. 

(This device, as claimed by the inventor, can 
also be adjusted to any other kind of loom with a 
few appropriate changes, such as may be required 
by the style of loom to be adjusted.) 

Parallel with the breastbeam of the loom (see 
A in drawings) and a short distance in front of it is 
a bar B, which is carried by projecting brackets X, 
and forms a guide for a slide D, the latter carrying 
a stud, on which is free to turn a spur-wheel a, to 
the upper face of which is secured a circular cutter 
F. This spur-wheel engages with a rack b, which 
is secured to the upper face of the guide-bar B, so 
that as the slide D is caused to reciprocate trans- 
versely in the guide a rapid rotary motion, first in 
one direction and then in the opposite direction, 
will be imparted to the cutting-disk F One end 
of the slide D is connected to one end of a belt G, 
which passes around pulleys d, supported on the 
frame of the loom. The opposite end of this belt is 
connected to a stud/, projecting from one of the links of a chain-belt H, adapted to sprocket-wheels 
/.mounted upon studs g 2 , secured to and projecting from the loom-frame. A similar belt G, passing 




Fig. 860. 




Fig. 861. 



around like pulleys d, serves to connect the opposite end of the slide D to the stud /, so that 
when r-otary motion is imparted to the sprocket-wheels / the stud /, traveling with the belt H, 



201 

will, through the medium of the belts G, impart a transverse reciprocating movement to the slide 
D, and thus cause the cutter i^to pass to and fro through the web of fabric, so as to cut the pile- 
threads and separate the compound fabric into two single fabrics, each having a cut-pile surface. 
In order to insure uniform cutting of the pile, the movement of the slide and its cutter must 
be smooth and steady, as any jarring or jerking of the slide or cutter causes irregularity in the 




Fig. 862. 

cut and unevenness in the length of pile on the fabrics produced. This smooth and steady move- 
ment is secured by means of the driving mechanism shown ; there is a gradual dimunition in the 
speed of the slide at and near each end of its traverse and a gradual acceleration of speed as it 
starts on the return movement. 

Rolls J* J, between which projects the cutting edge of the knife F, are acted upon so as to 
press the rolls J J toward each other and into contact with the opposite sides of the knife. 




Fig. 863. 



Fig. S64. 



The rolls J are coated with abrading material, and extend throughout the traverse of 
the knife, so that the cutting-edge of the latter is at all times under the sharpening influence of 
the rolls, and a keen edge is thereby maintained. (This cutting device can also be used, applied 
to a machine for cutting double pile fabrics after the woven cloth has left the 'loom, instead of 
being used directly in connection with the loom in which the fabric is woven.) 



202 

Drawings Figs. 865, 866, 867, 868, 869, 870, 871, 872 and 873, represent C. Pearson's inven- 
tion for cutting on the loom double pile velvets and similar pile fabrics during the weaving 
process. 

The invention of the present system for separating the double pile fabric into two separate 
single pile fabrics, consists in employing two pile-severing knives, which are caused to travel 
laterally, each a distance only half the width of the fabric, in a transverse guide-plate or race. 

The letters of reference in the drawings denote like parts in the several views given. 





jk 




Fig. 865. 

Fig. 865 represents a side elevation of part of a loom for weaving double pile fabrics. The 
drawing also illustrates one of the " knife carriages " with its actuating mechanism, and part of 
the sharpening mechanism adjacent to it with a part of its actuating mechanism. Fig. 866 is a 
front view of part of the loom. Fig. 867 illustrates a transverse vertical section of the grooved 
race-bar; also one of the cutting-knives mounted in its carriage, and one set of the sharpening- 
rollers with its frame or " housing." 





Fig. 866. 



Fig. 867. 



Fig. 868 is, partly, a sectional front-view of a pair of the sharpening-rollers mounted in their 
frame with a portion of the velvet rail or cutting bar. 

Fig. 869 is a top-view of the transversely grooved guide-plate or race-bar in which the 
knife-carriages are reciprocated, and the parallel supporting-bar in which the fabric is cut by the 
laterally-traveling knives. 

Fig. 870 is an enlarged view of the parts at one end of Fig. 869, showing the transversely 
grooved race-bar, a knife-carriage with its knife, and the stopping mechanism in the race-bar. 



203 

Fig. 871 is a cross-section view of the velvet delivery rollers, one of the pile severing knives 
and the supporting bars, showing the relative position of these several parts * ' 

the ouSdf " " tranSVCrSe SCCti0n ° f thG inSidS ° f that Part ° f thG lo ° m Sh0wn in ^g. 865 from 

of JJ g ' \ 3 I" I tn \ nSV6rSe S6Ctional view of the loom, showing the location and arrangement 
of the crank-shaft and connecting-gear, one of the pulley-wheels, and the sharpening mechanism 
with its actuating mechanism for one of the knives. mecnanism 





Fig. 868. 



Fig. 870. 

drawls Tjl L1 t 0P :f-°V nd P ™ Cip,e ° f const ™ rt ion <* the cutting-device is illustrated by 
arawings i^igs. 865 to 873 inclusive. y 

By means of the double cam C, operating the rack-bar and cog-gearing, alternate partial 

band, Th" I *T tio " are giVe " t0 thC P«"^-wheel F, to which afe secured two co'd o 

bands, the other end of each of which is attached to the - knife-carriage," one eord on one side 
and one on the other s.de thereof, so as, by the alternate partial revolutions of the pul.ey-whee in 




Fig. 871. 




Fig. 872. 



opposite directions, to pull the carriage backward and forward transversely aW the Grooved 
guide-plate or race of the loom. A similar set of cords and a knife-carriage are provided for 
each side of the loom, both knife-carriages moving in the same guide-plate alternately each only 
about half the distance across, and each alternating in its lateral travel from side to centre of the 
race-plate. 

Transversely across the frame of the loom are arranged two bars or rails R and 5 their 
relative positions being as shown in Fig. 869, the former being merely a bar or rail supporting 



204 

the double pile fabric while it is being severed in two through the pile by the laterally-moving 
cutting-knives. Bar R is recessed near each of its ends (see Figs. 868 and 869) to admit of the 
insertion and support therein of the housings for the sharpening-rollers, and so that the upper and 
lower sharpening-rollers shall come alternately in contact with the upper and lower sides, res- 
pectively, of the knife-blade, as shown in Fig. 867. 

The bar 6" is a grooved transverse guide-plate recessed at each of its ends, to hold two sets 
of friction-rollers, over which the knife-actuating cords pass to the corresponding pulley-wheel F> 
and having one wide groove its entire length, serving as a race for the knife-carriages T T. At 
the bottom of this groove are two smaller parallel grooves, extending to the recesses at each end 
of the plate, and within which the knife-cords are moved. Two cross-bars, I and 2, are secured 
to the bar 5 at each end, supporting a guide-rod, 6, having an enlarged inner end, which serves 
as a stopper for the knife-carriage, and upon the rod 6 are placed two pieces of india-rubber 
tubing, 4 and 5, and between them a metal band, 3, which may be slipped along the rod against 





""."DDT 



Fig. 873. 



Fig. 874. 



the tubing and fastened tight at any point thereon by a set-screw. By this arrangement the 
rubber tubing acts as an elastic cushion for the stopper-rod and in turn for the knife-carriage. 
The movable metal band also permits of lateral adjustment of the stopper-rod, thereby producing 
a variation in the resistance encountered by the knife-carriage. This mechanism is shown in 
detail in Figs. 869 and 870, the latter showing only one end of the bar S, the other end containing 
similar mechanism for the other knife-carriage. 

The knife K, to cut the connecting pile latterly between the two backings, is secured in a 
holder, K' , mounted in a carriage, T, moving laterally in the large groove of the race-bar S 
backward and forward half the length of the bar, from about its centre to its either end, by means 
of the pulley and cords before mentioned. The end of the knife-holder K' swings upon a cross- 
bar, passing through it and having its bearings in the carriage T. A spring is coiled around this 
cross-bar on either side, with its ends fastened to the carriage, so that the tendency is to press the 
knife-blade down upon the supporting-bar R, or upon the velvet resting thereon, and cause the 
knife to travel in its reciprocating motion in a straight line and cut the pile evenly. 



205 

Each knife-carriage is provided with two pulley-cords — fastened one at each end thereof, one 
cord passing from the right-hand carriage over the friction roller at that end of the bar ^ to and 
partially around the pulley-wheel F in one direction, and has its end knotted in the periphery 
thereof. The other cord, fastened to the other end of the knife-carriage, passes along one of the 
small grooves in the bar 5 to the other or left-hand end thereof, where it passes over a similar 
friction-roller and back under the bar 6" to another friction-roller, 7, and thence to and partially 
around the pulley-wheel F, (in an opposite direction from the other cord) to which it is fastened. 
A like set of cords are arranged for the other or left-hand knife-carriage. This arrangement 
causes the knife-carriages to be moved backward and forward in the carriage-race when and as 
the pulley-wheels wind up either cord successively ; the wheels being turned by means of the 
mechanism operated by the cam C. 

Upper and lower velvet-rollers L'L', Fig. 871, suitably mounted in the frame of the loom, take 
up the two pieces of pile fabric cut apart through the connecting pile by the laterally- reciprocating 
knives K, and draw forward the uncut double pile fabric to the traveling knives as it is deliv- 
ered over and upon the velvet-rail or cutting-bar R. These rollers L'L' are geared together and 
actuated by a worm, to which motion is communicated from the picking shaft, or any other suit- 
able actuating mechanism. 

Machine for Cutting Double Pile Fabrics After Leaving the Loom. 

As previously mentioned in the chapter on double pile fabrics, in some instances the separat- 
ing of both pile cloths is not done in the loom during the process of weaving, but a separate 
machine is necessary for cutting the fabric afterwards. In using such a cutting device for separa- 
ting both cloths the former must produce a suitable feeding and tension upon the fabric during 
the operation so as to divide the pile-threads midway between the two "body-structures" (backs). 
As the length of pile in any such fabric is not always uniform, it is difficult to maintain the 
cutting line midway between the webs, and in order to avoid the risk of cutting into the fabrics at 
places where the weaving is irregular it is necessary to use a longer pile than would otherwise 
be required, thus consuming more material than is needed for the finished fabric, and also requir- 
ing the divided fabric to be "shorn" (afterward) to a greater extent than would otherwise be 
necessary. 

An invention, lately patented by J. A. Campbell of Philadelphia, is designed to obviate these 
difficulties by making the straining-bars, over which the newly-divided fabrics are drawn, self- 
adjusting and self-centering, so that, whether the original double pile fabric be thick or thin, the 
dividing-line shall always be midway between the two fabrics. 

Diagram Fig. 874 is a side-view of that portion of a machine which has this improvement 
attached. 

The method of operation is made fully comprehensible by the following explanations given 
with reference to the letters used in the diagram. 

At h is shown the double pile fabric passing in between the plates B' B 2 , and at g is shown 
a section of the dividing-knife, while at i and k are shown the divided fabrics passing off. 

The operation of the device is as follows : The uncut fabric, being drawn in at h by the 
action of any suitable feeding mechanism, passes between the plates or jaws B' IP, and is 
divided by the knife g, after which the divided fabrics pass off at i and /', being drawn taut by 
suitable winding mechanism. The springs c c, being adjusted to a proper tension by the thumb- 
nuts d d, tend to draw the jaws or plates B' B 2 together, and so the fabric which is being divided 
is held firmly between the said jaws B' B 2 during the operation of cutting. The divided fabrics 
i and k, being drawn taut, tend to draw the jaws B' B 2 apart ; but this tendency is resisted by the 
springs c c. As the toothed segments C C 2 are firmly fastened to the jaws B' B 2 , it follows 



206 

that any motion of the jaw B' will be communicated to the toothed segment C, and from thence 
through the toothed segment C 2 to the jaw B 2 , and so any motion of the jaw B' , to or from the 
cutting-line, will be accompanied by a corresponding motion of the jaw B 2 . If, from any irregu- 
larity in weaving, the two fabrics of the double pile fabrics are closer together or farther apart at 
various points than the normal distance, the jaws B'B 2 will press together or be forced apart, but 
always to an equal extent, and hence the two webs will always be kept at an equal distance from 
the cutting-line, no matter how irregular their distance from each other may be. 

Weaving Two, Three or more Narrow Widths or Pieces of Double Pile Fabrics at once. 

The weaving of two or more narrow widths of double pile fabrics, side by side, in a broad 
loom, also requires the production "of fast selvages for each special narrow width. For this pur- 
pose we must form two adjacent selvages with fast edges at any desired part of the width, both of 
the upper and lower cloths of the double pile fabric, as also selvages in the upper cloth imme- 
diately above the selvages in the lower cloth. To form a fast edge to each inner selvage, a warp 
binding-thread to cross with the outermost warp of the selvage and becoming knit together 
therewith must be employed. Any desired number of fast inner selvages may be formed in this 
way in the width, so that the fabric may be divided into widths of any required size by cutting 






Fig. 875. 



Fig. 876. 





Fig. 877. 

both the upper and lower cloths lengthwise between the pairs of fast selvage edges, which have 
been made in these cloths. 

The construction of such " fast " selvages, properly belonging to the division on gauze or 
cross-weaving, will be explained later on. 

Diagram Fig. 875 illustrates a perspective view of a short length of a double pile fabric 
woven face to face, with fast inner selvages. 

Diagram Fig. 876 shows a perspective view of one-half of this fabric when the pile has been 
severed and the upper cloth separated from the lower cloth. 

Diagram Fig. 877 shows two separated pieces, obtained by dividing the fabric shown at 
diagram 876 longitudinally between the fast selvages which are formed in it. In these diagrams U 
is the upper cloth, L is the lower and P is the pile. 

The two parallel lines 55, which run lengthwise of each cloth, represent the fast edges of the 
inner selvages. 

Let-off Mechanism for the Pile Warp for Weaving Double Pile Fabrics. 

In double velvet weaving there is one great difficulty to contend with, namely, to keep the 
two pieces of cloth an equal distance apart. To do this a regular supplying, guiding and deliver- 
ing of pile-warp is required, otherwise any additional strains would draw the two pieces nearer 
together, and the pile would be irregular. 



20T 

Diagrams Figs. 878^, 878^ and 879 illustrate the arrangement for effecting the letting-off, 
supporting, guiding and delivering of the pile-warp, and represent C. Pearson's Patent. 

Fig. 878.2 illustrates a side elevation of that part of a loom containing the necessary 
mechanism as mentioned. 

Fig. 878^ is a detached view of some of the parts and taken from Fig. 878^:. 

Fig. 879 is a diagram showing the arrangement and position of the several rollers and parts 
■constituting this mechanism. 

The letters indicating the different parts in this mechanism are as follows : A represents the 
frame of a loom. G and H are the beams containing the pile-warp. The latter threads are 
delivered from these to a guide-roller R, secured in the frame of the loom, and thence to a pair of 
metal rollers, C C, turned perfectly true and covered with cloth, plush, or other like rough-surface 
material, in order to create friction between the surface of the roller and the warp-threads. These 
rollers are mounted upon shafts having bearings in a bracket bolted to the frame of the loom. 
They are independently rotated toward each other with unvarying uniformity and precision by 
means of worm-wheels d d on the axes thereof, which engage with two screws, F F, one for each 





Fig. 878*. 




Fig. 878a 



Fig. 879. 



roller, one being a left-hand screw and the other a right-hand screw, on a horizontal shaft, E, 
which has its bearings in brackets XX, also secured to the side of the frame A. One end of 
this shaft E is provided with a beveled gear-wheel, which engages with a similar beveled gear-wheel 
on the end of the picking-shaft D, and is thus continuously driven. The other end of shaft E bears 
against a rod, L, in the bracket X, provided with jam-nuts, in order thereby to secure desired 
pressure against the shaft and its actuating-wheel, more especially when actuated by friction as a 
substitute for the gear-wheels shown. The pile warp-threads are delivered directly from the guide- 
roller R to one of the metal rollers C, and under and around the same, and from thence in like 
manner under and around the other roller, C, these rollers rotating toward each other, and from 
the last-mentioned roller £7 the pile-warp is carried to a second guide-roller, S, supported horizon- 
tally in the frame A, and is from thence taken up by vertical rods Y, held up by pull-springs IV, 
to support the warp in its passage to the heddles, and to create the necessary tension thereon to 
hold the same taut. 

Carrying the pile warp-threads to a point over the main rollers C the loose waste driven off 
by the operation will drop onto the warp after passing the second roller, C, injuring the pile-warp 
and clogging the mechanism. To prevent this, a shield, T, is arranged over the second roller, C, 



208 

consisting of a flat tin or other suitable plate extending from side to side of the loom and secured 
to its frame. 

Another arrangement for delivering the pile warp in looms for weaving double pile fabrics has 
been lately invented by Mr. Fred. Pearson. This invention consists of a mechanism for the proper 
feeding of the pile warp into the harness, and is placed in such a position in the loom as to pre- 
vent any fibres or other substances, which may be freed from the warp yarn as it passes over the 
mechanism (friction rollers), from falling into the latter, and thus injuring the warp-yarn as well as 
clogging the mechanism. Another advantage Mr. Pearson assigns to his invention is the means 
provided by which this feeding mechanism can be easily thrown out of action, so as to allow 
the weaving of the ordinary close-stitched double-cloth required for the weaving of a proper 
heading at the beginning and ending of each cut. The mechanism is also arranged to permit a 
quick and correct changing of the amount of pile warp to be delivered, as regulated by the height 
of pile required for the fabrics woven, by substituting a smaller or larger worm-wheel upon the 
axle of the main roll. 

Diagrams Figs. 880 and 881 illustrate this mechanism. 

Fig. 880 is a side elevation of the rear part of a loom or attachment to a common cam- 
loom, and embodying Mr. Pearson's invention. 

Fig. 881 is a sectional elevation, showing the delivering of pile warps (from two beams) and 





Fig. 880. 



Fig. 881. 



the direction of the running off of the ground warps (from one beam). The respective parts with 
the letters of references given (the same for both Figs.) will in a great measure explain the 
modus operandi. 

A represents the beam for the ground-warps; B and C, the beams for the pile warps ; E and 
H, the guide-rollers; .Fand G, the main or friction-rollers, whose axes are mounted in open 
bearings in an adjustable bracket N, attached to and mounted upon the main frame of the loom. 

The axis of the lower friction-roller is provided at one end with a worm-wheel which gears 
into a worm P on one end of a horizontal shaft, which is driven by gear wheels R and S. Upon 
the opposite ends of the axes of the friction-rolls are mounted gear wheels V X, which gear into 
each other. J represents the harness frames. 

An examination of Fig. 881, with regard to the direction of running the pile warps and 
ground warps of the fabric, gives us as follows : 

The pile warp-threads, upon the beams B and C, are, together, carried over the guide roll E, 
under and around the main roll F, and around the main roll G, under the guide-roll H, and over 
the horizontal yielding, or spring-supported rods / contained in the vertical guides K, and are 
thence run to the heddles. The ground warp-threads upon beam A are carried over supporting 
or guide-rollers a b to the harness-frames. 

At the beginning of the description of this invention we mentioned that a part of the claim 
was based upon allowing a quick changing from pile weaving to a weaving of regular close- 



209 

stitched double- cloth used as headings for the fabrics. This is accomplished by shifting lever T 
to the right (z. e., towards the rear of the loom), thus elevating friction-roller F and its worm- 
wheel, carrying the latter out of contact or gear with the worm P, whereby the revolution of the 
main rollers .Fand G will be discontinued and the feeding of pile warp-threads to the heddles 
will be stopped. 

Another method for arranging the beams for pile warps and ground warps in the loom in 
weaving double plush is that used by Mr. R. H. Patton. In looms of his construction the beam 
carrying the ground warp is situated in the rear part of the frame, as built in addition to his 
regular cam loom for operating the harness. The beams carrying the pile warps rest in the 
upper middle part of said frame. To give a clearer understanding diagram Fig. 882 has been 
designed. In this A indicates the side of the frame previously alluded to, B the beam carrying 
the ground warp, and C and D the beams for both sets of pile warps. In the present style of 
arranging the beams for the pile warp and guiding those warps in their run to the delivering 




Fig. 882. 



rollers H G, and from there to the respective harness, one great advantage over that of the pre- 
viously shown methods will be readily noticed, i. e., that the pile warps are delivered to their 
respective heddles without crossing the ground system, and consequently any possible chafing is 
avoided. The ground warp for the upper cloth in the loom passes from the warp beam B over 
stationary guide-roller E towards the harness frames; this set of threads being indicated by letter 
a. The other set of ground warps required for the lower cloth passes from beam B below guide 
roll Fand from there direct to the respective harness frames. This set of ground or body warp 
has been indicated by the letter d. The two sets of pile warp, one from beam C and one from 
beam D, are guided from their respective beams into the delivering rollers G and H. The lower 
roller {H) is covered with a fine sand-paper, while the one above is covered with a plush fabric. 
After leaving the delivering rollers one set of the pile threads is passed over guide-roll J and 
below guide-roller L, and the other set below guide-roller K. Each of these two guide-rollers is 
adjusted to a lever which is on one extreme end connected with the loom frame and on the oppo- 
site end has adjusted a spring which is fastened to the floor. These springs will greatly assist in 



210 

easing up the "beating home" of the pile warp. The let-off of the pile warp is regulated by 
sproked gears adjustable to the axis of the delivering roller H and gets the motion from the 
"take-up" by means of a chain belt. The present method of delivering pile warps allows the 
harness in the front part of the loom to be arranged for an extremely high pile, i. e., the keeping 
of the two sets of ground warp — ground cloth — as far apart as possible. 

The bracket for holding guide-roller F can also be applied to the centre standard of 
the frame. 

Double Pile Fabrics Made with a Proportionally Higher Pile. 

In some double pile fabrics a greater length of pile may be required than the one which can 
be produced on a common loom. To overcome this difficulty James, Fred, and George Priestley 
have lately invented an improvement on the lay, suitable to be adopted for any loom. To secure a 
proportionally higher pile their patent advises the cutting away of a large portion of the solid part of 
the lay and inserting small steel plates set upon edge. Each plate reaches across the cut-out part 
of the lay, and the tops of all the steel plates are in a line and carry the shuttle when in operation. 
The warp-threads of the bottom fabric drop into the spaces between the steel plates and are well 
out of the way of the shuttle when the top or upper fabric is being woven, and at the same time 
the pile-threads are kept tight and at full stretch between the two fabrics. 



~© 



• fii i"Ti n i in nit Mm. 



Fig. 8S3^. 



d 



1 



Fig. 883a. 



Fig. 883r. 



Diagram Fig. 883a: illustrates the sectional side-elevation of a portion of the lay of a common 
loom which is fitted up with such steel plates. 

Fig. 883b represents an elevation of the latter, and Fig. 883^ illustrates a plan of a portion of 
the same. 

Figured Double Pile Fabrics. 

Double pile fabrics are also produced by means of the Jacquard machine. Various methods 
of operation as well as different makes of looms exist for effecting this process. 

Diagrams Figs. 884 to 891 illustrate a specimen of such a loom and the method of 
operation for weaving figured double pile fabrics, which was invented and patented by T. J. 
Shuttleworth. 

The said diagrams illustrate a loom for weaving figured double pile fabrics for operating the 
pile-threads whereby on the rise of the Jacquard lifter-board any desired pile-thread may be drawn 
down from the upper warp into the lower fabric or drawn up from the lower warp into the upper 
fabric, so as to produce two fabrics having a corresponding figure. 

In diagrams Figs. 884, 885 and 886 the method of interlacing the two fabrics is clearly 
demonstrated. 

Fig. 887 represents a loom showing sufficient to give one a proper understanding. 



211 

Figs. 888 and 889 are diagrams illustrating the operation of the heddles controlling the 
ground warp-threads. 

Figs. 890 and 891 illustrate the operation of the heddles controlling the pile warp-threads. 
Each of the fabrics has a number of pile-warps (indicated x) and two sets of ground backing threads 
(see y), the number of pile-warps depending upon the number of colors in the pattern to be 
produced. 

The operation of weaving the fabric will be understood upon reference to Figs. 884, 885 and 
886. In Fig. 884 the threads are represented as they appear after the figuring pile-warps have 
been drawn from the upper to the lower and the lower to the upper fabric and bound in by picks 1, 
all of the upper pile-warps being then elevated and the lower pile-warps depressed and the ground 
or backing warps of each fabric crossed, so as to form upper and lower sheds for the insertion of 



* » 4 




Fig. 884. 




Fig. 885. 





Fig. 886. 



Fig. 887. 



the binder picks 2, which are thrown in and beaten up and the ground-warps of each fabric then 
again crossed, as shown in Fig. 885, to form sheds for the binder picks 3, and after throwing in 
these picks the ground-warps of each fabric are again crossed to form upper and lower sheds, all 
of the upper pile-warps except those for the figure being lowered to the level of the bottom of the 
upper shed, and all of the lower pile-warps except those for the figure being raised to the level of 
the top of the lower shed, as shown in Fig. 886. 

Such of the upper pile-warps as are necessary to form the figure are drawn down into the 
lower shed; and such of the lower pile-warps as the figure demands are lifted into the upper shed, 
as shown in Fig. 886, preparatory to throwing in the binder picks which confine said figuring 
pile-threads on the backs of the fabric; the operations being then repeated. As shown in the 
drawings, accompanying these explanations, such of the pile-warps as are necessary to form the 



212 

figures are drawn across from one fabric to the other on every third pick ; but, if desired, only 
one binder pick may be put in on the face of the fabric between successive tufts of the pile. The 
mechanism for effecting the movements of the threads which we described, is shown in Fig. 887. 
The heddles which control the ground warp-threads have double eyes, as shown in Figs. 888 and 
889. The threads of the upper fabric pass through the upper eyes of the heddles, and the 
threads of the lower fabric through the lower eyes, these eyes being so related and the lift of the 
heddles being such as to effect the proper formation of the upper and lower sheds. Each of the 
pile-warps is controlled by a harness thread connected to one of the needles of the Jacquard, 
(see Figs. 890 and 891) and passing through the usual notched eye in the lifter board, above the 
Jacquard needles, each harness-thread having a knot above the lifter-board, so that when the 
thread is adjusted by the needle to bring this knot over a notch of the board, this knot and that 

















































Fig. 



Fig. 889. 




Fig. 890. 



Fig. 891. 



portion of the thread in which it is formed will be lifted by the board as it rises, there being no 
lift of those threads the knots of which remain in line with the eyes of the lifter-board. 

The movement of the entire body of warps, except those necessary to form the figure, is 
effected by comber-boards g and h, Figs. 890 and 891, the upper of which, in the present instance, 
acts upon knots upon the harness-threads of the pile-warps of the lower fabric, while the lower 
board acts upon knots upon the harness-threads of the pile-warps of the upper fabric, and these 
boards are caused to move toward and apart from each other, so that on the rise of the upper 
board, g, all of the pile-warps of the lower fabric, except the figure-warps, will be lifted from the 
position shown in Figs. 884 and 885 to that shown in Fig. 886, the descent of the lower board, k, 
causing the corresponding pile-warps of the upper fabric to drop to the same extent. The 
comber-boards remain separated while the binding-shots 1 are being thrown in, after which they 
are drawn together, so as to restore the warps under their control to the positions shown in Figs. 
884 and 885. 

Such of the pile- warps as are desired to form the figure are by means of the Jacquard brought 



213 

under control of the lifter-board, which has a movement in excess of that imparted to the comber- 
boards, so that the figuring pile-warps will be carried up or down into the opposite fabric. 

The figuring-threads of the lower pile-warp are simply elevated by the action of the lifter- 
board as the latter rises in the usual manner; but it is necessary to transform this rising move- 
ment of the lifter-board into a downward movement of the figuring-threads of the upper pile- 
warp; hence each of the harness-threads of the upper pile-warps must be passed around a pulley 
or other bearing so as to double it back upon itself, pass it again through the eye of the lifter- 
board, and connect it at the lower end to a strip m, Figs. 890 and 891, of rubber or other elastic 
material, secured to the guide-board n below the Jacquard apparatus. The lifter-board acts upon 
a knot on this returned portion of the harness-thread, so that the lift of the board serves to stretch 
the spring and permit the drop of the weighted portion of the harness-thread which controls the 




If 
i 



J 

% 

2 

<x. 



i 



T\ 



\ 



1 



i 







i 










G 



I 



I 



WW* 



iawx • 



JJJS* 









am 



1A.1B. £A.£B.3A. 3B. tk. HB. 5A-5B. 6A.6B. ZA.1B. &A.8B- 

Fig. 892. 



4 



* 



P. 



■8.1 

•1. 
6. 

5 

■4 

3 

■Z 
■ 1 



A 



K. 



warp-thread, this warp-thread being lifted on the descent of the board by reason of the contraction 
of the spring m, which exerts a force considerably in excess of the weight. 

The lifter-board of the Jacquard is operated by a cam on a shaft, the cam acting on a slide 
which is connected by a rod to a lever connected to the lifter-board by a rod. 

The comber-boards are operated by another cam on the shaft mentioned before, this cam 
acting on a slide which is connected by a rod to a lever, and by another rod to an arm; the lever 
before mentioned being connected by a rod to the upper comber-board, and the arm also previ- 
ously mentioned is connected by a rod to the lower comber-board, so that the desired movements 
of both comber-boards towards and from each other are effected. 

The principle thus far explained of weaving these double pile fabrics can also be used in 
connection with a Jacquard apparatus in which griffe-bars are used in place of an eyed and notched 
lifter-board, and hooks are used instead of knots in the harness. 



214 

Figured Double Plush Produced upon a Jacquard Machine Containing a Stationary and a 
Raising "Griffe" and also a Lowering {Falling) "Grate" or " Rester." 

Mr. T. Halton has lately applied for a patent for a Jacquard machine for weaving "figured 
double pile fabrics',' which is very simple and effective in its method of construction. This 
machine resembles to a certain extent a double-lift double-cylinder Jacquard machine used in 
weaving damasks, dress-goods, etc. This new Jacquard machine has also two sets of griffe-bars 
(similar to the double-lift double-cylinder), but only one set raises while the other remains 






o. 



TfF 



■ 



r 

Fig. 893^. 





Fig. 893^. 



Fig. 893 C 



stationary. The " grate " or " rester " for the hooks in the new machine is arranged to lower 
simultaneously when the previously mentioned griffe raises, and again raises to its starting-point 
as soon as the griffe lowers to its point of starting. The cylinders of the Jacquard machine for 
weaving figured double pile fabrics are operated on at the same time, while the cylinders of the 
Jacquard machine, known as " double-lift double-cylinders," are operated on alternately. 

To give a clearer illustration of the construction of the machine, Fig. 892 has been designed. 
It represents the section of a four-hundred Jacquard machine for weaving figured double pile 
fabrics. 



215 





At the point indicated by A, one vertical row of one set of needles is shown (E — needle 
board, D = spring box). At B one vertical row of the second set of needles is shown {C = 
needle board, F = spring box). 

a represents sections of stationary griffe-bars (shown shaded) ; b represents sections of 
raising griffe-bars (shown in black) ; H represents sections of the grate or rester (for holding the 
hooks in the required position and also for guiding the latter in their lowering, if not called for by 
either one of the griffe-bars). 

Hooks i A and i B have their neck-cords connected to the same leash. (Also 2 A and 2 B; 
3 A and 3 B ; 4 A and 4 B, etc.) 

Figs. 893 A, B, C, D and E illustrate 
the modus operandi of the machine and its 
harness. Two hooks, operating the same 
warp-threads, are used for illustrating the 
principle. Letters of reference indicate 
like parts in each diagram. 

g-l and h-m are the previously men- 
tioned two hooks; e—f\ho. needle for oper- 
ating the hook g-l; c-d the needle for 
operating the hook h-m; a is the station- 
ary griffe-bar ; b is the raising griffe-bar ; 
l-n and m-n are the neck-cords ; / is the 
heddle eye ; r and s the double shed re- 
quired ; q the lingo, and the last woven 
part of the fabric. 

Diagram Fig. 893^ shows the hooks 
at rest; or in a position similar to that in 
Fig. 892 (the complete section of a 400- 
machine) ; thus the warps will rest in the 
loom in the position shown by the full 
line o-p-t, or in the centre. 

Diagrams Fig. 893 B and C illustrate 
the raising of a warp-thread in the upper 
section of the top shed (r). (See full line 
o-p-l.) In diagram 893^ this is accom- 
plished by punching a hole in the cards 
for needle c, and none in the other card at 
the place where needle e strikes. Conse- 
quently hook h-m, not operated on by its 
needle (hole in card), will be caught by 
the ascending griffe b, and in turn raise 
the warp-threads by means of the harness 
cord in the upper section of the top shed (r). (See full line o-p-t.) The hook g-l, which is 
thrown backwards by reason of its mate needle e having no hole cut in the card, is thus placed 
out of reach of the stationary griffe-bar and descends with the lowering of the rester i until it 
reaches the base, as shown in the present diagram. This, consequently, will have no effect upon 
the warp-thread, and nothing else will be produced but the slackening of the corresponding 
neckcord l-n, as represented in the diagram. 

In diagram Fig. 893 C the same effect (as in Fig. 893Z?) for the warp-thread (or its raising into 
the upper section of the top shed is produced by having two holes cut for both needles (for needle e 




t. 



1* 

Fig. 893 D. 



i 



°k 



Fig. 893^. 



216 

in the card of the other set). Cutting a hole for needle e will leave hook g-l in its vertical posi- 
tion and the crook of the hook will be caught by the stationary griffe, which will hold it during 
the downward movement of the rester. The movement of hook h-m and its result upon the 
corresponding warp-threads being the same as in the previously explained diagram, the only 
difference between adopting either plan B or C, is the lesser amount of slackening of the neck- 
cord l-n which is out of action in using the plan as illustrated by diagram C. 

Diagram 893Z? shows the warp-thread in the lower section of the bottom shed s. (See full 
line o-p-l) This movement is accomplished by cutting no hole for either needle in its correspond- 
ing place in the card, consequently throwing off each hook from either griffe, which will result 
in the lowering of both hooks by means of rester bars i and k. 

Diagram Fig. 893^ shows the method of operation necessary if a warp-thread is required 
to remain in the centre, thus forming the bottom of the upper shed r and the top of the lower shed s. 
In this case no hole must be cut in the card for needle c, and a hole in the card from the other set 
for needle e to penetrate. Hook g-l will thus remain over the stationary griffe-bar (a) while the 
mate hook h-m has its crook thrown out of reach of the raising griffe b, and consequently descends 
with the lowering of the rester. 

TERRY PILE FABRICS 

In which the Pile is Produced During Weaving Without the Aid of Wires. 

Pile fabrics in which the pile-threads are raised without the aid of wires are fabrics known as 
"Turkish toweling" and certain kinds of scarfs used for ornamentation on chairs, bureaus, etc. 
In the manufacture of these fabrics two (or more) warp-beams are required — one to carry the 
"pile- warp" for the formation of the loop and the other to carry the "ground-warp" for forming 
the body of the fabric. 

Method of Operation for Producing the "Loop" or "Terry" Pile. 

In the process of weaving a terry fabric the upper or terry series of warps is weighted lighter 
than the lower or body series, for the purpose of allowing the loops to be formed on the surface 
by the lay swinging or being driven fully up to the body already manufactured after several or 
one or two picks of the filling have been shot from the shuttle and but partially beaten up, those 
picks having in the meantime so tightened upon the upper or "terry" warps that the latter are 
forced with them by the full beat fully up, and thereby forming the pile loops or terry. 




<m m> x ®x® m ~m mx®_ 

Fig. 894a. Fig. 894*. 

The three (or more) picks so interwoven will have slid on the ground-warp, which remains 
tight during the entire process of weaving. 

To illustrate the method of operation more clearly Figs. 89412 and 894^ have been designed. 

In Fig. 894a the pick, indicated by o, represents the edge of the cloth. At the first stroke of 
the lay the first pick, 1, is not driven home. At the second stroke the second pick, 2, is driven 
against the first pick, 1, and no further; but the third pick, 3, is driven home towards o. This 
pick will in turn naturally take picks 1 and 2 along, pressing them up against the finished edge 
of the cloth (o). 

The pile or "terry" warp will thus form the loops s, as shown in Fig. 894^. 



217 

Fig. 895*2 illustrates the drawing-in draft for the regular terry cloth. Harness 1 and 2 are 
for the pile, harness 3 and 4 for the ground-warp. Fig. 895^ represents the weave or harness- 
chain for the above illustrated drawing-in draft. 

To give a more perfect understanding of the method of operation in the present style of terry 
weaving, Figs. 896, 897 and 898 are designed, illustrating the operation of a terry loom patented 
by Messrs. Holt & Mellor. 

Fig. 896 is a cross-sectional elevation of part of a terry loom necessary for properly illus- 
trating the explanations to follow. 

Fig. 897 is a plan-view of the same. 



l»H. 



*~ T. IGtoh.a.«L 
— 3 f 



JT«» 



Fig. 895a. 



U,*u 



Fig. 895^. 



Fig. 898 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the upper part of the lay and the breastbeam. 

The operation is as follows : When the cam D (see Fig. 897) does not raise the lever E, the 
frame remains lowered, as do also the arms L, and when the lay swings toward the breastbeam 
the outer ends of the arms L come in contact with the inner ends of the screws N (see Figs. 896 
and 897), whereby the arms L will be pushed in the inverse direction of the movement of the 
lay — that is, in the direction of the arrow b' — thereby swinging backward the reed and pre- 
venting it from driving the last pick home — that is, preventing the reed from driving the last 
pick against the finished edge of the cloth; but if the cam D raises the lever iithe frame i^will 
be moved upward and the arms L will be raised so that their shoulders engage with the face of 




N 



* 



m 



* 



*¥ 



r^^S 



\T 



Sr 



4ff 



\J 



T 



Fig. 896. 



Fig. 897. 



3 




Fig. 898. 



the lay, and the free ends of the arms L will be raised to such an extent that they will pass over 
the beveled ends of the screws N, and the bar^, or lower part of the reed, will not be pressed in 
the direction of the arrow b', thus permitting the reed to drive the last pick home, as represented 
in diagram Fig. 898. 

The loom can also be so constructed as to drive the second, third, fourth, fifth or sixth pick 
home, as may be desired, and according to the number of loops desired in the fabric. The length 
of the loops is adjusted by means of the screws N, for the farther the screws project from the 
breastbeam the greater will be the distance that the bar/ is swung back, and thus the greater 
will be the distance between the finished edge of the cloth and the first pick. 



218 

Diagrams Figs. 899, 900, 901 and 902 illustrate the principle of construction and the opera- 
tion of a loom for weaving terry fabrics patented by N. A. Woodhead. 

Fig. 899 is an end or cross-sectional elevation of the loom with the movable journal-boxes 
and crank-shaft thrown fully back, as when partially beating up the filling. 

Fig. 900 is a cross-sectional elevation of it without the gear-wheels, showing the journal- 
boxes and crank-shaft thrown forward and the lay forced fully up. 

Fig. 901 is a top view. Fig. 902 is a detail view showing one of the journal boxes and part 
of its supporting lever, its adjusting screw, and the device for locking the lever and box in a 





Fig. 899. 



Fig. 900. 



forward position for the production of a plain fabric. (Letters indicating the different parts for 
reference are selected to correspond in all four diagrams.) 

The method of operation of the loom thus forming the terry pile is as follows : 
The crank-shaft A when revolving drives to and fro the lay H by means of the rods a, com- 
municating with the cranks b b, and thus drives the picks partially up at each revolution, when it 
is thrown back, as illustrated in Fig. 899. In order, however, to produce the terry loop the 
entire shaft A is, after two picks, thrown forward to a point where, when the cranks b arrive on a 
horizontal plane toward the lay H, the lay will be caused to make a full beat, driving the picks 
full up, and producing the terry or pile loop. 





The shaft A, when it is desired that the loop shall be formed at every third pick, is arranged 
to revolve by a proper adjustment of the gearing three times while the cam shaft N revolves 
once. When the cams h of the cam-shaft N are in any position other than an upright position, 
the lower arm E' is at rest, being borne down and held in that position by the weight e. As a 
natural consequence, by reason of the pivotal bearing at g, the knee of the arms E E' is thrown 
forward, while the journal boxes F of the shaft A, being firmly fixed to the arms E E', are thrown 
back, and the shaft A, while revolving in this position, produces by means of the lay but a partial 
beat of the picks, one throw of the shuttle being made to each revolution of the shaft A. When, 



219 

however, the cams h of the cam-shaft N, by the revolution of the shaft, begin to assume an 
upright position, pressing against the lower edge of the arms E' as shown in the drawings, the 
arms E' are gradually raised until they assume a horizontal position and thereby, by reason of the 
pivotal bearing g, throw the boxes F, adjusted to the extreme upper ends of the arms E and 
containing the crank-shaft A, completely forward. Then the shaft, revolving to the proper point, 
produces a full beat of the lay and makes in the fabric the terry or pile loop at the desired 
interval. 

The length of the terry-loop is regulated by means of the screw /, adjusted to the journal 
boxes F. By screwing down the screw the terry-loop is shortened by the shaft A being 
prevented from going as far back as it otherwise would by reason of the lower end of the 
screw coming in contact with the loom-frame, consequently allowing the short beats of the picks 
to be driven more nearly full up. When the screw / is screwed up, the arms E' fall fully down 
when released from the cam h and throw the shaft A full back, and this produces an extremely 
long terry-loop. By this means a terry-loop of any desired length can be produced. 

When it is desired to throw the terry devices out of operation and to weave a plain fabric, 
the lever S, connecting with the lug /, as shown in Fig. 902, is depressed, the lug t thereby 
engaging the movable journal-box F, and, preventing the backward motion, holds it firmly in 
position and allows of the lay //"beating full up at every revolution of the shaft A. 





r~\ 



s~\ 




Fig. 903. 



Fig. 904. 



Fig. 905. 



Some " terry " fabrics require a combination of the terry pile weaving and the common plain 
weaving; both systems of weaving to exchange alternately (and sometimes more frequently) in 
one length of the fabric. For such fabrics the loom illustrated in diagrams Figs. 903, 904 and 
905 (as is claimed by its inventor, C. Strobel), is of special advantage. 

Figs. 903 and 904 represent vertical sections of the loom ; the parts being shown in different 
positions. 

Fig. 905 represents a vertical section of the loom in line x x Fig. 903. The shedding, 
picking and take up motions are substantially the same as are ordinarily used in looms. (The 
letters of reference in all these drawings are identical.) 

The crank and cam shafts A 0' are geared by gear-wheels, each mounted on shafts and 
meshing together, and are driven in the usual way. While the rollers M are in the bottoms of 
the slots in the links or levers C the lay will travel forward to a fixed line, this being the cloth 
making line of the fabric. The roller J on the gear / at each revolution of the latter, if the 
lever H is not engaged by the hook N, presses down the rear end of the lever H, causing the 
forward end to rise, and through the rod G and the arm F to rock the shaft D until the rollers 
M reach the bottoms of the slots of the links C. The spring P, connected with the arm F on 
the rock-shaft D, keeps the rollers M\\\ the upper part of the slots of the links C when the lever 
H is free from the hook N and is not acted on by the roller/. When the rollers are in this 
elevated position, the lay will not travel as far forward as the cloth-forming line, owing to the 
pivots of the pitmen B having been given a lateral movement toward the lay, thus shortening the 



220 



distance between the crank-shaft and the lay. It will be understood that during these short 
movements of the lay the filling will be only partially beaten up. The number of short or partial 
beats to each full beat may be varied by changing the gears / or 0. The present illustrations 
show the loom arranged so as to have two short strokes to each long or full stroke or beat. At 
each third pick the lever //"will be depressed by the roller y on the gear /, causing it to bring 
the arms E on the shaft D to a horizontal position, thus giving the pivots of the pitmen B a 
movement away from the lay, and increasing the distance between the crank-shaft and the lay. 
By this means the lay in its next forward movement will be moved forward to the cloth-making 
line, beating home the previously inserted two picks and causing the terry warp-threads to be 
looped or raised from the body of the cloth. The screws K, passing through the side projections 
of links C, act as stops for the roller-supporting levers E, limiting their upward movement, thus 
regulating the length of the terry-loops, making them longer or shorter, as desired. The arms F 
may be given more or less movement by shifting the pivots or screws, by which the connecting- 
rod G is attached to the arm F or to the lever H. When it is desired to do plain weaving, the 





Fig. 907. 




Fig. 906. 



Fig. 908. 



hand-lever 5" on the breastbeam is moved to the right, causing the lever Q to act on the hook M y 
pressing it toward the lever H, when it will hook under and lock the lever H as soon as the lever 
is raised to the proper height. The parts will remain in these positions until the hand-lever 6" is 
thrown to the left, thus unlocking the lever H from the hook N, when the loom will be in con- 
dition for terry-weaving, all these changes being accomplished without stopping the loom. 

Before closing the chapter on the construction of the various looms for weaving terry fabrics 
we refer to the patent of T. A. Brady, it being a loom for weaving terry-pile fabrics such as 
Turkish towelings, etc., and in which there is a different throw or beat of the lathe, due to the 
shifting of the boxes or bearings for the crank-shaft of the loom. The shifting of the boxes car- 
rying the crank-shaft is effected by means of a grooved cam. 

Figs. 906, 907 and 908 are drawings illustrating the principle of this operation. 

Fig. 906 is a longitudinal section of parts of a loom sufficient to illustrate the present expla- 
nations. 



221 

■ Figs. 907 and 908 are drawings representing enlarged face views of the cam by which the 
parts are operated to effect the shifting of the slides forming the bearings for the crank- 
shaft, and thus regulating the forward beat (towards the last woven part of the fabric) of the lathe. 

The cam has an outer flange, h, an intermediate segmental flange, i, and a central cam, m, the 
inner portion of which is concentric with the flange i, so as to form an inner groove, n, while the 
outer portion of the cam is such as to direct the roller on the stud of an arm fastened on the 
loom into a groove, /, formed between the flange i and the outer flange h. 

Pivoted toes s and t form continuations of the flange i, these toes being such that their ends 
can be thrown inward, so as to bear upon the nose of the cam m, or can be thrown outward, so 
as to come in contact with the outer flange, h, of the cam. The toe s has a projecting pin passing 
through a segmental slot, w, in the disk of the cam, and having an anti-friction roller, which is 
acted upon by a spring, tending to thrust the point of the toe outward against the flange h of the 
cam, so that, supposing the cam to be rotating in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 907, the roller 
on the stud of the arm would be under the influence of the cam m and inner groove n, and the 
arm would be depressed at the proper intervals to effect the forward movement of the slides and 
the full beat of the lathe. If the toe s, however, is adjusted to the position shown in Fig. 908, 
the roller will traverse the outer groove, p, of the cam, and will be free from the influence of the 
cam m, so that there will be no vibration of the arm and no movement of the slides and crank- 
shaft; thus the lathe will move forward to the full-beat point on each stroke, so as to produce 
plain or unpiled fabric. The toe t serves to bridge the groove 11 when the roller is traversing the 
outer groove,/, there being in such case a practically unbroken flange, i, so as to insure the 
proper guidance of the roller. 

In order to permit the ready adjustment of the toe s to the position shown in Fig. 908, when 
such adjustment is desired, hang to one of the frames an arm, which is adapted to act on the 
roller, carried by the pin of the toe s, this arm being connected by a suitable cord to a lever, hung 
to a stud on the breastbeam of the loom, so as to be within easy reach of the attendant. 

For figured terry fabrics as produced on harness-work, the Geo. W. Stafford Manufacturing 
Company, Providence, R. I., build a dobbie specially adapted for this purpose. This dobbie 
requires the pegging of two patterns on the chain. By means of the box-chain we can arrange 
the former to move automatically sideways so as to bring the different patterns, as required by the 
fabric, under the operation of the hooks. Thus we can weave terry for a certain distance, and 
then move the chain for ordinary weaving. For very heavy work the " Positive Dobbie " must be 
used, which, by being a " Dotible Action" is very easy on the yarn. 

PILE FABRICS OF A SPECIAL METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Smyrna Carpets and Rugs. 

These fabrics are made on a loom specially built for their manufacture and is known as the 
" Hautelisse Loom.'" 

Diagram Fig. 909 illustrates a section of this loom. In this loom the warp passes from flic 
beam g (upon which it is wrapped) over the guiding roller f, through hcddles b, c, down towards 
the place a, where the weaver is situated while at work. The hcddles being in a horizontal 
position are fastened to two rollers, d and e. The latter (by reason of their turning to the right 
or left) operate the hcddles, which in turn produce the opening of the shed. (The loom, it will 
be observed, is technically a " vertical loom.") 

The pile in these fabrics is produced by inserting, separately, loops of yarn for each square 
on the designing paper of the respective design. This method of producing the pile in a fabric 
is a slow and troublesome work, still fabrics showing many varieties of colors can be produced. 



222 

The body or ground structure of a Smyrna Carpet or Rug is made with either strong 
woolen-linen or jute threads, and the pile of a soft woolen yarn. 

Diagram Fig. 910 illustrates the method of interlacing (shown in the front view). The 
vertical threads represent the warp, and the horizontal threads the necessary ground or body 
picks. At a is shown the insertion of a loop (pile). This loop, intertwined with the two warp- 
threads of the ground structure, is shown separately in its section in Fig. 911. 

The body-filling is inserted by a "block," as shown in Fig. 912 (clearly indicating the yarn 
as wound around it, and leaving this block at the place marked p). The beating up of the filling 
(ground and pile) is effected by means of a comb shown in Fig. 913. In this method of operation 









Fig. 910. 

the weaver inserts two body-picks ; next, he places one row of pile loops over the entire width of 
the fabric (selecting their different colors in accordance with the design which is to be produced). 
Then he again inserts two body picks (by turning the rollers d or e for each pick) to be followed 
by the next row of loops across the fabric ; and selecting the colors as required by the design. 

This method of alternately exchanging two body picks with one row of loops is repeated 
until the fabric is finished. On fabrics of a sufficient width two or more persons can operate at 
once. After the fabric is finished upon the loom it is " sheared " so as to produce an even height 
of the pile. 

This method of tying each individual pile-thread to the ground structure in Smyrna or 
Turkey carpets and rugs is very laborious, and hence materially increases their cost of manufacture. 





Fig. 912. 



Fig. 9I; 



Various methods have been devised to imitate these beautiful fabrics in a way that would give a 
better production for the manufacturer as well as to provide a mode whereby a certain proportion 
of any desired number of carpets of the same pattern might be produced in one operation. This 
has been accomplished quite successfully in a process invented by Messrs. Kohn & Watzlawik 
and resembles in its main features and principles the explanations given by us in a former chapter, 
pages 154 to 158, on the manufacture of chenille rugs and carpets, and pages 160 to 165, on the 
manufacture of chenille fringe. 

Such imitations of Turkey carpets are produced mechanically from patterns composed of 
colored squares that clearly indicate the design and arrangement of the colored squares to be 
reproduced in the carpet. In the carpet each transverse range of squares corresponds to a pick 



223 

of pile filling, and each pick of this pile filling consists of a woven strip (or ribbon), the warp of 
which is composed of wool threads of the required colors. These filling strips have edges con- 
taining no filling (fringed) and which are intended to be brushed up for forming the pile of the 
carpet. These ribbons or filling strips also contain no filling in their centre, for two reasons: To 
form the imitation of the knot characterizing the real Turkey carpets, and again to reproduce the 
(pile) pattern of the face in an ordinary woven appearance on the back. These explanations 
demonstrate that two operations are necessary in producing the imitation. First, the weaving of 
the fringed strips or ribbons composed of different colored threads, according to the transverse 



?■_ 1^1 ir:i fmama wm wm i 



■li L : 'in . n i %\ \ 1 1 « lit i lii 



l! jiii rm mm mi xm wm n 



ur 



II IOi «ll»lllltl!!««lllll 
lllllll i %lMi 'I'MlliiiiSr'Siillitii 

III 



mmmwm 



Fig. 914. 





Fig. 915. 



Fig. 916. 



ranges of the colored squares in the pattern, and, second, the weaving (or setting) of these strips 
in a common warp to produce the pile carpet. 

In diagrams Figs. 914 to 919 a clear illustration of the entire method of operation is given. 
Fig. 914 illustrates a carpet pattern. Fig. 915 shows one strip (ribbon) cut from a chain corre- 
sponding to the upper transverse range (or row) of the pattern Fig. 914. Fig. 916 shows a like 
strip from which the centre filling has'been removed. 

Fig. 917 represents the back of the carpet. Fig. 918 illustrates by a perspective view the 
method of operation at the loom, weaving imitation Turkey carpets. Fig. 919 is a section cut of 
the shed and two transverse ranges of pile picks previously inserted. 

We will next give a short description of the methods for producing the filling strips or 
ribbons necessary for the construction of the fabric. 



;•-» »i£iT*^ *<MI i!^ii"4*l*i|"S|»S(i>s 
M*4iiiM^>ijM|^|>ii|^|r*|M4iu|« Wftm 



i.|wt|ig«ff5V|"i^w^ii|tf|ij^|wJs^V"iikjii"j 

•\,,'i\ \r,Y\ lv>-S *l>,rCM I l-l'.'Ms'fclii i |W| -lii If' 





Fig. 917. 



Fig. 918. 



Fig. 919. 



As many different warps for weaving the chenille strips for a certain carpet are necessary as 
there are differently figured or colored transverse ranges (rows of squares) in the pattern of the 
carpet, each warp producing any desired number of fringed filling or pile strips of the same trans- 
verse range of colors, that are woven into suitable warps for as many different carpets of the same 
pattern, or into a warp for one carpet as many times as the transverse range of colors correspond- 
ing to the strip or ribbon recurs in the carpet. Thus, for instance, the strip or ribbon shown in 
Fig. 916 corresponds with the transverse range A' of the pattern shown in Fig. 914, and, sup- 
posing that one hundred such ribbons are produced from one chain of warp, they may be used 
as a strip (pile pick) in one hundred carpets for one transverse range of colored squares in the 



224 



pattern, or in a given number of carpets for a multiplicity of identical transverse ranges of squares 
in the pattern. The length of these multicolored warps therefore not only depends on the number 
of carpets of the same pattern, but also on the number of times the same transverse range of 
colors is repeated in this pattern, also on the length of the pile of the carpet. After a warp is 
beamed, it is bound at intervals equal to twice the length of the pile to be formed by a few picks 
of any suitable filling, the fabric being cut centrally of the fillingless portion on opposite sides of 
the filling to form the fringes for the pile. The width of these multicolored-wool chains, or, in 
other words, the length of the filling strips or ribbons to be produced therefrom, corresponds, of 
course, to the width of the carpet to be produced thereby, and the number of colored-wool 
threads per inch, which is usually from four to five threads, according to the quality of the carpet. 
The length of the fringe in the chenille strips is regulated by interweaving a flat bar or lath, b, 
b' , Fig. 915, of a certain width. 

After cutting the different strips apart they must be numbered. To prevent the displacement 
of the wool-yarn filling, these are firmly sewed to the warp with a sewing-machine, as shown by 
dotted lines x x in Fig. 916, and finally the pack-thread d, between the wool-threads c and c', are 
drawn out to leave a central fillingless portion in the strip or ribbon, as shown in Fig. 916, that 
imitates in the completed carpet the knots of the true Turkey carpet, and reproduces the pattern. 
on the back of such carpet, as shown in Fig. 917. By means of these strips or ribbons the 
carpets are produced as follows, referring more particularly to Figs. 918 and 919: A ground-warp 
is drawn in two harness, e and e' , of an ordinary loom, the reed f of which contains one thread 
for each split. (The weave used for interlacing is the common plain ■" weave.) 

In beginning a carpet, a few picks of wool-yarn are first introduced into the warp, and then 
the first strip or ribbon. To prevent the shrinking of these strips they are secured at their ends 
to a rod or bar, i, triangular in cross-section, which is introduced into the chain or warp in such a 
manner that the rear or thicker portion will be elevated above the forward or thinner portion of 
this rod. By means of a brush the fringe at the front edge of the ribbon is brushed up or 
erected to form the pile. The position of the warp-threads is now reversed, the reed beaten up 
against the rod i, and the latter tilted so as to elevate its front edge above the rear edge, which 
will enable the operator to brush up the fringe along the said rear edge of the filling strip or 
ribbon, and when this has been effected the strip or ribbon is detached from the rod i, and the 
latter is withdrawn from the warp. 

In order to fill out the warp between the pile-threads of adjacent strips or ribbons, a few 
picks of strong wool yarn are interposed and a new strip of ribbon introduced as a filling into 
the warp of pack thread and the operation repeated until the carpet is completed, when again 
a few picks of strong wool yarn are woven in to bind the edges. The carpet so produced 
is then finished in the usual manner by steaming, beating, brushing and shearing. 

Having given in our chapters on pile fabrics (page 149 to 224) a very closely detailed 
description of their methods of construction, both theoretical and practical, commencing with the 
simplest structure and finishing with some of the most intricate pile structures known, we feel 
confident that we have imparted sufficient details to enable any student of technical designing to 
master the principles of construction of any given pile fabric. These chapters also illustrate the 
extensive use of pile fabrics for floor and other household decorations, in addition to their use 
for clothing purposes. The manufacture of these fabrics is of great extent and importance. In 
some households is often to be found for floor decorations a less durable and effective fabric known 
as the "Ingrain Carpel',' which is no pile structure but a common double-cloth structure. 

In my treatise on " The Jacquard Machine analyzed and explained, with an Appendix on the 
Preparation of Jacquard Cards and Practical Hints to Learners of Jacquard Designing," the structure 
of the Ingrain Carpet fabric and the preparing of designs for the same, as also the practical part 
of manufacturing, and the tying-up of the harness and operating the loom, etc., are fully treated. 



225 



The thorough study of these chapters will prove very profitable, especially the chapters on 
tying-up Jacquard harness for the different other Jacquard fabrics such as damasks, dress goods, 
upholstery fabrics, gauze, shawls, etc. 

Two-Ply Ingrain Carpet. 

We herewith give the reader a brief description of the method of construction and the 
principles governing the manufacture of the Two-ply Ingrain Carpet, an article composed of 
two fabrics, produced on the regular double-cloth system. These two fabrics are arranged in the 
loom to form figures by a simple exchanging of positions (see Fig. 920). A great variety of 
colors may be put into each of these separate cloths, (I and II), and the most elaborate designs 



Face of Warp. 



No. I, Single Cloth. a £ 
No. II, Single Cloth. 




No. II, Single Cloth. 
No. I, Single Cloth. 



Warp threads a and b for cloth number I. 
Warp-threads c and d for cloth'number II. 

Fig. 920. 

may be used for exchanging cloth I and II. On every part of the carpet where these two fabrics 
do not exchange, each works on the plain weave. The exchanging of these two fabrics binds 
both into one, thus forming the Ingrain Carpet. In the manufacture of this carpet four sets of 
warp-threads, and also four sets of filling-threads are generally employed ; but if occasionally more 
or less should be used in warp or in filling, or in both, in the same fabric, the principle of ex- 
changing is still observed. If employing four sets in warp and filling, two sets of each are used 
for forming the figure, the other two sets forming the ground. Each of the figure threads has as 
its mate one of the ground threads. In the common effects in the Ingrain carpet, (ground up, 
figure up, or one or the other shot about effects) these threads are so arranged that when a figure 
thread appears upon the face of the fabric, its mate appears upon the back, and when the figure 
thread appears upon the back of the fabric, the corresponding ground thread appears upon the 
face. 

Ground u-p Figure up . %W>\ atoiU <\\<*\ SSiol aficut «SSt<.t 




tr. * * » •! •» .s ■ ry lu 1, 2.* i*> i.\ w si. 
l & roivn.lt Q .. h'Ue . Q , VUvi 

Fig. 921. 



Diagram Fig. 92 1 shows the section of the effect commonly used in ingrain carpet. 

Suppose the filling-threads for the figure to be: 
Red, indicated by heavy shaded circles; picks 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30. 
Black, indicated by full black circles; picks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32. 

And the filling-threads for the ground to be: 
White, indicated by empty circles; picks [, 5, 9, 13, 17. 21, 25, 29. 
Olive, indicated by light shaded circles; picks 3, 7, II, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31. 

A careful examination of the drawing shows that the white threads mate with the red, and 
the black threads with the olive, so that when one of these colors shows upon the face the mating 
color will show upon the back, and vice versa. 



226 

As a general rule, these warp-threads are of the same color as the filling-threads ; hence, 
•every filling pick appearing on face is bound by a warp-thread of the same color, and if appearing 
on back by the other color of the same system; thus, in the present example, the white filling is 
covered on the face of the fabric by white warp, and if appearing on the back of the fabric by 
olive warp; the olive filling is covered by olive warp on the face of the fabric and by white warp 
on the back of the fabric. 

The red filling is covered by its red warp on the face of the fabric and by black warp on 
the back of the fabric ; the black filling being covered by black warp on the face of the fabric and 
by red warp on the back of the fabric. 



I II III 

o^BanDHin ::-■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 

DDB ' ■ -- 1-J-. ] 

■■ ■■■■■■■■(■■ 

[ mmaaaaaaanacimaaoDDaaaa 
amumaaanaaDaannmmmmmumum 
DBMaaapaanaonoDBQQQoaaa 

DMMOOrOT-JDnQODDMMMB 

■■■■■■uoaoaannDDonoHHB 
■■■■■■ i : -. raoo : oaco :. : ■ :crj 

■■■■■■■aonoooQaaacQQCMM 

■■■■■■■■QQLDdPQOODGDDQBQ 
■■■■■■■■■CDDDQOOQnCinOOCM 
■■■■■■■■■■nnCDDaDaDDDDDD 

■■■■■■■■■■■nnnoaoaanDDoo 
■■■■■■■■■■■nonaDannDDDDD 

Fig. 922. 




Fig. 923. 



In the diagram Fig. 921 the four " standard effects" of the ingrain carpets are illustrated with 
32 picks, allowing 8 picks for the illustration of each part. 

First effect, picks 1 to 8, is ground up (white and olive). 
Second effect, picks 9 to 16, figure up (red and black). 

Third effect, picks 17 to 24, is first effect in "shot about" (red and olive up). 
Fourth effect, picks 25 to 32, is second effect in "shot about" (white and black up). 
Fig. 922 represents a small portion of a design illustrating the three principal combinations 
required in the manufacture of the two-ply ingrain carpets. I = figure up ; II = ground 
up ; III = effect, technically known as " shot about," and derived from " one pick figure up, one 
pick ground up " (in the design), and repeated. 

In Fig. 923 a detailed description or analysis of the interlacing warp and filling of Fig. 922 
is given. In the same ■ represents figure up, a represents ground up, produced by the Jacquard 
machine ; a represents weave for ground, a represents weave for figures, produced by journals. 

OWiute. ®=<9W. ©=TUd . #=BUci. 

Ground up . JVlate-tPt.T«aolj, svoU 6y s>voU. Tio^ri, wp. $Pu>t-odrou-t ejects. 




Fig. 924. 



In Fig. 923 the weaving of the " shot about " effect calls for two picks face and two picks 

back. An examination of this part shows that the warp-thread represented by the light pick 3 

is to be raised, or has been raised in the adjoining heavy pick 3 1 ; further, we find the two 



light picks separated by the raising of a different warp-thread in each pick, which is also effected 
between the two heavy picks by the lowering of another warp-thread. If these mate threads 
introduced in succession should be required to show side by side (as may be the case in some 
special effects) either on the face or the back of the fabric, these changes must be indicated on 
the design by different colors. If such effects are to be introduced when using the common 
ingrain Jacquard machine, the needles of the latter must be operated on at each pick. This 



227 

requires twice as many cards as are used in designs where the mate threads are always placed 
below or above their respective corresponding threads. 

In diagram Fig. 924 a section cut of an ingrain carpet, also containing the previously ex- 
plained effects of " mate threads side by side on face of the fabric," is shown in connection with 
the regular effects, " ground-up, figure-up, and both combinations of shot about." 

Diagram Fig. 925 indicates the rotation of inserting picks in each ply corresponding to the 
section of the fabric shown in Fig. 924. 

Ground-up. Mate threads side by side. Figure up. Shot about. 



1st effect. 



2nd effect. 



— i 1 1 

1st effect. 2nd effect. 



Face-ply. j 1 3 5 7 


9 10 13 14 


19 20 23 24 


26 28 30 32 


34 35 37 4o Face-ply. 


Back-ply. 2468 


11 12 15 16 


17 18 21 22 


25 27 29 31 


33 36 38 39 Back-ply. 



Fig. 925. Diagram illustrating the rotation of inserting the picks in each ply, corresponding to section of two-ply 

ingrain carpet, Fig. 924. 

* 

Other effects (combination of colors) in ingrain carpets are produced by using three different 
colors of filling in each of the two single-cloth fabrics, and also by throwing them singly and in a 
definite order or succession in each ply. For example, the three colors for the one cloth are 
black, blue and brown. They must be interwoven as follows : Black — blue, brown — blue, 
black — blue, brown — blue, and so on. 

Suppose the colors required to be used for the other cloth are white, olive and drab. They 
must be interwoven as follows : White — olive, drab — olive, white — olive, drab — olive, etc. 



• 1 .O a .© J 7 .#i,0 3 © 3 O z 
OkQ^&QibCXGy&LOi 



Mfktr 

@ =Broimv 



O -Mat 

© =Ofcve 
<g> =J>ra&. 



Fig. 926, 

As the loom weaves both ply at the same time, throwing a shot in each ply alternately, the 
actual order of weaving in the present example would be as follows: 1st pick, black; 2d pick, 
white; 3d pick, blue; 4th pick, olive ; 5th pick, brown; 6th pick, drab; 7th pick, blue; 8th pick, 
olive, and so on, eight picks in the repeat of one combination. The colors printed in italics repre- 
senting the colors of one ply, and the colors printed in roman represent the colors of the other ply. 

Fig. 926 illustrates a diagram representing the previously explained method of placing colors 
in an ingrain carpet. 

Rules for Selecting the Squared Designing Paper for Ingrain Carpets. 

In selecting the squared designing paper for a two-ply ingrain carpet, always observe the pro- 
portion existing between the number of warp and filling-threads. For instance, take a carpet having 
1072 ends warp (536 ground and 536 figure) per yard, with 30 picks per inch (1 pick ground and 
1 pick figure, or 15 pairs). Then, 1072 -*- 36 = 29 II ends of warp per inch. The proportion is 
as 29 iff : 30; or, what is practically the same, 30 : 30, showing that the paper must be equally 
divided, and 8x8 the squared designing paper to be used. 

Again, take a carpet having 832 ends warp (416 ground and 416 figure) per yard, with 20 
picks per inch (1 pick ground and 1 pick figure, or 10 pairs). Then, 832 -^ 36 = 23 A, and the 
proportion is as 23 g : 20, or as yYi : 63, practically 8:7; and 8x7 paper may be used. 



i t» 




Gauze Fabrics. 

Principle of Construction. 

Gauze fabrics form the second main division of textile fabrics, and are characterized by 
not having their warp-threads resting parallel near each other, as observed in previously explained 
weaves and fabrics. In gauze fabrics they are more or less twisted around each other, forming 
through the different ways of twisting as well as of stopping to do so, different designs. 

In gauze we find two distinct divisions of warp-threads : The regular warp called the 
" ground-warp," and the " douping-warp," or the warp used for twisting around the former. The 
" douping-warp " threads are also known as " whip-threads." 

In diagram Fig. 927, the structure of a " plain gauze fabric, 
is v shown. Threads indicated by a and shown in outlines repre- < ^\ J S d ^ I FlG - 9 2 9- 
sent the " ground-warp;" whereas, threads marked b and shown in 
black illustrate the " whip-threads." 

Gauze weaving is done upon a system wholly apart from ^ , ^„|j^,,_^ |7 FiG. 927. 
ordinary and pile weaving. For the reason that we find two systems 
of warp-threads in the gauze fabrics we must use two systems, or 

sets of harness, for operating the warp at the weaving. One set of the harness is known as 
the " Ground-harness set" (which we will indicate in our following illustrations of drawing-in drafts 
for gauze weaving by A) and the other harness set is technically known as the " douping harness set " 
(which we will indicate through the lecture by B). Before proceeding with the weaving and con- 
struction of gauze fabrics we will give an explanation of the douping-harness set, and use for 
explanation the arrangement necessary to produce fabric, Fig. 927, or a single one-sided doup. 

In diagram Fig. 928 a specimen of a complete doup is shown. In the same we 
find a heddle similar to heddles used in regular weaving (see a, b in diagram) and 
which is known in the present kind of weaving as the " standard heddle." To this 
standard heddle we find the actual doup adjusted (see d, c in diagram). The doup con- 
sists of a smooth and strong linen or silk thread which is fastened to the lower part 
of a common harness frame (see c in diagram), passes then through the upper opening of 
the standard heddle (see e in diagram Fig. 928), returning to its starting point by passing 
through the eye of the standard heddle, and thus connecting the upper part of the doup 
to the standard heddle. Through the part of the doup extending outside of the upper 
part of the standard heddle to its eye, the whip-thread is passed, (see black dot at place indicated 
by d in diagram 928 representing its section). Two movements of the doup and the standard 
heddle contain the entire secret of gauze weaving. When these are clearly understood by the 
student well up in designing and weaving the first main division of textile fabrics, the method 
of constructing the present system will readily explain itself to him. 

In gauze-weaving, every warp-thread (ground as well as whip-thread) must be drawn, the 
same as for common weaving, in the ground harness set; see A, Fig. 929. Next, the whip-thread 
is passed below the ground-thread through the doup (see B in Fig. 929, illustrating the plan of 
this method of operation), and with its mate (the ground-thread), through one dent of the reed. 

Now let us examine the first movement of the doup and its standard heddle, and also with 
reference to the ground harness set. 

Suppose we lift the harness frame containing the doup adjusted to its lower shaft, technically 
known as the " skeleton harness," and so permit the doup to get loose, and consequently allow 
the whip-thread to be operated on, as in common weaving, by means of the ground harness. 

(228) 




229 



The whip-thread will m this instance return to its regular position near one side of the ground- 
warp, as regulated by the drawing in of the warp in the ground harness set (to the right hand 
side in the present example). Suppose, again, we raise this ground harness and insert a pick in 
the shed thus formed. During this process the doup will raise, but out of action, behind the 
reed. Having thus inserted pick number one let us next raise the standard heddle and the 
skeleton harness, leaving the ground harness set undisturbed. This movement of the harness 
compels the whip-thread to raise, close to the eye of the standard heddle, drawing the whip- 
thread below the ground-thread and raising the former on the opposite side of the ground warp- 
thread, as done in the previous pick. This time the doup will be in position parallel to the 
standard heddle, whereas the whip-thread will be crossed behind the reed, between the sets of 
•douping and ground-harness. This crossing and raising of the thread to full height of shed in 
such a short distance will consequently put a great amount of tension on the whip-thread and 
therefore necessitate two points in the method of operation which we will mention briefly. 
We must have sufficient space between both sets of harness, i. c, the heddle of the ground 
harness set in which the whip-thread is drawn and the standard heddle and doup-head through 
ivhich this whip-thread is passed in rotation. We also must arrange in rear of harness set 
near the whip-roll an arrangement technically known as " Slackener." All the whip-threads 
required to doup are passed over this slackener, which is situated above the regular warp- 
line after leaving the "whip-roll" of the loom and in their running towards the ground 

harness set. 




•*•» Fig. 930. 



Fig. 931. 



On the first pick previously ex- 
plained, this slackener will remain undis- 
turbed, as no strain is required on the 
whip-thread, whereas on the second pick 
explained, this slackener is automatically 
lowered to bring the whip-thread nearly 
in the regular warp line in rear of har- 
ness. This in turn allows the whip-thread to ease up in front, where required, to cross around 
the ground warp-thread and is raised a short distance by the doup on the opposite side of the 
ground warp-thread, as compared with the first pick. This slackener for gauze weaving is also 
technically known as "easer" (by reason of easing the whip-thread when douping). We will 
later on return to a more detailed illustration and explanation of the same and its arrangement 
for plain as well as figured work. 

In diagram Fig. 930, A represents the whip-roll of the loom, b the section of the slackener, 
d ground heddle for ground warp-thread, e ground heddle for whip-thread, /doup, h—i reed, k 
last end of woven fabric. Thus the line shown in full black, a, d, k, represents the ground-thread, and 
line in full black, a, b, e, k, represents the whip-thread; both threads "at rest." The object of the 
present illustration is to explain the principle of the slackener, and therefore we want the doup 
(standard and skeleton harness) raised (see/" to g) as represented by g. To counteract the strain 
thus put on the whip-thread, we lower at the same time the slackener (see b to c), giving it 
position c, at the same time the doup is raised to position g. Hence the dotted line a, c, e, g, k 
represents the whip-thread when douping. After inserting the filling by means of shuttle (s), the 
shed (n) closes and the slackener returns automatically to its point of starting, b. 

In Fig. 931 we illustrate a corresponding ground plan to diagram Fig. 930, representing a 
clear idea of the drawing in of the warp and threading of the doup. Outlined warp-thread a, d, k 
represents ground warp-thread, thread shown in full black, a, e, f, k, the whip-thread, d and e 
the ground harness set, t the passing of the whip-thread below the ground warp-thread and h, i 
the reed. 

This illustration explains the threading of a whip-thread in a doup situated at the left of the 



Fig. 932. 



230 

ground warp-thread, but the student will readily apply the same arrangement to the opposite 
kind of doup by simply reversing the illustration. 

We will next turn our attention to the designing of various gauze fabrics, and commence 
with the plain gauze, as illustrated in Fig. 927. In plain gauze all the warp-threads work in 
pairs — 1 end "whip" and 1 end "ground." The entire warp is drawn on harness similar to any 
other warp. Afterwards the whip-threads are passed below the standard heddles and threaded 
in the doup (see Fig. 929), which are passed through the standard heddles (see Fig. 928). 

Fig. 932 represents a different method for threading the doup, occasion- 
ally used, but which is not as practical as the arrangement of the doup illus- 
trated in Fig. 928. 

In diagram Fig. 929 we illustrate the plan of drawing-in ground harness 
and threading the doup for producing a piece of plain gauze, as shown in 
Fig. 927. 

A represents the set of ground-harness (2-harness). 

B represents the douping set. (Standard and skeleton.) 

Standard warp-threads are illustrated in outline. 

Whip-thread is shown in full black. 

We find, as previously mentioned, every warp-thread threaded first in the ground harness 
set ; next, the whip-threads passed below the ground-warp and threaded to the doup. Examining 
the plan of the fabric, we find pick 1 requiring the whip warp-thread raised in its proper position 
as placed by the ground harness (to the right of the ground warp-thread); therefore this pick 
will require the raising of ground harness 2 and the skeleton harness, hence loosening the doup 
for common weaving. Pick 2 calls for the raising of the whip-thread on the opposite position of 
pick I (to the left side of the ground warp-threads) ; therefore we must doup on this pick by 
raising only the standard and the skeleton harness, or, in the present example, the entire douping 
set. Pick 3 = pick 1, pick 4 = pick 2, thus 2 picks repeat. 

In the present example, Fig. 927, we find every pair of 
warp-threads (1 ground and 1 whip) twist in the same direction 
and having the crossing in the corresponding drawing-in draft 
arranged from right to left. This crossing can also be arranged 
in the other direction, see Fig. 933, but will, in the present fabric, 
be of no advantage to its general appearance, as shown in 





Fig. 934. 



Fig- 934- 



We will next explain and illustrate the combination of both 
styles of crossing in the same fabric. For example see Fig. 935. 
the drawing in of ground harness and arrangement for threading doup: 1st pair, whip-threads 




FlG - 935- 



Fig. 936. 



*5 



^ 



x 



5v3 Fig. 937. 



1» 



Harness-chain for plain 
guaze fabric, Figs. 927, 936. 



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l Fig. 93S. 



Harness-chain for plain gauze 
fabric, Fig. 934. 



threaded to the left-hand side of ground warp-thread; 2d pair, whip-threads threaded to the 
right-hand side of ground warp-thread. 



231 

Fig. 936 is the plan of the woven fabric. Harness chain is similar to the one required and 
explained for fabric Fig. 927 and illustrated in Fig. 937. 

The drawing-in drafts, Figs. 929, 933 and 935, are illustrated for 2 ground harness and 
I doup. This is done to simplify the principle of construction. The same way that we can 
illustrate the common plain weave drawn in 2-harness straight, for the clear understanding of the 
beginner and use in practice, 4, 6, 8, etc., .harnesses as required and guided by the height in 
texture of the fabric (number of warp-threads per inch), we may also, in practice, have to increase 
in gauze-weaving the number of ground harness, or the number of doups (standard and skeleton), 
or both at the same time. 

Peculiar Character of Gauze Fabrics. 



Comparing a plain gauze fabric, as shown in Figs. 927, 934 or 936, to any other woven 
textile fabric results in not finding one as firm in its method of interlacing nor as light in texture. 

The principle of gauze-weaving — the twisting of warp-threads around 
each other and holding at the same time the filling securely fastened 
between — will necessarily result in producing a very strong fabric; again, 
the twisting of the warp-threads between each pick, in plain gauze, will not 
allow the picks to come close together in the fabric, thus resulting in the 
production of a fabric containing large perforations. 

In diagram Fig. 939 we illustrate the plan of a fabric which is actually 
a combination of plain and gauze and is technically known as leno, or half- 
gauze. Pulling out from the present fabric sample every uneven numbered 
pick (1, 3, 5, 7) will result in transforming the half-gauze in the fabric to a 
regular plain gauze effect. 




Fig 939. 



Combination of Plain and Gauze Weaving, Technically Known as Fancy Gauze. 

In Fig. 940 a combination of plain weaving and gauze is shown in the plan of a fabric. 
An analysis of this plan will show 3 picks interlacing on ordinary weaving to' exchange with one 




3SEE; 



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Fig. 941. 



Fig. 940. 



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Fig. 942. 




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Fig. 944. 



Fig. 943. 



gauze pick. Thus four picks in repeat. Drawing in of ground harness and the threading of 
the doups is shown in Fig. 941. A represents the ground harness set, (2 harness), D represents 
the doup (standard harness and skeleton harness). 

Fig. 942 illustrates the harness-chain executed correspondingly to Figs. 940 and 941, and so 
will readily explain itself. 

In Fig. 943 another plan of a gauze fabric, combining the common plain cloth with gauze 



232 



structure, is shown. Liberating picks, 2, 3 and 8, 9, of the present structure would result in 
changing the same to the fabric shown in its plan in Fig. 940. The drawing in of ground 
harness set, and the threading of doups to fabric, Fig. 943, is shown in Fig. 944. 

In Fig. 945 we illustrate the plan of a gauze fabric similar to the one shown in Fig. 943, 
the only difference being the using, alternately, left and right-hand threading of the doups. 
Repeat: four warp-threads, "two oairs," and 6 picks. Drawing in of ground harness set 
and the threading of doups for producing the present fabric is shown in Fig. 946. In the 
same we used four-harness for ground-warp, but we can also use the drafting and threading 
shown in Fig. 935, which only calls for two ground harness in set A and will produce the 
same effect. 




M A 'FlG. 946. 



Fig. 945- 




Fig. 948. 



Fig. 947. 



Another plan for producing fancy gauze-effects is found in arranging the whip-thread 
to cross over two or three ground warp-threads; for example, as shown in the plan of a fancy 
gauze fabric, Fig. 947. In the same we find the whip-thread, after interlacing in connection with 
three ground-threads into three successive picks, on regular plain cloth, cross Delow the mate 
(3) ground-threads for forming at the fourth pick gauze. Repeat: 4 warp-threads, (1 whip, 3 
ground), one set drawn in one dent, 4 picks, 3 ordinary plain weaving, 1 douping. 

The method of drawing in both systems of warp in the ground harness set, and the method 
of threading the whip-threads in the doups is shown arranged for three successive sets (corres- 
pondingly to fabric sample) in diagram Fig. 948. The same reason which compelled us, in plain 
gauze, to draw each pair of threads (1 ground, I whip) in one dent, leaving as many dents 
empty between the threading of each pair of warp-threads as required by the size of the 
perforations in the fabric, requires in the present example of fancy gauze, Figs. 947 and 948. 
to thread each set of I whip-thread and 3 ground-threads in one dent, leaving as many 
dents empty between the threading of each set as required by the size of perforations wanted 

in the fabric. 

Fig. 949 illustrates the harness-chain necessary for weaving the present 
explained fabric of fancy gauze (Fig. 947.) 

The next plan for constructing fancy gauze fabrics is to use two 
doups in connection with four or more ground harness. In this manner 
fabric sample, Fig. 950, is constructed. Fig. 951 represents the drawing in of 
ground harness and the threading of the doups. In the same we find two 
sections ground harnesses I and 2, with doup informing section 1 ; ground 
harnesses 3 and 4, with doup 2', forming section 2. 



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233 

In drawing in and threading doups we arranged two repeats for each section, thus 8 
warp-threads in repeat of arrangement of pattern. This method of drawing in ground harness 
as well as threading of doups will, as shown in the fabric sample, allow us to operate each section 




Fig. 951. 





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Fig. 952. 



independent of the other, thus forming, by arranging the douping for each set for different 
picks, additional figures in the fabric. 

Fig. 952 illustrates the harness-chain for fabric and drawing-in draft, just explained. 




Fig. 954- 



} < Fig. 953. 




Fig. 956. 



H Fig. 955- 



In diagram Fig. 953 the plan of another fancy gauze fabric, produced with two doups, is 
shown. Fig. 954 illustrates the method of drawing in the ground-harness and the threading of 
the doups, which in the present example is a right-handed and a left-handed doup for each set. 




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957. 



Fig. 958. 



Four ground-harness are used in connection with the two doups. Ground-harness 1 and 2 (A) 
and doup 1' (/?) equal 1st set; ground-harness 3 and 4 (A) and doup 2' (/>') equal 2d set. 

Fig. 955 illustrates another fancy gauze fabric, produced with two sets of doups and upon a 
general arrangement in two sections. 



234 



Fig. 956 shows the general arrangement for drawing in ground- harness set as well as the 
threading of the doups. Four ground-harnesses are used in connection with the two doups. 
Ground-harness 1 and 2 (A) and doup 1' (B) equal 1st set; ground-harness 3 and 4 (A) and 
doup 2' (B) equal 2d set. 

Fig. 957 illustrates the harness-chain for the fabric and dra wing-in draft just explained. 



Fig. 960. 




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F.G. 961. 



Fig. 958 illustrates the plan of another fancy gauze fabric, constructed after the foregoing 
example, using only warp threads 1, 2, 5 and 6 from the latter (955). 

Diagram Fig. 959 illustrates the plan of another fancy gauze fabric. 

Fig. 960 illustrates the corresponding drawing in of warp in ground-harness and the thread- 
ing of the whip-threads in two doups (i' and 2'), 




— Fig. 962. 



Fig. 963. 





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Fig. 964. 



Fig. 961 shows the harness-chain required for weaving the fabric shown in Fig. 959. 

The "two-section" arrangement, as explained and illustrated, can be extended to three, four 
or more sections, and in this manner giving fancy effects to an unlimited number of designs. 

A further step in producing figured gauze is the combining of gauze and ordinary weaving 
in the form of stripes- After using a certain number of warp-threads, drawn in its own separate 



235 



-set of harness, for interlacing with the filling either on plain, twill or satin, or in a combination of 
all three, use similar effects as previously illustrated and explained, either with one, two or more 
differently working doups, left or right-hand twisting, or all the effects combined. This method 
of combining stripes of gauze with ordinary woven cloth will also afford great scope for producing 
figured effects through alternately exchanging both systems of weaving warp and filling ways. 

Design Fig. 962 illustrates such a stripe effect in a fabric. Fig. 963 shows the corresponding 
drawing-in draft and threading of the doups. Warp-threads indicated by a (light) are the ground- 




Fig. 965. 




Fig. 966. 



1. I. EL 



threads, and warp-threads indicated by b (shaded in vertical direction) are the whip-threads for 
the gauze; warp-threads indicated by c (shaded in diagonal direction) are the threads for pro- 
ducing the ordinary cloth (plain weave in present example). The drawing-in draft shows three 
different sets of harness used. 

The set indicated by A represents the ground-harness set for the gauze part; the set indicated 
by B represents the harness for raising warp-threads interlacing in the ordinary cloth; the set 
indicated by C represents the douping set of harness for producing the gauze part. 

Fig. 964 represents the harness-chain necessary for weaving a fabric as shown in Fig. 962. 

As previously mentioned, figured gauze can also be produced by using two whip-threads 
against two ground-threads, thus using four ground-harness to one doup. In such an example 
all four threads must be drawn in one dent. 



Set: 



Set 1. 




\ For ordinary 
5 weaving. 

— Doup 2'. . . 

— Doup 1'. . . 



Fig. 967. 

Diagram Fig. 965 illustrates a drawing-in draft arranged in this manner, and Fig. 966 shows 
a corresponding fabric. 

The interlacing of the plain for the ordinary interwoven part of the fabric can in this example 
be extended to any figured weave up to 16-harness. Four independent sets of doups are made 
use of and so the douping can be correspondingly arranged on each pick at will for each indi- 
vidual doup. 

By arranging the present style of drawing in ground harness and threading of doup for a 



236 



"sectional repeat effect" (repeat the drawing in and threading of doup of each four warp-threads 
two, three or more times before changing to the next four warp threads) novel effects for fancy 
gauze fabrics may readily be obtained (with a correspondingly large figure). 

Fig. 967 illustrates the drawing-in draft for a 
figured gauze on two sets (for illustrating previously 
mentioned section draws) having four ground harness 
and one doup for each set (nine repeats in each set). 
These two sets are also separated by three warp-threads 
arranged for ordinary weaving, the centre thread of 
which is indicated as a cord (or a heavy thread, pre- 
ferably of a different color). 

If weaving for a certain number of picks or- 
dinary cloth (plain) with set No. 1, and next gauze 
with set No. 2, changing again afterward, thus ar- 
ranging for an equal number of picks, set No. 1 for 
gauze and No. 2 for ordinary cloth (plain), also 
separating each of these two changes by a few picks 
ordinary woven cloth, inserting in their centre a 
heavy filling (similar to cord in warp), we get a IG ' 9 

checker-board effect for design composed of ordinary and gauze 
weaving as shown in diagram Fig. 968. 

In reeding the warp for example Fig. 967, leave one, two or more 
dents empty between each four threads (of two whip and two ground); 
again, when reaching the three ordinary weaving threads, place 
the cord in a separate dent and each of the other two ordinary 
weaving threads in the dent as situated on each side and which 
is occupied by the set of four threads for gauze weaving. For 
example, if arranging the reeding of the warp, one dent taken 
to alternate with one dent left empty all over the regular work, we 
find the reeding at the part where the cord comes in arranged as 
follows : 




IB 

3BD 



^BZBZBZBGB 

■ ■ ■ B 
- BGBCBGBGB 

■ ■ ■ ■ 

■ ■ ■ ■ B 

urn ■ ■ 

BOBOBOO \Bi 

BGBGDBG ■■- 

■■■DBaannDBCB-.-. 

IZBZGZZZB b 

III ■ ■ ■ 

. DGBGZBBZB B 
BGBZB j . BBBZBG 
BGBQGBl HB B B 
BBBGBCGGGCBGBG 
■ IBZGBGZZZZB :B 
■BBGBDZGZZBIBZ 
BZB B ■ ■ ■ ■ 
■GBGBGGZBBBGBG 
B ■ ■ BB B.'B 
■BB ■ Z B B 
■BBGGBGCCGDBCB 

■ BB B TZZZ GBGBG 
GBDGBGGBBGBGB 

■ ■■I BBB B 
BGBZ B 'BBZBZB 



OBGCord. 
BDB 

— a 



2nd Slackener, 



■dbdobcgbb i 

bobdbcgzbbb: 

dbgdbdgbbgi 

bqbdbgbgbgb: 

bgbggbgb b i 

.bdbgbzbzbgb: 



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Zfl 

ID 
IGB 
BG 



jCord. 



:bg 

■GB 

:bg 



-<-« 4 — o — 4 — o — 5 (4 + I ) — i (cord) — 5 (4 + 1 ) — o — 4 — o — 4. b-*- 



■B 



BGBGGBGB' 

BGBGBCBGI 

BGBGGBGB 

BDBDBDBZ 

BGBCCBCB 

B III I 

BQBBGBGB 1 

BZBBBCBGI 

■ B B B 
■GBGBGBGI 
BGBGGBGB 
BGBBBGBZ 
BGBBGBGB 

a 'bbb:b~b : 

BGBGGBGBGBGGBB 
BBB B B BB 
■GB B B ■ BB 
B ■■■"BGBDDDGC" 
■aBBCBGBGBaDDD 

■ BBB 3 fl 

■ III B " BB 
BOB' II B .GDBB 
BGBDQBGBGBGr 
BDBBBGBG 

■Dimi^i 

■ BBB B 
BGBZ B ■ 
BGBZB B 
BZB" B B ■ 
BGBGBZB. B B B 
■GBQZB B :B B B 

■ B B B B B B ■ 
1BDBDDBDBGBGBCB 



1st Slackener 



Fig. 969 illustrates a specimen of a harness chain for weaving 
the present example of fancy gauze. In the same we find two slack- 
eners used. 

1st slackener to lower its whip-threads on picks 8, 9, 10 — 14, 15, 
16 — 20, 21, 22-— 26, 27, 28. 

2nd slackener to lower its whip-threads on picks 44, 45, 46 — 50, 
51,52—56, 57, 58—62, 63,64. 

In the beginning of our chapter on gauze we gave the princi- 
ple of a slackener or easer. We would only state now that for 
every set of doups which operate the whip-threads at different 
picks when done on any previous set of doups in the same fabric, 
we must use a separate slackener ; thus in the examples explained 
as constructed on two sections, we must use two slackeners. This 
method of using more than one slackener is increased in practical work, when required, up to 
three but seldom to four. 

Diagrams Figs. gyoa and 970$ illustrate figured gauze effects as produced by harness work. 



I 

II ■ 
!■ 

B 
B 



Harness-chain for 14-harness , 

7^ picks. 

Fig. 969. 



237 



Gauze Weaving Mechanism for Open-Shed Looms. 

Until lately gauze fabrics, as thus far explained, have been produced only upon looms 
constructed after the principle known as the "single-acting''' method, which is characterized by 




Fig. 970a. 

leveling the entire warp at every pick, and at this leveling point cross the warps so as to produce 
the twist. It will be proper to mention that this single-acting method for operating the warp- 
threads only allows a moderate speed which at the present time is insufficient for the requirements 
of a loom ; hence every manufacturer of this class of fabrics has been anxiously awaiting for 








li;||p 
I' 



Fig. 97<>£. 



a method by which gauze weaving can be successfully executed upon looms built after tin- 
principle known as the double-action, giving an increased speed at which the loom can be 
operated. This gain of speed is owing to the ability of the double-acting loom to select and 



238 

withhold certain warp-threads for a certain number of succeeding picks of the shuttle, as the 
pattern being worked may demand. 

However, the construction of the double-acting loom heretofore employed did not permit of 
its weaving gauze, because of the inability of the loom to operate a warp-thread so as to raise it 
for one pick of the shuttle, and then after that pick, lower it and raise it again before the suc- 
ceeding pick. 

The Geo. W. Stafford Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I., are now building a Double- 
Action Dobbie which overcomes this defect ; hence is capable of weaving gauze with the character- 
istic high speed of the latter. This is due to the fact that the double-acting loom is adapted to 
raise a warp for one pick of the shuttle, and then after that pick lower and raise it again before 
the succeeding pick. The new features of the Dobbie, as thus built by the Stafford Manufactur- 
ing Co., are the combining of the ordinary full motions of the recurrent or reciprocating harnesses 
with a novel and peculiar " lialf-and-retum " motion of others of the harnesses when so desired. 
To gain the " lialf-and-retum" motion they use an extra half-stroke lifter (knife), which has half 




d ci 




Fig. 971$. 



<^± 



=2) 



Fig. 971a. 



s> 






fi 




<? & \ 










J 


X 


y-- 


J 










J 












Fig. 971. 



Fig. 97 if. 



the limit of traverse that the ordinary lifters have. The half-stroke lifter has suitable jacks 
engaging therewith, which are jointed in the common manner with a connecter co-operating with 
an operating lever. 

The half-stroke lifter is reciprocated by a peculiar half-motion device. A second " half-and- 
return " motion for certain other harness is obtained by the arrangement of a pair of ordinary 
operating levers with connections to a single harness controlled by the levers working simultane- 
ously and oppositely or singly. To give a proper understanding of the subject Figs. 971, gyia, 
97 1£, 97 if, 97 1 d and 971^ have been designed. 

Fig. 971 represents a rear view of the head or end of the loom containing the harness-operat- 
ing mechanism. The same also shows the full and half-stroke lifters as at their midway points 
of travel, and the co-acting jacks and conjoined parts according to their relative positions. 

Fig- 97 1# is a view of the double-hooked jack detached. 

Figs. 971^, 97 1 c, 97 1 d and gyie illustrate four successive relative positions of the harness and 
harness-operating levers as they occur in the weaving according to the present explained 
method (plain or gauze). 






239 



The parts indicated D and C are portions of harness-frames provided with single-eyed 
heddles carrying the warps m and n, respectively. These frames are connected by the respective 
cordings d' and c', with their operating-levers d and c, the former co-acting with full stroke lifters 
and the latter with the full and half-stroke lifters. 

The standard frame B is provided with a doup heddle, through which passes one side of the 
looped cord or doup k, the ends of which are attached to the skeleton-harness A. Frame B is 
connected with lever b by means of cording b' , and co-acts with full-stroke lifters. The skeleton- 
harness A (shown in portion) is operated by the half-motion levers a' a 2 , to which it is con= 
nected by a Y-shaped connecting strap R, both forks of which are equal and connected, one 
with each lever a' a 2 , respectively, and its stem is connected with the skeleton A. The harness- 
frames B and D make full straight-away motions, while the parts A and C make half-and- 
return motions, and are also capable of making full straight-away motions. These parts are 
thus termed, the former "full-motion " and the latter " half-and-return-molion" harnesses. 

Warp-thread indicated by n is the standard warp and warp-thread m the whip-thread. 



d e a 




Fig. 97 1 d. 




d l, "-. 




Fig. 97i£. 



i-ig. 971/; 

The method of operation for producing common gauze weaving is as follows : The harness 
C, carrying the standard warp n, is given the half-and-return-motion in order to carry the warp 
to the middle lift, where the descending whip-thread m can be passed under warp ?i, which then 
descends, while the doup k raises warp m to form the upper part, while the warp n forms the 
lower part of the shed for the next pick of the shuttle. 

Referring to Fig. 971^ suppose this position is the first position before starting the loom, which 
may be supposed to have been previously making gauze stitches, and which came to a rest, while 
the warps were partly turned on themselves for the next twist. In this position all the harnesses 
A, B, C, D, are low and the whip-thread and standard-thread, m and n, are leveled and crossed 
one above the other,- before being twisted in the formation of the succeeding gauze stitch. The 
levers a! a 2 b c d in this first position are all in line and the branches of the forked connections are 
both taut. Position of Fig. ()J\c is produced by the levers a' and d moving to the outer limit on 
full-stroke lifters and the levers a 2 b c remaining at rest. This serves to raise harness A and D 
from lowest to highest limit. By this shedding movement the crossed warps have been tightly 
twisted on themselves, and the shuttle here makes a pick through the shed and interweaves the 
filling between the twisted warps. Position Fig. 971^ is obtained by levers a' and a 2 moving oppo- 
sitely on full motions — one on a lifter and the other by a retracting-spring, and thereby giving 
their skeleton-shaft A a half-and-return motion; also, by lever b moving outwardly on a full-stroke 
lifter, and accordingly moving the standard harness B from low to high limit; also, by lever c 



240 



co-acting with the half-stroke lifter and imparting a half-and-return motion to its frame C; also, 
by the lever d moving inwardly a full motion by means of a retracting-spring, and imparting a like 
motion to its upper warp-frame, D, which moves accordingly from high to low limit. During this 
change of position the warps have been crossed and twisted on themselves, forming a gauze stitch, 
and then the shuttle picks and lays the filling. The next and fourth position of Fig. 971*? is ar- 
rived at by levers ^and a' remaining at rest, while a 2 and b are moved in by virtue of their respec- 
tive retracting-springs, and c is carried out on a full motion by virtue of its jack co-acting with a 
full-stroke lifter. These movements have caused the doup-frame and harnesses A and B to 
descend from high to low limit, frame C to rise from low to high limit, and frame D to remain at 
rest at low limit. In this change of position the warps have not been twisted, but merely crossed 
side by side, as in plain weaving, and in this position of Fig. 97 1<? the shuttle picks and interweaves 
the filling. This position now changes the position of the upper and under warps (standard and 
warp-threads) reversely relative to the filling. 

From the position of Fig. 971^ the changes may be made, according to the pattern desired, 
into a series of succeeding similar positions, and thus make more plain weaving-stitches, or it may 
be changed back to the second position of Fig. 971c and repeat the described gauze pattern. 

In Fig. 971/ we show the (upright lever) double action dobbie as built by the Geo. W. 
Stafford Manufacturing Company, to which the present explained mode of weaving gauze fabrics 
applies. 

Jacquard Gauze. 

In gauze fabrics constructed upon the Jacquard loom, in which it is desired to produce large 
and elaborate designs b'y the aid of figuring gauze and ordinary weaving, it will be necessary to 
arrange a slackener for every whip-thread. 




ComGirBoaKi. 




Fig. 973. Fig. 974. 




C-. d, <vV. C d. a. V 

Fig. 977. Fig. 978. 



Fig. 972. 





gp 


4. as> 








1. s^ 


pjfe 


i 


*. «. 




ft ct. 


Fig 


975- 


Fig. 


976. 




aV e d. a. V c ol 

Fig. 979. Fig. 980. 



[In my treatise on " The Jacquard Machine, Analyzed and Explained," etc., a chapter is 
entirely devoted to the method of operation in tying up looms for these fabrics as well as the 
preparing of designs for the latter fabrics.] 

We will next explain the method of operation and adjustment of slackeners in Jacquard 
fabrics composed of threads working in pairs (one whip-thread douping with one ground-thread). 



241 



In such fabrics every whip-thread must be threaded three times ; first in a heddle in rear of the 
regular harness, technically known as the "rear heddle" or "rear harness." These heddles have 
eyes \]^ inches high and are fastened from i^to i^ inches lower than the heddles of the 




- Siiiip, «« »Jj?j! Wm 

!; r !£^-Jff»|if|2t|(H#lH||t«flUilf^fFI|j|rffifiiilIa 

« fii ft j iJHbij'i {»{ k i 



III ill I 
'lililfii 




; 'i:-:i: 



,.(ii"t 



yil illii 



;::;;;;> 



•••iiii)!: 



'"■■'='"'?!$! 



si;. i , ,«;..1!!Ji '"Miijitttl • 
iliipl'iMiHt.'il;?! !:::::J|«Hi; ! | 
!" ; :E.-ii!'.:;5!!K,t r -:i{:::|:;!:(t|' :- ' 



liilplipi! 

1 lillllpil 

lilillliiii 



Fig. 981. 



pllgi 



ground-harness and the doup. This rear harness is generally placed at a distance of 8 to 10 
inches from the ground-harness. Each rear heddle is connected by means of a harness-cord for 
operating the corresponding standard heddle of the doup at the place where the latter joins the 
neck-cords of the Jacquard machine (thus both harness-cords to one hook), and consequently the 




___ _ _„„, 



;, 



- ■ - t .i 1 .1 




-«.... . . t . . v: . .— 1 i . 



~-i.L :... 



Fig. 982. 

rear heddle will lift at the same time when raising the standard, and thus the whip-thread is 
"slackened" from the rear when required to twist around the ground-warp when douping. 

After the whip-thread is drawn in the rear heddle, it is next drawn in its respective heddle of 
the ground-harness, from where it is threaded to the doup. 



242 



In diagram Fig. 972 a plan of the entire procedure as thus far explained is given. 

In diagrams Figs. 973 and 974 are shown the ground plans of threading the previously ex- 
plained Jacquard gauze. Fig. 973 represents the threading of the whip-thread in a doup situated 
at the left-hand side of the ground-thread (pair). Fig. 974 illustrates a respective threading of the 
whip-thread to a doup situated at the right-hand side of the ground-thread (pair). Both positions 
of doups to their respective ground heddle are mentioned as considered by the weaver standing at 
work in front of the loom. Letters of reference are selected correspondingly: R = rear-harness; 
G= ground-harness; d = heddle for ground-warp; e = heddle for whip thread; t= passing of 
the whip-threads below ground-warp; Z? = doup-harness ; f= doup. Whip-threads are shown 
in full black, ground-threads are shown outlined. 

Fig. 975 shows the corresponding crossing as produced in the fabric by using the arrange- 
ment illustrated in diagram Fig 973. 

Fig. 976 shows the corresponding crossing as produced in the fabric by using the arrange- 
ment illustrated in diagram Fig. 974. 





Fig. 983. 



Fig. 9S4. 



Diagrams Figs. 977 and 978 illustrate the ground plans of using two whip-threads for 
•douping against two ground-threads. The following letters of reference are selected correspond- 
ingly: R = rear harness; G = ground-harness; D = doup-harness; /== passing of the whip- 
threads below ground-threads; f= doup. Threads a and b in Fig. 977 = ground warp-threads; 
threads c and d in Fig. 977 = whip-threads. In diagram Fig. 978 the ground-threads are indi- 
cated by letters c and d and the whip-threads by letters a and b. 

Diagrams Figs. 979 and 980 show the corresponding crossings as produced in the fabric by 
the respective threadings of whip and ground-warp, illustrated in diagrams Figs. 977 and 978. 

Fig. 977 illustrates the threading of the whip-threads to a doup situated at the left-hand side 
of the ground-threads. Fig. 978 illustrates the threading of the whip-threads to a doup situated 
at the right hand side of the ground-threads. 

Figs. 981 and 982 illustrate two examples of Jacquard gauze produced upon principles pre- 
viously explained. 

Substitutes for the regular doups have lately been patented by C. A. Littlefield, consisting of 
a peculiar combination of metallic half-heddles. 



243 

Diagrams Figs. 983, 984, 985, 986 and 987 illustrate his invention. 

Fig. 983 is a front view of portions of a set of heddle-frame bars with the invention applied. 

Fig. 984 illustrates a vertical section of the bars of the heddle frame, and showing the posi- 
tion of the yarns before the crossing takes place. 

Fig. 985 is a similar view showing the half-heddles after the crossing takes place. 

Figs. 986 and 987 illustrate a modified form of needle, which for some fabrics are preferable. 

The present method of cross-weaving requires three common harness-frames for each set of 
doups. The middle frame is supplied with a specially-shaped half-heddle or needle formed of 
properly twisted wire or stamped from sheet metal. When the needle or half-heddle is made of 
wire, the latter is twisted to form an eye at the top end, through which passes the thread or 
threads required to produce the desired effect in the pattern woven. Below the twist which forms 
the eye the wires are separated in such a manner as to form a continuous slot or loop from near 
the eye to a point at or near the lower end, where the half-heddle is formed with an eye or loop 
adapted to receive the bar upon which the half-heddle is strung. A single bar only is used for 
the support of this half-heddle. Through the long slot or loop are passed other loop wires, 
forming half-heddles, there being two of this description to each one of the first named. These 




• 1 
1 1 



Fig. 9S5. 




Fig. 987. 



wires are secured, one on the right the other on the left, to the two outside heddle-frames at the 
top, being strung on the ordinary cross-bars of the harness-frames, the latter passing through 
suitably-sized loops at the top ends of the looped wires. 

To produce the desired pattern, the thread which is to be twisted or crossed about its adjacent 
thread must be drawn through the eye at the top of the lower half-heddle, and the thread or 
threads about which it is to cross are to be drawn in between the two upper loops or half-heddles, 
and in line with the thread passing through the lower heddle-eye. When the harnesses are at 
rest, the warp-line is established so as to bring the yarn passing through the lower heddle-eye to 
a position from which it can be drawn up at the forming of the shed upon the desired side of the 
yarn about which it is to be turned or twisted. The crossing is effected by alternately operating 
the heddle-frames to which the upper half-heddle or looped wires are secured, the shed being 
formed by lifting the harness or shaft to the right or left of the frame to which the half-heddles or 
needles are secured at the bottom. The upper looped wire not lifted slides easily clown the 
long slot or loop in the lower half-heddle, the latter and the upper half-heddle to which the lifting 
power is applied being drawn into line, thus forming a guide for deflecting the thread about which 
the crossing or tie is formed to the desired side of the needle or lower half-heddle. 



244 



Cross-Weaving for Chenille Fabrics. 

A method of cross-weaving other than the one derived by the douping arrangement is 
largely practised in the manufacture of low-grade Chenille as used for rugs, mosquito-netting and 
similar fabrics. 

In weaving these fabrics the ground-harness set and the douping set of harness are substi- 
tuted by using two horizontal wooden slats (shafts) of a sufficient strength, which have in a 
vertical position metal heddles (harness plates or needles) inserted, pointing towards each other. 
These harness plates are made of thin pieces of metal, each formed with an eye through it for 
the warp-thread (r in Fig. 988.2) and each beveled at its end near the eye, as shown at g, in the 
same diagram, to form an angle to bring the passing points as near together as possible. 

The eyes q are formed by making an orifice through the harness-plates and bending the 
stock on each side of the orifice in opposite directions, so as to permit the warp-threads to pass in 
a straight line through the eye, and so that there will be but little friction of the warp in the eyes. 

In Fig. 988$ a front elevation of those parts of a loom essential to a clear understanding 
of the method of operation for these fabrics, is shown. (Warpbeam, lay and shuttle-movement 
are omitted.) 




Fig. 988a. 





Fig. 9886. 



Fig. 988c. 



Diagram Fig. 988^ illustrates a transverse sectional view. Letters for indicating the different 
parts in the diagrams are selected to correspond. 

Diagram Figs. 988-2,9883, 988^, illustrate and explain the loom for cross- weaving as patented 
by Messrs. G. Oldham and Wm. Dixon. 

The frame shown is composed of the two side pieces, base, and top cross-piece, on the under 
surface of which latter are attached brackets for the roller, over which the cords or straps pass, 
to the ends of which cords or straps the heddle shafts are attached. They are guided at each end 
by staples g g, passing around the upright rods h /i, and are adapted to be alternately reciprocated 
by the levers i i, pivoted to the base, and connected to the heddles by the connecting-rods k k. 
The upright rods at each end of the heddle-shafts are connected together at their upper and lower 
ends by plates or cross-pieces / /, and these plates or cross-pieces are centrally pivoted to the 
horizontal supports or arms, forming in this instance a part of the upright plates which are 
secured to the inner surface of the side pieces of the main frame. In a cross-brace, 0, is journaled 
the horizontal shaft p, contiguous to one of the plates /, which shaft is formed with opposite cams 
at its ends, so that the shaft when revolved will cause the cams to act alternately against the ends 
of the plate / and vibrate it, and through it and the rods // h and other plates, /, reciprocate the 
heddle-shafts // laterally and horizontally at the same time they are reciprocated vertically, 



245 

which cause the harness-plates to cross the warp-threads r r over the filling-threads and to twist 
them together or cross them between the filling-threads. 

The cam-shaft p is revolved intermittently by the ratchet-wheel s, secured to one end of the 
shaft, and the pawl s', pivoted to the plate s 2 , which is pivoted at one end upon the shaft p near 
the ratchet-wheel s, and connected at its other end to the plate t, attached to the front heddle- 
shaft, so the up and down movement of the heddle vibrates the plate s 2 and causes the pawl to 
turn the shaft p at each upward movement of the heddle. The plate s 2 is connected to the plate 
/, in this instance, by the pin t' entering a slot, t 2 , made in the plate t, to accommodate the 
lateral movement of the heddle. 

Another loom for weaving this chenille as used for rugs and curtains has lately been invented 
by Messrs. H. & C. Topham. Their improved method of operation is shown in diagrams Figs. 
989a and 989^ and 990^, 990$ and 990^. (Letters of reference for each diagram are selected to 
correspond.) Diagram Fig. 9890 represents the end view of a loom, clearly showing its 
improvements. Fig. 989^ is a longitudinal section in the line 1 — 2, Fig. 989^. 

Figs. 990a, 990^ and 990c are perspective diagrams (as used in the illustrations of their inven- 
tion), showing the prongs carrying the warp-threads in their different positions. 





Fig- 9895. 



Referring to letters of reference: A A are the side frames of the loom, B is the main shaft 
and C the crank-shaft, D is the lathe, a is the breastbeam and b the cloth-roller, E is the warp- 
beam, e the warp-threads. 

On the two upright extensions F of the side frames is a rock-shaft, G, extending from one 
side of the loom to the other. This rock-shaft carries two arms, g g, having at their outer ends a 
comb H, provided with downwardly projecting prongs h, which have eyes, i, at their outer ends, 
through which pass one set of warp-threads, c. Situated below the rock-shaft before mentioned, 
but having its bearings in the same upright extensions F F, is a rock-shaft, J, having two arms,//, 
which carry a comb, K, the prongs k of which project upward. These prongs are provided with 
eyes, /, through which the remaining warp-threads pass. Rock-shafts G and /arc connected in 
such a manner that when the comb //"is raised the comb K is lowered, and vice versa. 

Rock-shaft G derives its motion from main shaft B, as clearly shown in diagrams Figs. 989a 
and 989^. To regulate the movement of the comb //"the crank q is slotted and carries a crank- 
pin, u, adapted to be adjustably secured therein, so that the rod g 2 can be adjusted cither on the 
crank q or arm g'. 

The lower rock-shaft J has also an independent sidewisc movement, so that the prongs of the 
comb A" will have a sidewise motion as well as the vertical motion. Motion is given to the shaft 
Jhy a cam, S, driven from the main shaft. When the prongs of the combs are parted the side- 
wise movement of the lower comb and its shaft takes place 



246 

The operation is as follows, reference being made to Figs. 990a, 990^ and 990^, as showing 
the prongs carrying the warp-threads in the different extreme positions during weaving. The 
eyes in the ends of the prongs of the combs are threaded with the warp-threads e, and the filling 
is thrown across, as shown in Fig. 990a, while the combs are in the position shown in that figure. 
The combs are then parted, as shown in Fig. 990^, which will tie in the filling previously inserted. 
Another pick is then made, as shown in Fig. 990$, after which a sidewise movement is given to 
the lower comb, which causes the warp-threads to twist around each other when the combs come 






Fig. 990a 



Fig. 990^. 



Fig. 990*;. 



together, as shown in Fig. 990^. The filling is then pressed towards the woven part of the fabric 
and another pick is made, throwing another filling across. 



Cross-weaving as Used for the Manufacture of Filtering-bags. 

Another kind of fabrics (similar to those previously mentioned), which contain the cross- 
weaving for their principle of construction, are those open-mesh seamless fabrics that are used for 
filtering-bags for saccharine liquids, etc. 

Diagrams Figs. 991, 992 and 993 are given to illustrate the method of operation for produ- 
cing these fabrics, as patented by B. Muench. 



00000 00000 o 



Fig. 991. 




Fig. 992. 



Fig. 991 is the top view of part of a loom, showing the fixed and reciprocating frames; one 
of them has upwardly projecting needles and the other downwardly projecting needles. 

Figs. 992 and 993 are cross-sectional views of the harness part of the loom, showing the 
warps in their different positions. Letters indicating the different parts in the diagrams are used 
with reference to the following explanations as to construction of these fabrics. 

The operation is as follows : Two sets of warps, o p and m n, are used, one set, p, being 
used to form the bottom of the seamless fabric in the loom and the set m n to form the top of 
the fabric; the same filling being used for both sets of warps. The warps are passed through 
the eyes c of the front row of fixed needles, C, which project downward. The warps n are passed 



247 

through the eyes c' of the rear row of fixed needles C, which project upward. The warps/ are 
passed through the eyes/" of the needles Fin the front vertically-movable frame D, said needles 
F projecting upward, and the warps m are passed through the eyes/' of the needles F' in the 
rear vertically-reciprocating frame D' , said needles projecting downward. The warps o and/, 
which are passed through the eyes of the needles of the front fixed and vertically-reciprocating 
bar and frame, are the series for making the bottom of the seamless fabric, and the warps m and u, 
which are passed through the eyes of the needles in the rear fixed and vertically-reciprocating 
bar and frame, are the series for making the top of the seamless fabric. As shown in Fig. 992, 
the warps m, n and/ are raised and the warps lowered. The shuttle J^is thrown through the 
space between the warps when those warps are in the positions shown in Fig. 992, and when the 
shuttle has passed, the filling rests on top of and across the warps 0. After the shuttle has thus 
been thrown, the warps and / are crossed by the lowering of the frames D and D', and thus the 
filling is held by warps o and / which form the bottom of the seamless fabric. When the warps 
are in the position shown in Fig. 993 (and the shuttle thrown), the frames D and D' then raised, 
the warps m and n are crossed, and the filling is held by warps m and n, forming the top of the 
seamless fabric, and so on. 




Fig. 993. 

In order to hold warps and filling in the position in relation to each other in the fabric, it is 
necessary that the warps be twisted after each shot. This twisting is obtained by reciprocating 
the frames E and E' laterally, for as each series of warps has part of its warps passed through 
laterally-reciprocating needles it is evident that by the shifting of the reciprocating needles such 
warps will become twisted. The frame D is shifted every time the filling has been shot between 
the warps and p, and the frame D' is shifted every time the filling has been shot between the 
warps m and n. 



Cross-Weaving as Used for Producing Fast Centre Selvages. 

Cross-weaving is also used in producing fast centre selvages if weaving two or more pieces 
of a fabric at the same time in the loom. This method of producing such selvages finds extensive 
use in the manufacture of velvet ribbons, scarfs, and similar fabrics characterized by their narrow- 
ness. In dress goods and similar abrics, seldom more than two or three widths are put together 
to be woven in one width on the loom. 

In reeding for fabrics woven with fast centre-selvages, we must be careful to leave one, two 
or more empty dents in the place where the fabric has to be cut in strips, or separated in pieces 
after leaving the loom. 

In Diagrams 994 and 995, two specimens of such interlacing for headings arc shown. In 
the same threads, B, shown in black, represents the whip-threads. Threads C, illustrated outlined 



248 

and shaded, represent the ground warp. Threads indicated A, and shown outlined, represent 
the ordinary woven part of the fabric. The filling is shown outlined in a horizontal position (D). 

Ground warp-threads C and corresponding whip-thread B must be drawn in one dent. 

In Diagrams Figs. 996, 997 and 998, illustrations are given of the weaving of such fast centre 
selvages in double pile fabrics, woven side by side in a broad loom. The method of operation is 
patented by Messrs. Lister and Reixach. For forming two adjacent fast inner selvages, both in 
the upper and lower cloth in double-pile fabrics, and so as to form the upper cloth immediately 




MflMI 

phi ■ mr " tr j i~ 





Fig. 996. 



above the fast selvages in the lower cloth, two sets of needles of two needles each are required. 
The needles in the upper set are placed in a line with the needles of the lower set, and made to 
point downward,, while those in the lower set are made to point upward. Both sets of needles 
are fixed in slides, which can be simultaneously moved up or down in a fixed frame. The needles, 
near to their points, have eyes formed through them, and through the eyes of the upper pair the 
binding-threads must be threaded which are to form the fast selvages in the upper cloth, and 
through the eyes of the lower pair the binding-threads which are to form the fast selvages in the 
lower cloth must be threaded. With these needles there are also employed two pairs of thread- 






249 

eyes, to which a lateral movement can be given from the low shaft. Through the upper pair pass 
two selvage-warps for the upper cloth, and through the lower pair two selvage-warps for the lower 
cloth. These two pair of eyes are set one above the other at such a distance apart as to leave 
space enough for a shuttle to pass to and fro between the warps threaded through them. The 
points of the upper pair of needles are likewise set at a distance from the points of the lower pair 
of needles. In the upward and downward movement of the needles their points are brought alter- 
nately above and below the selvage warp-threads with which the binding-threads, threaded through 





Fig. 997. 



Fig. 998. 



the needles, are to be crossed, and when the needles are at one or the other end of their stroke the 
thread-eyes are made to shog sidewise, so that the warp binding-threads, which receive an up- 
and-down motion, may be brought to one side and then to the opposite side of the warps, which 
receive a sidewise movement, and the binding-threads and warps are thus twisted together with a 
false twist, which, in conjunction with the filling, links them together and forms a fast selvage. 

Fig. 996 illustrates a side elevation of mechanism required to be used with a single shuttle-loom 
for forming the fast inner selvages in the two cloths of a double pile fabric, showing the binding 
and warp-threads in position while weaving the bottom piece. 



250 



Fig. 997 is a side elevation corresponding to the previous one, except that the binding and 
warp-threads are shown in position while weaving the top piece. 

Fig. 998 is a side elevation of the selvage forming mechanism for a two-shuttle loom. 
Parts of the framework of the loom are illustrated, cut away in the three diagrams to show the 
needles more clearly. 

In Figs. 996 and 997 A and A 1 are selvage-warps, which are drawn from a reel or bobbin, 
B; but which also might be taken from the same beam as that upon which the other selvage-warps 
are carried, or from the main warp-beam. C C 1 are the binding-threads, which are drawn from 
a reel or bobbin, D. The warps A A 1 are threaded through the thread-eyes, to which a sidewise 
shogging movement is imparted. The binding-threads C C 1 are threaded through the eyes of the 
needles, to which an up and down movement is imparted. 

The operation is as follows: When the 
parts are in the position shown in Fig. 996, three 
picks filling are put into the bottom cloth, and 
the thread-eyes are during this time shogged 
sidewise a distance equal to the distance between 
the needles of each pair. Afterward the needles 
descend and three picks filling are put into the 
upper cloth. After this the needles rise and 
three picks of filling are put into the bottom 
cloth, and during this time the thread-eyes are 
shogged back into their former position, and so 
on continuously. In this way the fast selvage 
edges are formed in each cloth at a short distance 
apart from one another, and each cloth can be 
severed along the small space in between these 
two selvage edges. 

The mechanism shown in Fig. 998 for a 
two-shuttle loom necessarily differs somewhat 
from that shown in Figs. 996 and 997, because 
when two shuttles are thrown simultaneously it 
is necessary to open two sheds for the shuttles 
to be passed through. 

THE JACQUARD MACHINE. 

The Jacquard machine is required for the 

interlacing of fabrics in which a great number 

of ends of warps are bound differently in the 

Every Jacquard machine can be divided into the following parts: 

I. The frame and the perforated board through which the neck-cords are passed. 2. The 

griffe and the necessary attachments for lifting the same. 3. The hooks. 4. The needles. 

5. The spring and spring-frame. 6. The needle-board. 7. The cylinder, hammer, and batten. 

8. The catches. 9. The cards. 10. The Jacquard harness. 

In Fig. 999 we give a clear understanding of the principle of the construction of a Jacquard 
machine by means of the sectional cut of one cross row in a 200 Jacquard machine, containing 
8 hooks, (representing an 8-row-deep machine), illustrating by it the arrangement of hooks,, 
needles, griffebars, springs, frame for holding the latter, and the needle-board, c, 1st hook ; /, 2d 
hook; g, 3d hook; h t 4th hook; 2, 5th hook; k, 6th hook; /, 7th hook ; m, 8th hook. These 




filling. 



251 

hooks are held in their required places by the eyes of the needles (see place v at hook i) through 
which the former are passed. 

The needles rest with their heads a to b, in the needle-board, extending outside, towards the 
cylinder, for about y 2 inch. The rear part of the needle — the loop — is passed between two bars 
of the spring-frame, n, p, and held by the latter firmly, but with sufficient play for a longitudinal 
motion for pressing towards their springs. The pin 0, is inserted for holding the springs in their 
places, requiring one pin for each vertical row of needles. If the heads of the needles are 
pushed backwards, in the direction of arrow, the hooks are also moved. If the needles are not 
pushed, the upper crooks of the hook will remain in position, as in drawing, over the griffebar; 
and raising the latter, will consequently raise every- one of these hooks. 



J 



'If l B i m *lf *if fr lf T If H 

X 

Fig. iooo. 







i 



e: 






Fig. iooi. 

Therefore, if a blank card is pressed against the 208 needles of the machine, used for present 
illustration, all the needles and hooks will be pushed back out of the way of contact with the 
griffebars, thus causing an empty lift when they are raised ; while by pressing with an empty 
cylinder, or with a card containing as many holes as the machine has needles, and so placed that 
the holes are exactly opposite the needles, none of them would be moved, and each hook would 
remain vertical over its griffebar; and raising the griffe will lift every hook. 

The griffe which has its section of the different bars represented in Fig. 1000, is shown in its 
top view in Fig. 1001. In the drawing, the dark-shaded places, marked f, are the hollow places 
through which the screw is fastened to the plunger. 





f • * © © • * 



rss* 



••9«<cae«e« ••••••©•••••••• 

o ©©••• 9 9»«« «©•»••©• •••••»• 

•9»««e»»<5«s ««*«©• ••••••••• 

/T^b7»v«®»»»* ••••••••••• •••••••••C*3iBY) 

• ••••« •®e««o««o«« •«"»•©•••• 

Q99m€9m99»*9909O»m»»9»0»»9 




Fig. 1002. 

The cylinder around which the cards are working (for operating the needles and these in 
turn the hooks, neck-cords, leashes and warp-threads) is carried in the batten. This batten has 
sufficient vibratory motion to enable it to move the required distance away from the needle-board. 
After coming in contact with the catch, it still moves until the cylinder has performed a complete 
turn. The cylinder is steadied in the required position by the hammer pressing, by means of 
a spring, towards the lantern from below. Fig. 1002 represents the cylinder with the lantern for 
turning the same, by means of the catches mentioned before. 

The raising of the " griffe," which in turn also operates the other parts of the Jacquard machine, 
as previously explained, is generally done by means of a lever arrangement. Fig. 1003 represents 
the perspective view of a 400 single-acting Jacquard machine (Shauni <x. Uhlinger, Phila., builders). 



252 



Fig. 1004 illustrates the "Rise and Drop Shed Jacquard " as built by the Knowles Loom 
Works, Worcester, Mass., and Providence, R. I., in which the bottom plate descends as the griffe 
rises, thus carrying down all threads that are not raised by the griffe, to form the bottom of the 

shed. It will be seen that the griffe has to lift 
but half as far as on the ordinary straight lift ma- 
chine, for the threads that descend form an ap- 
proximate haif of the shed, and, also, acting as 
a counterbalance for those controlled by the griffe, 
make an easy, smooth-working machine. 

The special feature is the manner in which 
the griffe and bottom plate are operated, for 
' ' rise and drop ' ' shed Jacquard machines have 
been built before this, but have been so constructed 
that the bottom plate was coming up at the same 
time that the hooks coming down with the griffe 
came in contact with it, thus striking a blow 
which caused rebounding of the harness and al- 
lowed no increase of speed. 




Fig. 1003. 



In this newer form of machine a cam is employed which gives a dwell to the bottom plate 
while the griffe is continued in action, so that the griffe starts on 

the upward movement be- 
fore the bottom plate be- 
gins to descend, and on 
the return motion the bot- 
tom plate comes to rest 
before the hooks coming 
down with the increased 
speed. Another feature 
contained in this machine 
the forming of 




is 



an 



angular shed which is of 
benefit in many 



Fig. 1005. 



great 
cases. 




Fig. 1004. 



Fig. 1005 illustrates the Double Cylinder Jacquard as built by Messrs. Henry Riehl & Son, 
Philadelphia. 

The Jacquard Cards 

have, for regulating the required raising and non-raising of the hooks, holes punched so as to 

allow their respective needles to penetrate into 

the cylinder holes, and are interlaced in an 

endless arrangement; hence, one card is 

brought after the other in rotation towards 

the needles. -— 

If using a great number of cards in a set, 
they are made to fold into a "rack." This is 
done by attaching a wire 1 to 1 yi inches longer 
than the cards at' the junction of say every F IG . 1005^ 



twelfth to twentieth card. (See c, Fig. 
between cards indicated by a and b. ) 



1005 



* 



253 



Card Stamping.* 

As mentioned previously, holes are punched in each individual card, according to the design. 
This is done for each row at one stroke or revolution of the piano-card-punching machine. 

Fig. 1006 illustrates the perspective view of the Power Piano Machine as built by Messrs. 
John Royle & Sons, Paterson, N. J., while Fig. 1006* represents the top view of the "head" 
(cover taken off). 

In the same, the small open space for holding the punches for stamping the holes in the cards 
for the needles, as well as the large opening for holding the punch for stamping the peg holes, are 
clearly visible. 

This Power Piano Machine is intended to increase the quantity of work turned out by doing 
away with the hard, physical labor heretofore necessary to operate one of these machines. 

The general arrangement of the cutting section is the same 
as in the old style machines, but the stroke necessary to cut the 
card is imparted to the cutting section through the medium of 
a belt and fty wheel, so arranged as to be entirely under the con- 
trol of the operator. 

Card Lacing 

is now mostly done by machinery ; the same combining in one 
machine the functions of a Peg and Lace Hole Cutter and Lacer. 
In other words, a pile of loose, blank cards is placed in the machine, 





Fig. 1006. 



* f % ■ f * 



Fig. 1006*. 



which, without further assistance, automatically punches the peg and lace holes, and laces and 

delivers the cards ready for the 

Repeater. 

If several sets of cards of one design are required for starting a corresponding number of 
looms, and the first set has been produced by the piano machine, exact duplicates can be obtained 
by means of the ' ' Repeating Machine. ' ' In this machine the entire card is duplicated at one stroke. 

The Jacquard Harness. 

To the lower end of the hooks in the Jacquard machine the neck-cords are adjusted. The 
latter are passed separately through one of the corresponding holes of the perforated bottom board. 
To these neck-cords are fastened the leashes of the Jacquard harness, about one-half to one inch 
above the frame containing the rods which guide the neck-rods vertically, as the hooks are raised 
and lowered. 

The different harness-cords are threaded through the "comber-board," or the "journals," 
in various ways, and are called "tie-ups." After the harness-cords are threaded the heddles 
are adjusted. 

*In a chapter on " Preparing and Stamping of Jacquard Cards," comprising pages S5 to 102 of the author's 
treatise on " The Jacquard Machine," a thorough and complete description, conspicuously illustrated (45 illustra- 
tions), of the above subject will be found. 



254 

In my treatise, already alluded to, the different methods of "tying-up of Jacquard harness" 
have been classified as follows : 
I. — Straight-through tie-up. 

II. — Straight-through tie-up for repeated effects, in one repeat of the design. 
III. — Straight-through tie-up of Jacquard loom, having front harness attached. 
IV. — Centre tie-up. 

V. — Straight-through and point tie-ups combined. 
VI. — Straight-through tie-up in two sections. 

VII. — Tying-up a Jacquard harness for figuring part of the design with an extra warp. 
VIII. — Straight-through tie-up in three sections. 
IX. — Point tie-up in three sections. 
X. — Combination tie-up in two sections. 
XI. — Straight-through tie-up in four sections. 
XII. — Tying-up of Jacquard looms with compound harness attached. 
XIII. — Tying-up Jacquard looms for gauze fabrics. 
XIV. — Tying-up harness for carpets. 

Each of these methods of tying-up is treated in a thorough manner and is fully illustrated 
by over one hundred special illustrations. 



The Comber-board and Methods of Figuring for it. 

The comber-board is placed in the Jacquard-loom for the purpose of guiding the harness- 
cords from the neck-cords to their 
respective position as required by the 
fabric for operating the heddles (to 
which they are adjusted on their 
other extreme end.) There are two 
kinds of comber-boards in use. a. 
Comber-boards made of a solid piece 
of material, either wood or porcelain, 
or constructed by using wires crossing 
each other and adjusted in a frame 
(see Fig. 1007). b. Comber-boards 
made in strips of either wood or 
porcelain and adjusted afterwards in 
a wooden frame (see Figs. 1007a and 
1007 b). 




Fig. 1007. 



Comber- boards Made of a Solid Piece of Material. 

Before ordering a comber-board, it is necessary to know the texture of the fabric in the 
loom, and also the number or size of the machine to be used ; for the number of holes per inch 
in the comber-board is regulated by this. Afterwards, we may, if we choose, arrange the 
number of holes in depth of the comber-board, according to the number of griffe-bars in the 
machine (guided by the fabric to be made). We may have eight griffe-bars in the machine, and 
arrange the comber-board 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 rows deep; or we may have 12 griffe-bars in the 
machine, and arrange the comber-board 12, 10, 8, 6, 4 rows deep. 

Rule: The number of holes to one inch in the comber-board must equal the texture of the 
fabric to one inch in loom. 

The width and depth of the comber-board are regulated by the width of the cloth required 



255 



and by the design to be used. The greater the number of rows in depth the closer they must 
be • the same is true of the width. It is necessary to take care not to have the comber-board 
too deep as the consequence would be a bad shed ; furthermore, we must not have the holes too 
close together, as in a high texture this would make trouble in the weaving through the catch- 
in- of the heddles with the warp, and also cause useless chafing of the warp-threads and the 
heddles. 

The Changing of Solid Comber-boards for Different Textures. 
In Jacquard work we generally use the same texture, or as near as possible, as the loom is 
tied up for; but changes are unavoidable. If we must reduce the texture of the fabric in a Jac- 
quard loom tied up with a solid comber-board, we must also reduce proportionally the number of 
hooks and needles used in designing, and hence the number of heddles used per inch. These 
heddles will thus be left empty when drawing in the warp. To accomplish this, lift the full 
machine and throw the hooks not to be used from the griffe-bars, lowering in this way every mail 
which is not to be used. Sometimes there may be only one, two, three, or four hooks to be 
thrown off, on account of the design. At other times it may be necessary that one-eighth, or one- 
fourth, or even one-half, of the whole number shall be dropped for this purpose. 

Comber-boards Made in Strips and Adjusted Afterwards in a Frame. 
By these comber-boards which are used to a great advantage on narrow loom work up to 
36-inch fabrics, we can change the texture for the fabric; for the strips composing the comber- 



Fig. 1007a. 



«,.r 



c. r 



• fc' 



9. 



10. 



a*. 



°s 



3 d. 




Fig. \007b. 

board may be drawn apart, thus changing the high texture to lower. To give a clear under- 
standing, Figs. 1007a and 1007^ are given. 

Fig. 1007^ represents an 8-row deep comber-board, a, b, c, d, composed of 10 strips which 
are set close together. By examining each strip 5 cross-rows of holes will be found, making the 
whole number of holes 400. 

Suppose this comber-board is intended for a texture of 100 ends per inch; this will give for 
the width of the fabric (shown below, i, k to /, ;;/) 4 inches. 

In Fig. 1007a, the comber-board is arranged for a texture of half as many ends, or 50 holes 
per inch a"nd the 10 strips are arranged accordingly ; the empty places between the strips are of 
same size as the strips themselves, and the fabric design below the comber-board is arranged to 
correspond. 



256 



GOBELIN TAPESTRY. 



Tapestry is neither real weaving nor true embroidering. Though wrought upon a loom and 
upon a warp stretched out along its frame, there is no filling thrown across the threads with a 
shuttle, but the filling is worked with many short threads of various colors, put in with a needle. 
Tapestry runs back into remote antiquity. The Greeks and Romans used tapestry for cur- 
tains and other hangings; and the use of it for like purposes was common throughout Europe in 
the succeeding ages. "Arras" was the usual name for hangings of this kind, owing to the excel- 
lence of the work produced in that town in England. "French tapestry" has long been famous 
also. Francis I. brought Flemish workmen to Fontainebleau, and the establishment was kept up 
by his successors. A hundred years later, Colbert, the celebrated minister to Louis XIV., took 
under his protection a manufactory which had been set up by two brothers, of the name of 
"Gobelin," originally dyers; and in a very short time the productions of the "Hotel royal des 
Gobelins" were universally admired. The well-known tapestry which for many generations hung 
upon the walls of the House of Lords, London, England, and which were destroyed by the fire 

of 1834, were Flemish, and executed in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth to commemorate the destruction of 
the Spanish Armada. But the culminating point in 
the history of tapestry was when Rafaelle was employed 
to make the designs for a series of Scripture subjects, to 
be hung upon the walls of the Sistine chapel in Rome. 
Tapestry work is the most costly and effective of 
the textile manufacture. We will next explain the 
method of operation as observed in the manufacture of 

PMf l^.H fl.ffH Hfl PPJI these fabrics durin S the last tnree centuries. (Older 

kinds of tapestries, for example the well-known 

" Bayeux tapestry" were wrought by the needle on the 
surface of the cloth and thus are actually produced by 
embroidering). As mentioned before, the warp-threads 
are stretched in a frame (loom) in a vertical position for 
the weavers. The method of interlacing the filling 
into the before mentioned warp is done after the prin- 
ciple of the plain weave by means of various numbers 
of colored filling-threads each guided by a needle. 
These different colors of filling are arranged after a cer- 
tain design. For this purpose warp-threads in the required position are pulled by the weaver 
towards himself with one hand, and with the other hand the required needle (bobbin) block con- 
taining the color of filling as called for by the design is inserted. Supposing in the present example 
the weaver pulls towards himself the uneven numbered warp-threads (1,3, 5, etc.) with the left hand, 
and inserts the block containing the required colored thread in the direction from left to right, by 
means of the right hand. Next he pulls the even numbered warp-threads (2,4,6, etc.) and returns 
the block before mentioned. In this mannei the weaver continues to entwine one color until a 
certain part of the design requiring this color is finished. He takes next another color as required 
by the design and finishes, similar to the before explained method, any place where this color is 
required. In this manner he continues to treat each color as required by the design. The beat- 
ing up of the filling so inserted is done by means of a comb. Taking the fabric into consideration 
in its vertical position it will be seen that there is no interlacing from one color effect to the other; 
therefore these effects must be sewed together after the embroidering is done. 
Diagram Fig. 1008 illustrates the method of operation for such a Gobelin. 




Fio. 1008. 



ANALYSIS OF THE VARIOUS TEXTILE FABRICS AND CALCULATIONS 
NECESSARY FOR THEIR MANUFACTURE. 

The analysis of textile fabrics forms a prominent part of the knowledge required in a com- 
petent designer and manufacturer. In addition to theory a practical experience in the construc- 
tion of the various fabrics is likewise called for. Thorough analysis consists not only in 
"picking out" the arrangement of the interlacing of warp and filling (the weave), but also in ascer- 
taining the materials of which both systems of threads are composed, the process such raw 
materials must be subjected to before the required yarn or thread is produced, necessary for the 
construction of the fabric on the loom, as also the various processes commonly designated as finish- 
ing. 

The analysis of a fabric is not always required for duplicating the fabric, as in some in- 
stances it has for its main object only one of the previously mentioned points, as to materials used, 
amount of twist in yarn, process of finishing necessary, etc. But whichever special point is re- 
quired to be ascertained, or should a complete reproduction of a given sample be required, it is al- 
ways best to have a clear understanding (or analysis) of all points. For example : A knowledge 
of the weave will be the guide for a special analysis as to the materials to use — the amount of twist 
to put into the yarn — or the finish required, for the harder a weave " takes up" the stronger the 
warp yarn must be (as to quality of material to use, or amount of twist to be put into the yarn) 
so as to resist the amount of wear incurred during the weaving. The weave employed in inter- 
lacing the warp and filling, and the raw materials used in the manufacture of the yarn, will influ- 
ence the process of finishing required, etc. 

The complete analysis of textile fabrics can thus be classified under the following eight points; 
I. Ascertaining the Weight per Yard and Ends per Inch in Warp and Filling for the Fin- 
ished Fabric from a Given Sample. 
II. Ascertaining the Weave. 

III. Ascertaining Raw Materials Used in the Construction of Textile Fabrics. 

IV. Ascertaining the Texture Required in Loom for a Given Fabric Sample. 

V. Ascertaining the Arrangement of Threads in a Sample according to their Color and 
Counts for the Warp and Filling. 

VI. Ascerta'ning the Sizes of the Yarns, or their Counts, as Necessary to be Produced for 
the Reproduction of the Given Sample. 

VII. Ascertaining the Weight of the Cloth per Yard from the Loom. 
VIII. Ascertaining the Process of Finishing Necessary, and Amount of Shrinkage of the 
Fabric during this Process. 

These eight points, when carefully considered, will in most cases produce the required object, 
"a thorough analysis " or a thorough understanding of the construction of the fabric with which 
the manufacturer has to deal. 

I. Ascertaining the Weight per yard of the Finished Fabric, and its Finished Texture 

(Ends per inch in Warp and Filling). 

Usually the sample given to the designer for analysis is less in length than one yard (of the 
finished fabric), and generally narrower than the finished width of the cloth ; oftentimes only one 
or two square inches, or even less, being furnished. Should, however, one or more yards of a 

(257) 



258 



fabric, having its regular width be given, it is easy for the designer to solve the question by 
weighing the cloths given and dividing the weight thus ascertained by the number of yards in 
the sample. The result will be the weight per yard of the finished fabric. But when the size 
of the sample submitted is small (less than one yard) the weight per yard must be found by 
figuring in proportions. 

Rule for Ascertaining from a Small Sample {finished) the Weight of the Fabric in Ounces for One 

Yard. 

Cut your sample to a known size, and divide the number of square inches thus derived into 
the number of square inches which one yard of the fabric will contain. 

1944 square inches f wide fabrics = 54 inches wide. 
972 " " f " " 27 " 

Multiply the result with the weight in grains of your sample and divide the product by 437^ 
which will give you the ounces per yard for the fabric in question. 

For example : Suppose you have a f wide fabric. The sample cut, or stamped, with a die, 
3 inches by 3 inches equals 9 square inches. Suppose the weight of these 9 square inches is 
25 grains. 

Question: Required the weight in ounces of one yard of cloth, being f wide? 

Answer : f or 54 inches wide fabric 54 x 36 or 1944 square inches. 

1944 — 9 — 216X25 = 5400 -=- 437-5 = 12.34 oz.; thus the weight of the fabric is 12^ oz. 

Another example. Take a f wide fabric. The sample cut, or stamped with a die 3 inches 
by 4 inches, equals 12 square inches. Suppose the weight of these 12 square inches is 28 grains. 

Question : Required the weight in ounces of one yard of cloth to be 2J inches wide. 

Answer : 27 inches wide fabric = 27 x 36 or 972 square inches. 

972 -=- 12 = 81 X 28 = 2268 -s- 437.5 = 5.18 oz., weight of fabric per yard. 



Table for Ascertaining the Number of Square Inches in any Fabric with a Width of iS Inches 

to 54. Inches. 



Width of Fabric 
in inches. 


Number of 

square inches 

in one yard. 




Width of Fabric 
in inches. 


Number of 

square inches 

in one yard. 


18 


648 


37- 


' 332 


19 


684 




38. 


1368 


20 


720 




39- 


1404 


21 


756 




40. 


1440 


22 


792 




41. 


1476 


23 


828 




42. 


1512 


24 


864 




43- 


1548 


25 


900 




44. 


1584 


26 


936 




45- 


1620 


27 


972 




46. 


1656 


28 


1008 




47- 


1692 


29 


1044 




48. 


1728 


30 


1080 




49- 


1764 


3i 


1116 




50. 


1800 


32 


11^2 




5i- 


1836 


33 


1188 




52. 


1872 


34 


1224 




53- 


1908 


35 


I26o 




54- 


1944 


36 


I296 




60. 


2160 



To Ascertain the Finished Texture of the Submitted Sample. 

For this purpose unravel a few ends of the warp and filling of each system on one side of 
the sample, and count the number of threads one inch contains (in each system). In the places 



259 

from which the filling has been extracted the texture for the warp will be found, and in the places 
from which the warp-threads have been drawn the filling texture will be found. It is best to 
ascertain the texture for each system of threads in at least two different places, so that if found 
to be the same it will serve as a test for correct work. If found not to correspond, it will require 
a third counting of the respective threads per inch, so as to ascertain which of the two previous 
countings is correct. Fabrics having a fancy arrangement with regard to their threads frequently 
require to have the number of threads ascertained in more than one inch. In some fabrics the 
texture must be found by counting the number of threads in one repeat of the pattern and then 
dividing this result by the number of inches these threads occupy in the fabric. 

Example. — 180 threads of warp in one repeat of the pattern occupy 3^ inches space in the 
finished fabric. Question: Find the texture (average). Answer: 180 -*- 3^ = 48 threads, tex- 
ture of warp in given sample. 

II. Ascertaining the "Weave. 

This part of the analysis of a fabric is based first of all upon a thorough comprehension of 
the theory of constructing the various weaves for single cloth, double cloth, etc. It also requires, 
in dealing with heavy fulled fabrics, or fabrics having the face filling broken during the process of 
finishing, a considerable amount of patience. 

Ascertaining the weave implies to the designer that he is to solve from a sample the manner 
in which both systems of threads, composing the fabric, interlace each other, and this is techni- 
cally known as the "picking-out" process. An experienced designer will in most cases ascertain 
the weave necessary for producing a given sample by a mere glance at it, while in fabrics having 
fine counts of silk or cotton yarn the microscope will assist him in designating the weave without 
"picking-out." But as such skill can only be arrived at after years of practice and experience we 
will define the "picking-out" process for the benefit of the unskilled. 

If it is required to ascertain the weave in a fabric having a nap on its surface, the nap must 
be carefully removed by singeing it off by holding it over a flame, care being taken not to burn 
the threads. Next carefully remove the burnt refuse adhering to the structure with a sharp knife. 
(It is well to have a sharp knife or razor always at hand for this purpose.) 

Always endeavor to get the samples for "picking-out" sufficiently large, containing at least 
two or three repeats of the weave, warp and filling-ways, in excess of the amount of cloth 
necessary for liberating threads in each system, so as to get the proper starting-point for commen- 
cing to pick-out. If a sample is submitted for "picking-out" which does not contain a complete 
repeat of the weave, dissect the amount on hand and finish the complete weave in accordance with 
the instructions given in the theory of constructing weaves. The experienced designer, 
when he gets a sample for dissection, readily understands which system of threads are the warp 
and which the filling, but to the inexperienced this will prove the first difficulty which will have 
to be mastered. To aid in this the following rules are given, which if carefully considered (with 
reference to the sample given) must greatly assist the novice in solving the problem. 

If the sample submitted for "picking-out" contains a part of the selvage, the latter will 
readily indicate warp from filling, for the selvage-threads always run in the direction of 
the warp. 

If the threads in one system are "harder" twisted than in the other, the hard-twisted threads 
arc generally the warp system. 

If the sample submitted for analyzing has what is technically known as a "face-finish" 
(kersey, beaver, doeskin, broadcloth, etc.), the direction of the " nap" indicates the warp. 

The "counts" of yarn found used in each system will often assist in ascertaining which is the 
warp and which is the filling, for in most instances the yarn used for warp is of a finer number 
than the filling. 



260 




Fig. 1009. 



If the fabric has cotton yarn for one system of threads and woolen for the other (as in union 
fabrics), the cotton yarn is generally the warp yarn. 

If in the sample submitted for analysis the one system of threads is found to have been sized 
or starched, and not the other, the former is the warp. 

If the sample contains " reed marks" (or im- 
perfections known to the weaver as being caused 
only by the warp system), such imperfections 
readily characterize the respective systems of 
threads. 

Another guide for distinguishing the warp 
from the filling is found in the "style" of the 
respective fabrics submitted for "picking out." 
In fabrics having a striped character, or check 
effects in which the one direction of the lines is 
prominent compared with the others, the direc- 
tion of the stripes, or the prominent lines in 
the check, indicate the warp system. 

In fabrics composed of two systems of filling (face filling and backing) and one system of 
warp, the heavy and soft-spun filling, known as the " backing," indicates itself, and thus the system 
of threads. 

Fabrics are generally dissected by in- 
vestigating the method of interlacing the 
filling into the warp; some fabrics require 
their weaves to be dissected by ascertaining 
the interlacing of successive warp-threads 
in the filling, such as the corkscrews, diago- 
nals and similar fabrics. Weaves in pile 
fabrics, such as velvets, Astrakhans, etc., are 
ascertained the quickest by analyzing the 
body structure. 

The instrument required for "picking 
out" is a strong needle with a sharp point. 
In some instances the microscope is found 
to be of much service. The work of picking 
out a sample is most readily accomplished 
by proceeding as follows :* 

Clear off the nap or fibres on the sur- 
face of the sample as previously mentioned. 
In fabrics without a nap this is, of course, 
not required. Next unravel sufficient filling 
on top of the fabric, and warp on the left 
hand side, to produce two fringed edges of 
say about ^ to y& inch in length. If you 
should desire to save, from the sample sub- 
mitted for analysis, as much as possible, 
make straight cuts with the scissors at a distance of about y 2 to ^ inches from where you want 
to stop dissecting threads. This procedure is illustrated by diagram Fig. 1009. A-B-C-D, sample 
submitted for "picking out." Arrow O direction of warp. Arrow O l direction of filling. 

*Use picking out of the filling from the structure in the example given for explanation. 




Fig. ioio. 



261 




Fig. ion. 



The cuts in the fabric are shown at the places indicated by e and f. Letter S indicates the 

place where the first warp-thread and the first pick meet — the point for commencing to " pick-out." 
After the sample is prepared according to the illustration just given, raise the first pick about 

tV of an inch with the "picking-out needle." See Fig. ioio. 

Place the sample in the left hand asshown in diagram ion, next ascertain the arrangement of 

interlacing pick number I, warp-ways, until repeat is obtained. 

Every time a warp-thread is found situated 
above the filling, put a corresponding indication 
on the respective square of the designing paper 
(with pencil marks or prick holes with the 
needle), whenever you find the filling covering 
(floating over) one, two or more successive 
warp-threads, leave correspondingly one, two 
or more successive squares empty in the lateral 
line of small squares upon the designing paper. 
After the intersecting of number I pick 
has been clearly ascertained liberate this pick 
out of the fringed warp edge and duplicate 
the procedure with pick number 2, to be fol- 
lowed by picks 3, 4, 5, etc., until the repeat is 
obtained. If dealing with a soft-spun filling 
yarn be careful in raising it, to avoid breaking 
the thread ; also be careful that after the 
interlacing of the pick has been ascertained, it 

is entirely removed so that no small pieces of the thread remain in the fringed part of the warp; 

for if such should be the case it might lead to mistakes in examining the next adjoining pick. 

III. Ascertaining Raw Materials Used in the Construction of a Fabric. 

In most cases an examination of the threads liberated during "picking-out" with the naked 
eye will be sufficient to distinguish the material used in the construction of the fabric yet sometimes 
it is found necessary to use the microscope or a chemical test for their detection. For example : Tests 
might be required to show whether a certain thread is all wool or whether a certain thread is 
all silk, etc. For solving such questions, the following methods are given : 

A common and ready method for ascertaining the difference between animal and vegetable 
fibres is to burn some of the threads of yarn in a flame. The vegetable fibre is composed of 
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while the animal fibre, in addition to these, contains nitrogen. 
Byburning.the threads used in testing the first mentioned fibre will result in carbonic acid and 
water, while those of the latter, or ofanimal fibre, result in combinations containing nitrogen which 
element readily makes itself known by its peculiar smell or disagreeable odor similar to burnt 
feathers. Another point which it is well to note is the rapidity with which the thread com- 
posed of vegetable origin burns as compared with the burning of the thread having an animal 
substance for its basis. In the latter case, only a little bunch of porous carbon forms itself at the 
end submitted to the flame, and it does not form a flame as in the case of the former. As in 
some instances these two tests will be found unreliable, a more exact analysis may be required. If 
so, proceed after one or the other of the following formulas: 

To Detect Cotton or other Vegetable Fibre in Woolen or Silk Fabrics. 

Boil the sample to be tested in a concentrated solution of caustic soda or potash, and the 
wool or silk fibre will rapidly dissolve, producing a soapy liquid. The cotton or other vegetable 



262 

fibre therein will remain undisturbed, even though boiling in weak caustic alkalies for several 
hours, care being taken to keep the samples below the surface of the solution during the opera- 
tion. If during this steeping process it is exposed to the air, the cotton fibre becomes rotten, 
especially when the exposed portions are also at the same time brought under the influence of 
steam. (Any cotton fibres remaining from the testing, if colored, may be bleached in chlorine 
water, and afterwards dissolved with cupro-ammoiiia.) 

Prof. E. Kopp gives the following test : " Wool is only soluble in cupro-ammonia by the 
aid of heat. Concentrated acids, such as sulphuric, nitric, or preferably hydrochloric, act in the 
cold upon silk, but not on wool. The dissolving properties of cupro-ammonia on all vegetable 
fibres, make it one of the most reliable of tests. Cupro-ammonia is prepared by suspending 
strips of copper in concentrated ammonia in a large flask, tightly corked and occasionally shaken, 
so as to bring the metal in contact with the oxygen of the air. By degrees a tolerably concen- 
trated solution of oxide of copper in ammonia is obtained which dissolves cotton, and other 
vegetable fibres, leaving animal fibres untouched." 

To Detect Silk from Wool or the Vegetable Fibres. 

Prof. Hummel gives the following process in his treatise on "The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics:" 
" The best solvent for silk is an alkaline solution of copper and glycerine, made up as follows : 
Dissolve 1 6 grams copper sulphate in 140-160 c. c. distilled water, and add 8-10 grams pure 
glycerine (Sp. Gr. 1.24) ; a solution of caustic soda has to be dropped gradually into the mixture 
till the precipitate at first formed just re-dissolves; excess of NaOH must be avoided." This 
solution does not dissolve either wool or the vegetable fibres and thus serves as a distinguishing 
test. 

Still another method is given, as follows: Concentrated zinc chloride, 138 Tw. (Sp. Gr. 1.69) 
made neutral or basic by boiling with excess of zinc oxide, dissolves silk, slowly if cold, but very 
rapidly if heated, to a thick gummy liquid. This reagent may serve to separate or distinguish 
silk from wool and the vegetable fibres, since these are not affected by it. If water be added to 
the zinc chloride solution of silk, the latter is thrown down as a flocculent precipitate. Dried at 
230 to 23 5 F the precipitate acquires a vitreous aspect, and is no longer soluble in ammonia. 

Rules for Arranging the Fabric to be Tested and Methods for Ascertaining the 
Various Percentages of Each Fibre Composing the Thread or Woven Cloth. 

Cut the sample to be tested to a known size with a sharp pair of scissors, or stamp out the de- 
sired quantity with a die, of which you know the exact size. Always use the largest sample avail- 
able and be very accurate in cutting to measure. Next weigh the sample upon a scale (of great ac- 
curacy) and make a careful memorandum of its weight; then submit the sample to one of the 
above mentioned tests (adapted to the material to be tested), and dry the remaining fibre. Weigh 
the latter after thoroughly dry and deduct the weight from the gross weight previously obtained. 
The remainder will represent the weight of the fibre dissolved by the test. 

" The amount of each kind of fibre in sample is in proportion to the percentage of each fibre 
in a full piece of clothr 

Example : Required to ascertain percentage of cotton and wool fibres in a fabric. 

Sample stamped with a die 2X4 inches = 8 square inches weighs 24 grains. Suppose 
the "caustic soda" process for testing is used and the refuse of cotton, dried, weighs 8 grains. 
Hence : 

24 grains gross weight of cloth 8 square inches. 
8 " weight of cotton in 8 square inches. 

16 " " " wool " 8 square inches. 



263 

Or, 8 grains cotton in 24 grains gross weight = 33^ per cent, of 100. 
16 " wool " 24 " " " = 66^ " " " 



24 " 100 

Answer : The cloth given for testing in the present example contains 33^ per cent, cotton 
and 66^3 per cent, wool, or, one-third of the mixture is cotton fibre and two-thirds wool fibre. 

IV. To Ascertain the Texture of Fabrics Required in Loom. 

Of all the different points required to be ascertained the present is probably the most difficult 
to master, in fact, it can only be accomplished after considerable practical experience. To mate- 
rially aid the novice in this work, it is strongly recommended that he provide himself with a col- 
lection of different samples of finished fabrics with the given amount of shrinkage of each during 
finishing. Such a collection he can afterwards use as a guide for ascertaining the texture of 
similar fabrics. 

The Shrinkage of a Fabric in Width from Loom to Case (or Finished State). 

The "setting" of a fabric in the loom, or the reed-space the warp must occupy during the 
process of weaving, compared to the width of the fabric when finished (ready for the consumer) 
is regulated by the raw material used, the manner in which the yarn has been produced, and the 
different processes the fabric is to be subjected to during finishing. 

Some kinds of woolen fabrics require a large amount of fulling, hence must be "set" wider 
in the loom than fabrics having a similar material for their basis but requiring very little or no 
fulling. For example, billiard-cloth must be "set" nearly twice as wide in the loom as its finished 
width, while beavers, kerseys, and similar woolen fabrics need to be "set" but about one-half 
their finished width wider, and fancy cassimeres from one-quarter to one-third. Worsted or 
worsted and cotton dressgoods mostly require but very little wider "setting" in the loom than the 
finished width of the fabric calls for. The weave itself has also a considerable influence in regu- 
lating the shrinkage. 

These general rules are worthy of consideration : The finer the quality, and the softer the 
filling is spun, the more the cloth will shrink in width. If the filling is hard twisted, and of a 
coarse nature, the cloth will have but little tendency to shrink. If the weave has a wide stitching, 
it will produce a narrower fabric than when the texture is more closely intertwined. The 
less tension put on the warp during weaving ("take-up") the narrower the fabric will be. In 
comparing woolen and worsted yarn, the former produces fabrics which shrink more in width 
than fabrics made with worsted yarn. This result, when produced from the same raw material, is 
based upon the two different processes of "carding" or "combing" the wool fibre. By carding 
the wool every fibre, through mixing up in every shape and direction, is twisted in itself, and such 
fibres always endeavor to resume their original position. By worsted combing the wool fibres are 
separately united, besides being combined in one thread. Each fibre is its own, as placed in posi- 
tion for forming the thread, and thus such a thread remains undisturbed in the fabric. The fabric 
constructed out of such threads will keep wider than if using a wool-spun yarn of equal size and 
under equal conditions. 

Shrinkage or Take-up of Warp During Weaving. 

We must also carefully consider the amount of take-up the warp is subjected to during 
weaving, and the amount of shrinkage in length the cloth undergoes during the finishing process. 
The latter point will not come into consideration in the case of fabrics which arc ready for the 
market when leaving the loom. The first mentioned shrinkage, or the "take-up" of the warp 
during weaving, is different, and varies from fabrics requiring two, three, four or more 



264 

times the length in dressing than the fabric length woven, to fabrics in which the warp-length 
dressed equals the fabric length woven or, if any difference, to be very little. 

The points given in the previous chapter on the shrinkage in width of a fabric also apply to 
the shrinkage of the fabric in length. The weave and the number of picks per inch are the chief ob- 
ject in regulating the take-up of the warp during weaving, for example, a fabric interlaced with a far 
stitching satin weave (say 8 to 12 harness) will "take-up" very little if any at all, unless we use an 
unusually high texture of warp and filling. Thus, the oftener a warp-thread intersects the filling 
in a given distance the greater the amount of take-up required for the warp. For this reason 
fabrics which have two systems of weaves combined — suppose i-inch wide plain weave 
to alternate with a 2-inch wide 8-harness satin = 3 inches repeat, 10 repeats in width of fabric — re- 
quire two beams — one beam to carry the warp for weaving the plain, and one beam for carrying the 
warp for weaving the satin. This also applies to worsted fabrics made with woolen back-warps. 
The amount of shrinkage in warp pile fabrics for its pile-warp is considerable. It is regulated by 
the height of pile required and the amount of wires or loops per inch. Such fabrics may often 
require their pile-warp dressed four to eight times longer than the piece measures woven. To 
ascertain the exact percentage of " take-up " for a fabric needs experience and can only be mastered 
after thorough study of the theory of constructing the different weaves, as well as the nature of 
the different raw materials, with their various methods of preparations for the yarns, and the vari- 
ous processes of finishing. 

V. Ascertaining the Arrangement of Threads in a Sample, According to their Color 

and their Counts, for the Warp and Filling. 

During the process of "picking out" a fabric sample, it will be advisable to indicate on the 
squared designing paper near each filling-thread as picked out, its color or general remarks as to 

thickness, twist, etc. Also, to indicate the colors and size of the 
I warp-threads as found in the sample dissected. (For illustration see 

Fig. 1 01 2.) By proceeding in this manner it will be found that after a 
certain number of successive threads in warp and filling have been 
picked out, the same arrangement of using threads of various colors 
or counts, or both combined in the sample, repeats over again. 
This is classified as the "repeat of the pattern." All repeats of a 
pattern must be similar to each other; thus, if we place two, three or 
more repeats of the sample above each other, they must in every 
instance cover itself in color, size or counts of threads, and method 
of interlacing. 

Again, if a number of these repeats are placed near each other in the direction of the warp 

and filling, they must connect. If patterns are found not to contain this peculiarity, or, in other 

words, " do not repeat," they must be arranged so as to have this peculiarity, or be made to repeat. 

The arrangement of the warp is known as the "dressing," while the arrangement of the filling 

indicates the building of the "box-chain" in practical work. 




a 

s 






ffl 



5 «j S 
" a o ■ = < 

1 3a«aiSnMaBiack. 

□□■■^■■□□■□■■□□■■Black. 

□■■nnMnMniMnniMninM Black. 
MManamnciMMaMnQMnn Blue. 



incut 

CM 

fir 




BBdtMnMBElMMaBlack. 

-' innMLMMDnMBlack. 



I:«g3Mrj*nnMnnMBiack. 



MCMCiCIMCtClBrown. 

Fig. 1012. 



VI. Ascertaining the Size of the Yarns (their Counts) Found in Sample, and the 

Amount and Direction of Twist. 

The size or thickness of a thread is ascertained generally by comparing the picked out thread 
with a collection of yarns of the same material and of a known size. For this purpose prepare 
a collection of woolen, worsted, cotton and silk yarns most commonly used. In fabrics requiring 
no fulling, or only a very little, such as worsted dress goods, etc, weigh a small sample of the 
threads and calculate from their length and weight the size of the yarn ; but as a general rule the 
first given method will be found quick, correct and less troublesome to the designer. Care must 



265 

be taken to compare threads of which the counts are required to be ascertained with samples of 
threads of a known size, which have previously been subjected to an equal amount of shrinkage 
by " fulling " etc.; or, if such a thread cannot be obtained, compare the picked-out thread with the 
standard threads of a similar material, but take into consideration the process the first mentioned 
thread has been subjected to during the finishing process of the fabric it was a part of. 

VII. Ascertaining the Weight of Cloth per Yard from the Loom. 

This subject, based entirely upon results obtained by previous points, forms the most inter- 
esting work in the analysis of cloth. Whatever the siz.e of sample may be which is submitted for 
examination, and whatever the quantity of yards of cloth to be produced, the weight per yard 
from loom will form the standard upon which future calculations in manufacturing must be based 
by figuring in proportion. After knowing the number of threads required in the width of a 
fabric submitted for analysis, the counts of the respective threads, and the dressing and the shrink- 
age of the warp in weaving, it will be easy to ascertain the weight of warp yarn required. 

Example A. Dressing: 4 threads black, 4 run woolen yarn. 



2 


« 


blue, 4 


<( 


.<< 


a 


4 


<( 


brown, 4 


it 


a 


it 



10 threads in repeat. 
3,600 ends in full warp, 6 per cent, shrinkage or take up of warp during weaving. 

Required: Find weight of warp yarn of each kind necessary for one yard of the woven 
fabric. 

100 — 6 = 94. Thus 94 : 100 : : 36 : x and 100 X 36 = 3600 -*- 94 = 38.3. 
Each individual thread requires 38.3 inches length dressed to produce 36 inches interwoven. 
Hence 3,600 X 38.3 = 137,880 inches = 3,830 yards of warp required to produce one yard of 
the woven fabric (plus amount of filling required). 

3,830 yards 4 run yarn equal in weight 9.575 oz , ten threads repeat of the pattern, thus: 
9.575 -=- 10 = O.9575 oz. weight in proportion for each thread, consequently: 

4 threads black = 4 X 0.9575 = 3.830 oz. per yard. - 
2 " blue = 2 X 0.9575 = 1.915 " " 
4 " brown = 4 X 0.9575 = 3.830 " " 



9.575 oz. total weight. 
Answer: The previously given example requires 

3.83 oz. 4 run black warp for each yard woven. 
1.915 " 4 " blue 
3.83 " 4 " brown 



consequently 9.575 oz. weight of complete warp in one yard woven (3,600 threads 4 
run yarn, six per cent, take up of warp). 

The threads used are not always of the same counts. Two, three or more different sizes of 
yarn may be called for in a fabric. If such is the case first ascertain the number of yards 
required of each kind and next their weight. Suppose the previously given example read as 
follows: Example B. 3,600 ends in warp — 6 per cent, shrinkage of warp in weaving. 

Dressing : 4 threads brown 2.30s worsted. 
2 " blue 2.28s 

4 " black 2.32s " 

10 threads repeat of pattern. 



266 

As explained in previously given example, 36 inches woven equal 38.3 inches dressed by- 
allowing six per cent, take up. 

3,600 ends in warp -*- by 10 threads in one repeat = 360 repeats of each thread; thus, 

4 threads brown 2.30s worsted = 360 X 4 = 1,440 threads (a). 

2 " blue 2.28s " = 360 X 2 = 720 " (b). 

4 " black 2.32s " = 360 X 4 = 1,440 " (c). 



10 threads in repeat. 3,600 threads in warp. 

a. Brown, requires 2.30s worsted = 8400 yards to 1 lb. 
36 : 38,3 : : 1440 : x 

38.3 x H4 -*- 36 = 1532 yards of 2.30s brown worsted required. 

8400 : 16 : : 1532 : x 

x 53 2 X i'6 7*- 8400 = 2.918 oz. of brown 2 30s worsted required for 1 yard cloth woven. 

b. Blue, calls for 2.28s worsted = 7840 yards to 1 lb. 
36 : 38.3 : : 720 : x 

38.3 x 7 2 ° -*- 36 = 766 yards of 2.28s blue worsted required. 

7840 : 16 : : 766 : x 

766 X 16 -^ 7840 = 1.563 oz. of blue 2.28s worsted required for 1 yard cloth woven. 

c. Black calls for 2.32s worsted = 8960 yards to I lb. The number of threads are equal to a, 
thus: 1532 yards of 2.32s black worsted required. 

8960 : 16 : : 1532 : x 

1532 X 16 -5- 8960 = 2.735 oz - °f black 2.32s worsted required for 1 yard of cloth woven. 

Answer : The previously given example requires the following amount of yarns : 

Brown, 2.30s worsted = 2918 oz„ 

Blue, 2.28s " = 1.563 " 

Black, 2.32s " = 2.735 " 

7.216 oz. weight of complete warp in 1 yard woven. 



TABLE OF RELATIVE LENGTHS 

Of Inches Dressed and One Yard Woven, with Reference to a "Take-up 

"Weaving, for 1 per cent, to 50 per cent. 



During 



Per cent, of take-up 
during weaving. 


Number of inches required 

dressed to produce one yard or 

36 inches woven. 


Per cent, of take-up 
during weaving. 


Number of inches required 

dressed to produce one yard or 

36 inches woven. 


1 


36-36 


13 


41.38 


2 


36-73 


14 


41.86 


3 


37-H 


15 


42.35 


4 


37-5° 


16 


42.85 


5 


37.89 


17 


43-37 


6 


38-30 


18 


43-90 


7 


38.71 


19 


44.44 


8 


39-13 


20 


45.00 


9 


39-56 


25 


48.00 


10 


40.00 


30 


51-43 


11 


40.45 


40 


60.00 


12 


40.91 


50 


72.00 



The next point for ascertaining the weight of cloth per yard from the loom is to ascertain the 
amount of filling required for one yard. 

To explain this subject let us continue the example previously given and indicated by A. 
Suppose those 3600 ends require 72 inches wide setting in reed (allowing 1 inch for width of 



267 

selvage on each side), and suppose the filling found used in sample submitted for analysis calls for 
3^ run black woolen yarn and 52 picks per inch in loom. 

Question: Find amount of filling required for weaving one yard. 

52 (picks) X 72 (width) = 3744 inches filling required for 1 inch of cloth, or 3744 yards of 
filling required for 1 yard of cloth. 

3744 yards of 3 *^ run filling (3744 -*- 350) = 10.697 oz. 

Answer : 10.697 oz. filling required for weaving 1 yard cloth in the present example. 

If two, three or more kinds of threads of various counts of fillings are used, ascertain each 
kind independent of the other. For illustration let us continue example B as previously given 
for ascertaining the warp. 

Suppose the width of fabric (including y^ inch selvage for each side) calls for 64 inches and 
the arrangement of filling for 6 picks 2.26s black worsted and for 6 picks 2.28s brown worsted 
= 12 picks in repeat of pattern and 56 picks per inch in fabric. 

Question : Find the amount of filling required for weaving I yard. 

56 (picks) X 64 (width) = 3584 yards of filling required to weave I yard of cloth. 

Thus: 3584 -h 2 = 1792 yards 2.26s worsted black (a), and 1792 yards 2.28s worsted 
brown (b), the filling required to weave 1 yard of cloth. 

a. 2.26s worsted (= 7280 yards to 1 lb.). Thus: 1792 : x : : 7280 : 16 
1792 X16 -*- 7280 = 3.938 oz. of 2.26s black worsted required. 

b. 2.28s worsted (= 7840 yards to 1 lb.). Thus : 1792 : x : : 7840 : 16 
1792 x J 6 -4- 7840 = 3.657 oz. of 2.28s brown worsted required. 
Answer : 3.938 oz. of 2.26s black worsted. 

3.657 oz. of 2.28s brown worsted. 

7.595 oz. the amount of filling required for weaving 1 yard of cloth in the present 
example. 
The next thing to be ascertained will be the amount of selvage threads to be used, and their 
respective weight. 

Suppose example A calls for 30 threads 2 run (woolen yarn) for selvage for each side of 
the fabric, thus 60 threads for complete selvage. 

+ 6 per cent, take-up = 63.82 yards of two run selvage, equal to 0.319 oz. of yarn for 1 
yard of woven cloth. 

For example B. allow 30 threads of 2.20s worsted for selvage on each side of the fabric ; thus 
60 threads for complete selvage. 

+ 6 per cent, take up = 63.82 yards of 2.20s worsted = 0.182 oz. of yarn for 1 yard of 
woven cloth. 

Example A. thus requires : 

9.575 oz. warp yarn, 
10.697 oz. filling, 
0.319 oz. selvage threads. 

20.591 oz. the weight of I yard of cloth from the loom. 
Example B. thus requires : 

7.216 oz. warp, 
, 7.595 oz. filling, 

0.182 oz. selvage threads. 

14.993 oz. the weight of I yard of cloth from the loom. 
After the weight of 1 yard of the cloth woven is ascertained it is easy to calculate the 
amount of yarn required for I piece of cloth or any number, by simply multiplying the weight 
per yard with the number of yards required. 



268 

For example : Suppose previously given example A to be applied to a fabric 40 yards " from 
loom." Thus : 

9.575 oz. X 40 = 383 oz. = 23 lbs. 15 oz. warp yarn, 
10.697 oz. X 40 = 427.88 oz. = 26 lbs. 11.88 oz. filling yarn, 
0.319 oz. X 40= 12.76 oz. = 12.76 oz. selvage. 

20.591 oz. total, 51 lbs. 7.64 oz. weight for 1 piece 40 yards long. 

Proof: 20.591 oz., weight of cloth per yard, x 4°, number of yards of cloth required, equals 
823.64 oz., -*- 16 — 51 lbs. 7.64 oz. 

Suppose the previously given example under B applied to the following — 
Question: Find the amount of yarn required for producing 20 pieces, each 50 yards long 
from loom, thus: 

20 pieces X 50 yards each cut = 1000 yards of cloth required, hence 
7.216 oz. X 1000 = 7216 oz. = 451 lbs. 
7.595 " X 1000 = 7595 " =474 " II oz. 
0.182 " X 1000= 182 " = 11 " 6 " 



14.993 937 lbs. 1 oz. weight required for 20 pieces, 

each 50 yards long, or 1000 yards of cloth woven. 

Proof: 14.993 oz. weight per yard of cloth X 1000 (number of yards of cloth woven) 
14993 oz. -*- 16 = 937 lbs. 1 oz. 

VIII. Ascertaining the Process of Finishing Necessary and the Amount of Shrinkage 

of the Fabric. 

The shrinkage of a fabric during finishing is regulated by the amount of fulling required. 
Woolen fabrics, and especially such as are constructed out of soft spun yarn, shrink more than 
any other textile fabric. 

In arranging the width of a fabric for weaving ("setting" in reed) we must calculate the 
amount of shrinkage of the fabric on the loom as well as during the process of finishing. The 
shrinkage in length of the fabric can more readily be regulated during the finishing process 
(fulling). Worsted fabrics, which require no fulling — only scouring — shrink very little, while 
cotton goods, which require only calendering or pressing, etc., do not lose any, and may possibly 
rather gain, in length. 

During the process of carding and spinning, oil, water, etc., are taken up by the wool, and 
during dyeing some of the dye-stuff will remain loosely in the yarn. These substances must be 
removed in the scouring of the cloth; therefore we must allow for a corresponding loss in weight 
for such fabrics from their relative weight in the loom until the fabric is scoured. 

The subsequent processes, such as gigging and shearing, will also reduce the previous loom 
weight of the fabric. Fabrics requiring none of these processes consequently need none of these 
considerations, while fabrics requiring a starching, calendering or flocking may even gain in 
weight during such an operation. 

The shrinkage of fabrics in finishing requires, similar to the two different widths (width of 
fabric when finished, and its width in reed), to figure in two different lengths during calculations. 
a the length of the cloth from loom, b its finished length. It will be easily understood that when 
orders are given for a certain number of yards from a buyer or the commission house, they con- 
sider the number of yards given as the "finished yards"; therefore the percentage that the fabric 
shrinks during the finishing process must be added for ascertaining the number of yards required 
"from loom," or woven. Take-up during weaving added, will give us a third length, or the length 
of warps dressed, while the shrinkage of a fabric in finishing regulates, as previously mentioned, 
the width of the fabric in loom, in addition to the width of the finished fabric. 



Appendix. 



A NEW METHOD OF DESIGNING WEAVES "BY FOUR CHANGES/' 

This novel procedure of obtaining new weaves is most excellently suited for the construction 
of broken-up weaves, technically called "granite" weaves, so extensively used for cheviots, cassi- 
meres and worsteds ; besides manufacturers of figured cotton and silk fabrics will find a great 
many of these weaves very useful. 

Rules for Constructing these Novel Weaves. 

This new method of designing weaves consists in placing one or two weaves, four times into 
each other ; every time (before starting any of the four changes) turn your designing paper 45 ° ; 
la5' out the plan for your new weave four times the size of the original weave or weaves and place 
(z. e., consider) the original weave or weaves always, only, upon the uneven points of interlacings 
(warp and filling ways) in the new weave. 

As previously mentioned we may use either one weave only for the construction of the new 
weave, or we can select two. Both procedures being readily explained by studying examples 
given hereafter. 

How many new Weaves can we make out of one Foundation Weave? 

There is no fast rule for answer, it depends on the size and kind of weave selected for foun- 
dation. 

Repeat of the new Weave. 

A 3 x 3 weave, i, e., a weave repeating on 3 warp threads and 3 picks, if used for foundation 
will produce a new weave repeating on 6 warp threads and 6 picks, 

since 3x3 = 9x4 changes = 36 possible points of interlacing, 

and 6x6 = (also) 36 possible points of interlacing. 

A 4 x 4 weave, i. e., a weave repeating on 4 warp threads and 4 picks, if used for foundation, 
will thus produce a new weave repeating on 8 warp threads and 8 picks, 

since 4x4 = 16x4 changes = 64 possible points of interlacing, 

and 8x8 = (also) 64 possible points of interlacing. 

A 5 harness weave, i. e., a weave repeating on 5 warp threads and 5 picks, if used for foun- 
dation, will thus produce a new weave repeating on 10 warp threads and 10 picks, 

since 5x5 = 25x4 changes = 100 possible points of interlacing, 

and 10 x 10 = (also) 100 possible points of interlacing. 

If a 10 x 10 weave is used for the foundation, the new weave will repeat on 20 warp threads 
and 20 picks, 

since 10 x 10 = 100 x 4 changes = 400 possible points of interlacing, 

and 20 x 20 = 400 possible points of interlacing. 

EXPLANATIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE PROCEDURE. 

3 Harness Weaves for Foundation. 



■ ■■ ;i if bbb 
■ law 



oocnm ~ma- » « t j» ** j ■ "5_" -' SSJ 

"cyB 3«bg ■ in; j 1 ■ r w 1 UBai 1 1 ■ ■■' >i b: bb 

,SRR ■_■ B S ' -MH 'Bill 1 W _. (II1IK1IIIM/J 

'B . ![ BB , , ■! BT, , B «fl , B r 3 ,S BBBTJIIBBBi: 

13 * * B II I IBM I 



W .11 «' J .■□' GB-. B BB B BB ] 

r d 



V 



; rl 



> P 0B^BBUuB^B R 

Fig. 1013. Fig. 1014. Fig. 1015. Fig. 101G. Fig. 1017. Fig. 1018. Fig. 1019. 

In this instance we used the combination of two weaves, viz. : Fig. 1013 the common 
i-j 3 harness twill (filling effect) and Fig. 1014 the common T 2 3 harness twill (warp effect). 

(269) 



270 

In diagram Fig. 1015 is shown : 

The first step towards producing the new weave. The size of the new weave according to rules 
previously given is (3 x 3 = 9 x 4 = 36 and -j/ 3 6 ==) 6x6, i. e., 6 warp threads and 6 picks. Ex- 
amining this diagram, Fig. 1015, we find the ^ 3 harness twill (see a type) placed on the design 
paper, considering only such squares as form the points of the interlacings of every uneven num- 
bered warp thread with every uneven numbered filling thread (1st, 3d and 5th end of each system). 

For a clear understanding of how to place said 3 harness twill (and in turn any ! 3 6 

other weave) on every uneven numbered warp and filling end the accompanying dia- b ddBB"B 5 

gram, Fig. 1015*, is given; in the same the counting off of the foundation weave is iS°dBBBi 

shown for "risers" or "taken" corresponding to Fig. 1015 by a type, whereas the fig. 1015*. 
' ' sinkers " or " left ' ' are shown by d type. 

The second step for designing the new weave is to turn the diagram Fig. 1015 (see position of 
letter of reference a) 45 ° to the left and next insert the y^ 3 harness twill weave Fig. 1014 upon 
the points of interlacings of the uneven numbered warp and filling ends (see a type) in weave Fig. 
1016. 

The third step consists in turning the diagram again 45 ° to the left (see position of letters of 
references a and b) and insert again the -^ 3 harness twill Fig. 1013 upon the points of interlacings 
of the uneven numbered threads. This procedure is clearly shown by a type in weave Fig. 1017. 

The fourth step consists in turning the diagram again 45 ° to the left (see position of letters of 
references a, b and c) and insert again the j 1 3 harness twill weave Fig. 1014 upon the points of 
interlacings of the uneven numbered threads, as clearly shown by □ type in weave Fig. 1018. 

This finishes the new weave, and which for the sake of clearness we thus show in Fig. 1019 
with four repeats in one kind of type. 

New Weaves Out of the Same Foundation Weaves. 

As previously mentioned, we can design more than one new weave out of each foundation 
weave ; however, no fast rule for a certain number of weaves thus possible to be obtained, can be 
laid down, since in some instances the same new weave will result ; and this not only with the 
same foundation weave but also with different ones. (However, the amount of new weaves de- 
rived by the present system of designing is endless, and this accomplished in a most easy manner.) 

For explaining the subject of obtaining a new weave out of the same foundation weaves the 
accompanying diagrams, Figs. 1020 to 1026, are given. In the present instance we placed the 3 
harness foundation weaves in a different position for starting, as shown by weaves Figs. 1020 and 
102 1. 

□BDGBBDBOCBB 
DDBBBDDDBBBC 
BQDBDBBDDBDB 
BOBDDBBDBDDB 

I,.-. BOD 1 DOBQBD EBDDDDD DDHBOD DBBBDI DflBBD I 

_^y \_mw nnnnnn innrrn nianan rannsng ■■nn«rm«i-.r^«i i 



■ BBD 



DDDDDD 
BDDDDD 
DDDDDD 
DDDDBD 
DDDDDD 
GDBDDD 


□DDDDD 
■■□□□■ 
DDDDDD 
DIIDBBD 
DDDDDD 
DDBBDB 


HDBBDD 
fflOODDD 
DBBDBD 
□ODOBD 
WDDDBB 

□Dffloaa 


pbddbb 

DDHBOD 
HOdBQB 

HOHDDB 
DBBHDD 
HBDDHD 


Fig. 1022. 


Fig. 1023. 


Fig. 1024. 


Fig. 1025 



■DDBDBBDDBU 



HWn ■ ■ DDDDBD ■DBDDD DDDDBD HOHDDB DBDDBBDBDDL 

1 '" ' m '- M DDDDDD QDBDOD WDDDBB GWSBOD DDBBBCiDDBBBD 

gdbddd sdddbd gdaddq hbddha bdgbdbbddbdb 

Fig. 1020. Fig. 1021. Fig. 1022. Fig. 1023. Fig. 1024. Fig. 1025. dbbbBddbbbdd 

bbqdbdbbcdbd 
Fig. 1026. 

The first step of designing the new weave is shown by diagram Fig. 1022 ; the second step of 
designing the new weave is shown by diagram Fig. 1023 ; the third step of designing the new 
weave is shown by diagram Fig. 1024 ; the fourth step of designing the new weave is shown by 
diagram Fig. 1025 ; and the new weave thus obtained is shown in one kind of type (four repeats) 
in weave Fig. 1026. 

Comparing this weave, Fig. 1026, with the weave, Fig. 1019, of the former example, we find 
two totally different weaves obtained from the same foundation weave, and this by means of the same 
procedure, only placing the foundation weave in a different position for starting. 

Subjecting the same foundation weaves (the ^ and T - 3 harness twill) to their next change 
in position, see weaves Figs. 1027 and 1028, we obtain by means of the characteristic four changes 



271 

shown by diagrams Figs. 1029, 1030, 1031 and 1032, the new weave Fig. 1033 but which corre- 
sponds exactly with the one obtained in the previous example (weave Fig. 1026). 



OBD 
BGG 
GGB 



Fig. 1027. 



BBG 

Fig. 1028. 



GGGGGa 
GGBGGG 
GGGGGG 
HGGGGG 
GGGGGa 

aaaaBG 
Fig. 1029. 



aaBaaa 

■DGGHG 
GQGGBG 
GGUGBG 

BGGaaa 
■aaaaa 

Fig. 1030. 



■BGGBG 

aaBaaa 

HG^GGB 

Baoccn 

GGBBaiG 
DGGGBa 

Fig. 1031 



DDHBDH 

EGGGHB 
DBDBBQ 

DBHGQG 
BBGGGB 
CJ. □■ ... 

Fig. 1032. 



nDBBDBaOBBDB 
B BBS ■■ 

. ■ ■■: ■ ■■ 

GBBUBGGBBaBa 
BB. . ■■BGGGB 

■ :■■:<:■ bbzg 
dgbbgbggbbgb 
bgggbbbggdbb 

[ BGBBGGB ■■ 

gbbobogbbgbg 
bbdggbbbgggb 
bgbbggbgbbgg 

Fig. 1033. 



This feature of obtaining the same new weave will occur, more or less often ; however it is 
insignificant compared to the endless number of new weaves we can obtain by means of this new 
system of designing. 

4 Harness Weaves for Foundation. 

As readily understood by the student, the larger the repeat of the foundation weave, the more 
motives (foundation weaves) are found, and in turn the more new weaves we can produce. 

Let us start with the most simple motive, i. e. , the --% and y^ twill for foundation as repre- 
sented by weaves Figs. 1034 and 1035. 



DGGB 

QOBD 
DBGG 
BOGQ 


■ BBG 
BBGB 
BUBB 
UBBB 


naaaaaaa 
aaaaGGBG 
DaaaaaGG 
DGGGBaaa 
DoaauGaa 
aaBaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
Baaaaaaa 


Bacaaaaa 
■GBGBaaa 
aaBaaaaa 

■GHGaGBG 

GDuGBaan 

■GGGHQBQ 

aaaaGGBG 

GGBOBaBa 


GCBGBGBB 

aaaaaasa 

BGGGBBBG 
DGGGBQaa 
BaBBGGBa 

aaaaaaaa 

■BBGBGGa 

saaaaaaa 


BBaBOBOa 

□Baaaaaa 

PBaBGGGil 

□aaBaaaa 

USGGHWail 

HaaasBaa 
aoaw 'issm 
DaaasaHB 


G. 1034. 


Fig. 1035. 


Fig. 1036. 


Fig. 1037. 


Fig. 1038. 


Fig. 1039. 



BBGB~B jaBBOBOBaa 

■■■ BaaaBBBaBaa 
liii . g ■ ■■■ :: iuB 

B GBBG ■ 9 JBBGGBa 
DBGCBBGBGBGGBBGB 
BaGGBBBGBGGGBBBG 
GG' B ■■■ 7 B BBB 

: ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■■ 

BB II jM jBjBuG 

■ ■■ ■ 1 . '■■■ ■ 

I .BB* . ■ III ;.'JB 

BGBBGGB GB 3BBGGBQ 

PBGGBB JBGBGJBBGB 
BGaaBBBGBGGGBBBG 

aai ■ bbb .: ; ■ ■■■ 
: :■ 1 11 ■ 1 11 

Fig. 1040. 



In diagram Fig. 1036 we find the first step for producing the new weave ; in diagram Fig. 
1037 the second step ; in diagram Fig. 1038 the third step ; and in diagram Fig. 1039 the last step ; 
the complete new weave thus produced, being shown in one style of type and for a better view 
executed with four repeats in Fig. 1040. 

The next motive for producing a new weave would be to change the position of starting the 
foundation weaves (the beginning of the two 4 harness twills). 



CGBG 
GBGO 

Baaa 
aaaB 



Fig. 104:. 



BBGB 
BGBB 
QUI 

■ ■■ ] 



Fig. 1042 



aaaaaaac 
aaaoBuaa 
aaaaaaaa 
namaaaaa 
Gaaaacaa 
BGGacaca 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaBa 

Fig. 1043. 



aaBaaaaa 

HGHGGGSflG 
OGGGBGaa 

■aaa»ana 
ooaaaaBD 

1 ■ ; i 

Baaaaaaa 
Baaaaaaa 

Fig. 1014. 



■BGGBGBG 

aGGGBGGG 

BaeaaasB 

naaaaaaa 
■Gsauaa 
a a . . 1 
aowBBaaa 
aaaaaaaa 

Fig. 1015. 



CGSHGnGFI 
HGHGOQEB 

anjuanua 

QBijGULjaa 
ariat luufflu 
a ggbh jhg 

B' LGGNGH 
BGaGHBGa 

Fig. 1016. 



□aBBGBaBGDBBGBaB 
BOBOL" BBI .1 II 

[ ■ .BIB il r ■ :■■■ I 
BBaaBaBGBBaGBGBG 
aBQBaaBBaBGBGGBB 

■■■ ■ ■■■ ■ 
BB '_. B .BBB i.iGIOI 
B BGBB. <: ■ B BB 
aaBBGBGBGCBBGBGB 
BQBGGaBBBnpuaGBB 
GBaBBBanGBGBBBGa 
■ ■ B B IB .. B B I 
GB 'B . IB. B B BB 

aaBBBGBaaaBBBaB 1 

Hj ; B 'BBB 1 ■ B 

■aBaBBaaBGBGBBaa 
Fig. 1047. 



This is shown by Figs. 1041 and 1042. Diagram Fig. 1043 represents the first step ; diagram 
Fig. 1044 represents the second step; diagram Fig. 1045 represents the third step ; and diagram 
Fig. 1046 represents the last step for designing the new weave, which again is shown in one style 
of type — four repeats — in Fig. 1047. 



PB . . 

Bapa 
aaaa 
aaaa 



Fig. 1018. 



■ ■■ 

I BBB 
BBB 
BB B 



Fig. 1049. 



oaagnaaa 
aaBaaaaa 

1 1 ; j ] 

B : 

I , I I 

. B . 

[J J I ' 

LJ i .. B I 

Fig. 1050. 




Fig. 1051. 




Fia L052, 



H 1 :':■:: ! 

i ii iffli 1 

1 :: iq am 

Bl I JIJ i I'Ji J 

: '■' : !B • ii ] 
[ il Iffii I 

a :;b h 
Fig. 1053. 



PB .GBB 

B i: ■ ■■ 
PGOBUB 


nini i ib 

B B IB 
BB , B 


■a 

BB 
BB 


B 

i 

B 


BB B B 


■ I B 


B 




BBB B 

L 1BBB 1 J 


BBB ■ 
[ IBGBBBU 




i 


B BB 
B i BB 


B iB ;BB 1 

b. ;bg b 


B 
B 
BB 


B 


B i II 


B B B 




:b b 


II 11 B 


■ B 
B 

a 


B 


1 B B 

BB iB B 
BBB B 


■ ■ r m ■ 

.in ■' 1 
■■■ ■ 


B 


1 BBB' . 
BGBB IP 


■ ■■■ 1 

I B II , I 


B 



FIG. 1051. 



The next motive of changing the present foundation weaves is given in Figs. 1048 and 1049. 
Diagrams Figs. 1050, 105 1, 1052 and 1053 represent the respective four changes for designing 
the new weave Fig. 1054, but which is a duplicate of weave Fig. 1040. 



272 



Trying to produce another weave by the next change in position of the foundation weaves as 
shown in Figs. 1055 and 1056 results in a duplicate of the formerly given weave Fig. 1047 



as 



■ana 
gggb 
ggbg 

DBGQ 



Fig. 1055. 



cmmm 
■■■ 1 
■■ ■ 
b._bb 



Fig. 1056. 



DODDDDDa 

■aoomoa 

DDCDDDDD 
QQCinODBO 

dddgdggu 

aaaaBaaa 

BPDDDGDa 
DBDDDGa 

Fig. 1057. 



DDDnDDBD 
GDHaBGBG 
■nDDaDDD 

■GBCBaaa 
DDHnnnaa 

HGH jDDIG 
DDDDBCaa 
■QDDHDBn 

Fig. 1058. 



BGBGBBOa 

fflDDDDDDD 
GGHBUCBG 
DGGGGafflG 
■■GGBGHG 

aaaafflGQa 
mamaaamm 
au&oaaaa 

Fig. 1059. 



GBGaaasB 

GGHHHGHG 

fflHaaaMGB 
HaauaBoa 

GGfflBGHGB 
BGEGGGBB 
GOGWfflBQG 

□■aaaaHG 
Fig. 1060. 



□ ■ -■ HMT .iMJBarM 
DUBBB--.B_.Ci 'BBBDBG 

■bgggbgbbbggobgb 
■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ bb : 

GuBBUBGBT'GBBGBGB 
■GBGGGBBBGBGGGBB 
GBGHBGCGBQBBBGG 
BBGGBGBGBBGGBGBG 
OBGIGGBBGBGBGGBB 
I ■■■ ■ )DC BBBGBJ 
BBOGGBGBBB GDBljB 

■ 1 •■ b:b_bb_g 
ogbbqbgbggbbgbgb 
bgbgg' bbbgbgdqbb 
gbgbbbgggbgbbbgg 

BBGGBGBUBBGGBGBa 

Fig. 1061. 



clearly shown by diagrams, (four changes), Figs. 1057, 1058, 1059, 1060, and weave Fig. 1061. 

These duplicate examples have been quoted and illustrated to make the student more familiar 
with the subject, i. e., not to get disappointed if any time obtaining a duplicate weave. 

Obtaining duplicates of new weaves is not always the result with all foundation weaves, as 
clearly demonstrated by the next example the four harness broken twills ^ and j&; and which 
produce in every instance a totally different new weave. 



DDBO 
DGGB 
GBGQ 
BGDQ 



Fig. 1062. 



BBGB 
BBBG 

5GBB 
BBB 

Fig. 1063. 



Daaaoana 
aaaaBaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaGBD 
aaaaGaaa 
DGBaaaaa 
aaoaaaca 
■Gaaaaaa 

Fig. 1064. 



BGnaDGGG 
HGBGGaBG 
DGBGaGGQ 

■ananaGG 

GGGGGGBG 

aoaaiiDiia 
aaoamaan 

DGBQBQUa 

Fig. 1065. 



GGBGHaUB 

aaaafflGGG 

■GGGBBBG 

aaaaaGa3a 

■BKGBDDD 

GGBGaaaa 

HGBBGGBG 

Eaaaaaaaa 
Fig. 1066. 



fflBDBGBGD 

□GHBGGQG 

an_3iiaaaB 

EBBaSGGG 
GGGH JHfflH 

□ajaaBaa 
Diiaa_3BGB 

DGHGHGaB 

Fig. 1067. 



BBGBnBDGBBGBOBnn 
BgBBanBDBCBBGaBD 
DBBBljij _>■' ■■■QGDB 
BBBGBGGGBBBGBDDD 

GGGIGBaBGaOBaiflB 
BGGGBBBGBGGGBBBO 

aBaaB__OBGBaaB_-GB 

GGBGBGBflGGBGBGaB 
BBGBGBGGBlGBGBgG 

SjBBDaBaBDBBGDBa 
BBBGGGBGBBBGGGB 
BBGB ■".; BBB JBGDD 
GGGBaBBBaaGBOBBB 
BGGGBIBGBGGOBBBG 
<■■■■■ ■■ ■ 

dgbgbgbbggbgbgbb 
Fig. 1068. 



Weave Fig. 1062 shows us the i-g- 4 harness broken twill filling effect, which is used in con- 
nection with weave Fig. 1063 the T ^ 4 harness broken twill warp effect in the construction of the 



new weave. 



Diagrams Figs. 1064, 1065, 1066 and 1067 are the four changes necessary for constructing the 
new weave Fig. 1068. 



DBGD 
GGBD 
BGGG 
DGGB 



Fig. 1069. 



BBBG 

Fig. 1070. 



DGCGGGGG 

GGBGaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
QGGGBaaa 
aoooaaaa 
Baaaaaca 
aaaaaaaa 
DaaaaaBG 

Fig. 1071. 



DGBaaaaa 

■aaaaGBG 
aaaaaaBa 
■GBaaaiia 
GaaaBaaa 

DDBDWGBD 

Baaaaaaa 
■aBGBaaa 

Fig. 1072. 



■Baaaaea 
aaeaaaaaa 

HGBGBaaB 

aaaafflaan 

MGbMGGBG 

EBaaan lao 
cawaBBB'j 
aaaaaaffla 

Fig. 1073. 



aafflBGBGB 

□aaataaHB 
GHaannffla 

BGBBDGBG 
GfliJlifflUGB 
DBBGEGEG 

Baanaaas 

HaHGHBGG 

Fig. 1074. 



DGBBGBGBGGBBDBGB 
■DDDBQBBBDDDBDBB 
DBaBGBBaaBaBCBBG 
BJBBL.i ■BGBGBB_.GBG 
GBGGBB . BGB. II BBGB 
OBBGBOBOGBBGBGBO 
OB ■ ■■■ ■ ■ 
BuB .BB BDBQBB 
1 BB B B BB ■ ■ 
BQGOBaBBBGOCBGBB 
LB DBGBBuGBrBGBBO 
BGBBG B< B-BBGGBQ 
I B 1 BB BGBaaBBGB 
GBBGBOflGGBBGBGaO 
BBGBCl»_BBBi_iB_.GGB 
BGBGBBGGBGBGBBDO 

FIG. 1075. 



The next change in position of the (4 harness broken twill warp and filling effect) foundation 
weaves as used in the previous example is shown by weaves Figs. 1069 and 1070. 

Diagrams Figs. 1071, 1072, 1073 and 1074 are the four changes necessary for obtaining the 
new weave Fig. 1075. 



BGOD 
QBGG 
GGGB 

GGBG 



Fig. 1076. 



GBBB 

a bb 

BBB I 

BBUB 



Fig. 1077 



ocaaaaaa 
BGGGQaaa 
GGaaaaaa 
aaBaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaoQBG 
aaaaaGUG 
aaaGBaaa 

Fig. 1078. 



DaaaaaBG 

DGHGBCBa 

aaaaBaaa 

BGGGBaMJ 

Baaaaaaa 

HDB____ODD 

aaBaaaaa 
■UBaaGBa 

Fig. 1079. 



■GBBaaaa 
EGaaaoaa 

■BBGaGBG 

GQB-aaaaa 
aamaBBBa 

DDDDGafflD 

1 ! 1 1: IGWB 

aaaaB3aaa 
Fig. 1080. 



aaaacB_3B 
aanaaBQa 

DCDBBkOH 

□acaaaBB 
EaBGHLiaaa 
BGBBBaaa 
U1-1B.1 laBaa 
BBaaaaBG 

Fig. 1081. 



□■DDDBBBGBGGaBBia 
Ll.IHGi'. B BBBG 
DGQBBBGBGGGBBBriBl 
BGGGBGBBBGGOBGBB 
BBGBaGGBflBGBGGOB 
BGBBBGGGBGBBBGGG 
CBBBGBODDBBBDBDD 
BBBGGGBGBBBGGaBO 
DBGGUBBBaBDDaBBB 
C 1 ■:■■■ '"'UB'.BBBD 
GGGBBBaBaaaBBBaB' 
■ B BBB B BB 
BB' B : I BBB ■ l( B 
B BBB B BBBDDG 
OBBBGBGGGBBBGBGD 
BBBGGGBGBBBGGGBG 

FIG. 1082. 



The next position for placing our foundation weaves is shown by Figs. 1076 and 1077. 
Diagrams Figs. 1078, 1079, 1080 and 108 1 illustrate the four changes necessary for con- 
structing the new weave Fig. 1082. 



273 



The final position for commencing the construction of a new weave with 
broken twill weaves — warp and filling effects — is given in Figs. 1083 and 1084. 



DDDB 
BDGD 
DDBO 
DBDD 



Fig. 1083. 



■■a 

■■■ 
■■ ■ 

BDBfl 



Fig. 1084. 



GCGDaDDG 
DGGGGGBD 
DGDDDQaa 

BGoaaaQG 
DDDDcaaa 

DDDDBQDD 

nanaaana 
gdbggggd 

Fig. 1085 



□GGDBDDD 

■DBDHDDD 

BDaaaaaa 

□□■DBGHG 

aDBaaaaa 
■GBanaiia 

GGGDDDBD 
■GDDBGHa 

Fig. 1086. 



BGBODBBa 
UGGGUQBJ 
□GBBBuaG 

BnaaaGGG 

■□□DBDBB 

DGGGBaaa 

BBBGBaaG 

ddbdgdgd 
Fig. 1087. 



DBGHBGGB 

BBaaanan 

BBGaGBQB 
GDHGHBtaa 
OBBBQHGD 
HDQQDDaB 
UGDBGBfflB 

HGQBaaaa 
Fig. 1088. 



our four harness 



GBGBBDGBGBDBBDDB 
■ BB a ]DDBBB BDGD 
BBGQGBGBBBGGGBGB 
D B BBBDGI ■ BBB.J 
GBBBGBD IGBBBGB .1 
BGBGGGBBBDBGGGBB 
1GGB BBB. ..... I III 

D. BB B. .B , BB. B J 
GBDBBGGBDBQBBGGB 
■BBGBGGGBBBGBGGD 
■BGGDBGBBBGGGBGB 
GC B III B BBB 1 

aaa B G bbb:b 

III BBB B •■ 

DGDBDBBBjGDBnBBB 

bggbbgbgbggbbgbd 
Fig. 1089. 



Diagrams Figs. 1085, 1086, 1087 and 1088 explain again the characteristic four changes neces- 
sary for obtaining the new weave Fig. 1089. 

The result of the combination of two fancy 4 harness uneven sided weaves Figs. 1090 and 
1 09 1 is given in the new weave Fig. 1092. 



1090. 



H 



1091. 



:■ 



FlC.i09Z. 




(09<* 



FlC.1095. 





1100, 



Fi&.iioi 



The next position of said two foundation weaves is given by Figs. 1093 and 1094 and their 
combination results in the next new weave Fig. 1095. 

The third position of the two foundation weaves is given by Figs. 1096 and 1097 and the 
result of their combination in the third new weave (from the same foundation weaves) Fig. 1098. 

The fourth or last possible position for said two foundation weaves is given by Figs. 1099 
and 1 100 and the new weave thus obtained by Fig. 1 101 . 

We now come to the first even sided weave for the foundation (considered with reference to 
its appearance on the design paper) the --j rib- weave (warp effect) given in Fig. 1102. 



DBDB 
UBDB 
BDBG 
■DBD 


ODOnDODD 
DBDBGDDD 
DDGGaDDD 
□DGDGBGB 

GBGBaaaa 
caanaaan 

GaDGGBGB 


BDBDODDD 
DUBDDDBn 

dddgbgbd 
ddbdccbq 
b b: [ 
bdddbddd 
naaaBGBn 

■DDDBDDD 


HDBBDDDB 
DDBDGDBn 
DDDBnDBB 
UDBDDDBD 

riBnaDBGD 

fflGDDfflDDD 

DBGGPIBBD 

BaaaBDoa 


BGBnDDDB 
GBBBDDBD 
GDLJi IBGBI 1 

noanuBBB 
fflfiaaar-ica 
BBGBanaa 
01 -a iffli ran 

EDGGBBCB 


Fig. 1102. 


Fig. 1103. 


Fig. 1104. ., 


Fig. 1105. 


Fig. HOG. 



BDBBnaOBBGBBGGGB 
I JBBfl JnBGGBBflnGBD 
DDGBBGBBGGGBBGBB 
GGBZi BBB i B ■■■ 
BBB , B BBB ', ■ ,U 
■BLiBB » III' II ; :l I 

■ BBB B BBB 
B BB BB BB B 
BDBBGGDBBaBBUnGB 
1 BBB B JBBBCCBD 
I D II BB! 'i I BB' BB 
OGBDDBBBGGBGDBBB 
■BB f I III BUI I 
■■DBBODDMGMUDa 
< * , BBB ■ I BBB 
B BB BB il BB ■ 

Fig. 1107. 



Diagram Fig. 1103 illustrates the first step of the four changes ; Diagram Fig. 1104 illus- 
trates the second step of the four changes ; Diagram Fig. 1105 illustrates the third step of the 
four changes ; Diagram Fig. 1 106 illustrates the last step of the four changes; the new weave 
being shown in (one kind of type) Fig. 1107. 



m 



1108. 







































Fic 


1105 


. 





m 



IIIY, 



■Fici.iiii. 



Fichu. 

















Fi&.iiis. 





A fancy four harness weave (even sided effect) is shown in Fig. 1108 and the weave obtained 
from it is given in Fig. 1 109. 



274 

The next position of the foundation weave (motive) is given in Fig. mo and the new weave 
obtained from it in Fig. 1 1 1 1 . 

The third position of our foundation weave (motive) is given in Fig. 1 1 12 and the new weave 
obtained by this position in Fig. 11 13. 

The fourth and last possible position of our present foundation weave (motive) is given in 
Fig. 1 1 14 and the new weave obtained in Fig. 1 1 15. 

5 Harness Weaves for Foundation. 









nGBGG 


BBGBB 


Dacca 


BBBBG 


GBGGG 


BGBBB 


DGGBG 


BBBGB 


BGGGG 


GBBBB 


Fig. 1116. 


Fig. 1117. 


BGanamaaa 


DaBGBGBGBB 


HGBGGaBGBa 


aaaafflaaaGG 


GGGGBaaaaa 


BGBBGGBGBG 


HGHGBGBGGa 


DjTGGGGCaHG 


naOOGQDDBG 


■GBOBGBBOa 


■GGGBGBGBG 


aafflGaaaaaa 


CjBJGGGGGG 


■BGGBGBDBG 


HGHGSGGGBG 


GaaaaafflaaG 


DaaGGGBGaa 


HG^QflBGGBG 


aaBGBGBGBa 


EaaaaaGaaa 


Fig. 1119. 


Fig. 1120. 



aaaaaacaaG 
aaaaBGGGGa 

DaaaGGGGGG 
DDGGGGGGBG 
GGGGGGGGGG 

DGBGaaGaaa 
aaGGGGaaaa 
aaaaaGBaaa 

GGGGGGGGGa 

BGaaaaaaaG 
Fig. 1118. 



HSGBGaGSGG 
HGHBGGaGa.G 
GBGaBBJSGe. 

hgqdeghbgg 

DBJBJBGGfflfl 

□bgg-_g__ghq 

DDfflBGBGBJM 
□GHGHBGGaa 

dbgb -asm M 
DGnaaGHGaB 

Fig. 1121. 



BBaflUBnBDGBBDBGBGBGG 

■■■■■■■■ a ■ 

DIG.1I.iIjI.Ij ■■ BOB 

B_B ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ OB 

DBDBQBGGBBGBGBGBGGBB 

BBGQBC BGBGBBDGBGB B 

GGBBGBGBaBGGBBGBGB B 

BGBGBBGGBGBGBGBBGGBJ 

GBGBGGBBaBGBGBGGBBGB 

GGB'IBGBliBBGGB.B BGBB 

BB_B ■:.»_ ■■ iB ■ Bij.J 

BGBBGGBGB JB .IB'. ' IjIJ 

DBGGBBOBGBGBGGBBGBGB 

BQBGBGBBGGBGBGBGBBGG 

GBGBGBGGBBGBGBGBGGBB 

■BGGBGBGBGBBDGBGBGBG 

GGBBGBGBGBGGBBGBGBDB 

BGBGBBGGBGBGBGBBGGBG 

DBGBGGBB DBDBDB ] ■■ !B 

aaBaBGBGBBGGBGBGBGBa 

Fig. 1122. 



In Fig. 1 1 16 the 5 leaf satin filling effect is given which, with its corresponding warp effect — 
Fig. 1 1 17 — is used in the construction of the new weave Fig. 1122 ; being derived by the charac- 
teristic four changes given in diagrams 1118, 1119, 11 20 and 1121. 



GBGGa 
GGGBG 

Baaaa 

GDBGG 
GGGGB 


BGBBB 
BBBGB 
■ ■■■ 
BBGBB 
BBBBG 


Fig. 1123. 


Fig. 1124. 


DGaaBaaaaa 

BGGGBGBGBG 

GaaaaaaaBG 

■DBDBDDGBG 

DGBGGGaaaa 

DGBaBGBGBa 

aaaaaaBGaa 

HGaGGGBGBG 

BacaaGaaaa 
■aBGBGBGaa 


■BBGGGBGHG 

aasaaaaaag 

■GBGBBBDGG 

GGGaaaHaaG 
«aaaaaaaaB 
fflGaGaaaaGG 

BGSBBGGGSG 
DDDOHODDDO 

DDBGBGBBBG 
DDDGGGCaBa 


Fig. 1126. 


Fig. 1127. 



DDGGDaGGGG 

DGBaaaaGDG 

DOGGOD-ODD 

aDGDaaBGaa 
ddgjcdgdod 

BGGGGDDCna 
DOODDODDDQ 

DDDDBGDGDG 

aaaaaaacaa 
aaGaaGCGBa 

Fig. 1125. 



aaaBsaGBaa 

□aCC_3G_}GHB 
DHDBDDUIlfflB 

□G__B__aaa__G 

db_3Bdbdbgg 

DGnGHGHBHG 

gbgg .mmmcm 

__B__GGJ__C__G 
B-UDBaBDODB 

Qaaa__B__aca 
Fig. 1128. 



DGGBBBGBGBGGGBBBGBGB 

■ MB ■■■ 1.', BOBC'BB 
■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■■■ 

BCBBBQaaBDBDBBaaCDBQ 
DBBBOBDBGG' .. BBBGBCB Z G 

■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■■■' 

cbg'_obbb_b7b gibbbdb 
■■■::<:■_■:<■■■ ■--bob-.i 
■■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■ 

BGBGBBBG H '1B1 BOBBBuGG 
GGGBflBGBGBGaGBBBDBGB 

■ ■ ■ :■■■ I IBGBGBB 
GBGBGaaBBBGBGBDDGBBB 

BGBBBaaaBGBaBBBaaaBa 

DlllMI 'iB:. 1 JGBBBGBGBGG 

■ :b_ibbb< 1 ' mm ■■bg 

I..B ■■ 11 ■■■ 'B"'B'J'_ BBB.'B 
BBBGGGBGBGBBBGGGBOBG 

■ ■ Bi"_"BZG'"BBBriB-BG:CB 
■JIjIII II III 

Fig. 1129. 



The next position for placing our motives or the foundation weaves, is given in Figs. 1123 
and 1 124. 

Diagrams 1125, 1126, 1127, and 1128 illustrate the four changes required to produce the new 
weave Fig. 1129. 



DGGDB 
GBGGG 
GGGBG 
BGGQG 
GGBGD 


BBBBG 

■ ■■■ 
BBDBB 


Fig. 1130. 


Fig. 1131. 


DDGaaaaDBG 
aamamomama 

DGBDGGZCuG 

HG^aaQOQBa 

DGGG rjGBOGG 
■GBaBGBGDU 

BGaaGpaaaa 
BaaGaGaaaa 

DGGGBaGGGG 
BGBGBGZGBG 


■GBBBGBDan 

ffl laDGGGaaa 
BaoaiiaBBBa 

DGGaSGGGGG 
HaBDUDDDBD 

GDaaGGGGBG 

dubdbbbdbg 
ddbdddqugg 

BDBGDGBCiB 

DDaaaaaaDDa 


Fig. 1133. 


Fig. 1134. 



nGGGGGGGGG 
BGGGGG jGGG 

DGGGaaGGGa 

DDDGBGQCDa 

cnaaaGaacQ 

DGGGGGGGBG 
BGGGGCGQGG 
OaBCOOGDGn 

GaaGGGGGaa 

DGGGGGBaQG 

Fig. 1132. 



oaaGGBG^Bsn 

DGHDHBHDQD 
DIPBDBDQDB 
HDHQDnHDHB 

aaoBG«»«GF.s 
HG__B__GnaaG 

EBGBGGGflGn 
HDDDHaHBHn 

i:;wGaHBGBGa 

QBaaHGGGBa 

Fig. 1135. 



GBGGDBGBBBGBGGGBGBBB 
C ■ ■■■ ■ . ■ ■■■ ■ : 

■■■ ■ ■ ■■■ iB' l:i 
■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■■ 

CGGBJBBB '<■< )i GBGBBBGB 
BGBBBGBGGGBGBBBGBGGG 
BBCa; CI. BBBJBDGDBGB 
BUaaBGBBB B_. i B . BBBO 
GflGBBBGBGGGBGflBBGBGG 
BBBOBGG' JB GBBBGB GGGBG 
OB JG JB BBS IBL ':■■'. BGBBB 

■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ 
GBBB JBG ->m ■■■ . B _ B 
BGBGGGBGBBBGBGGGBGBB 
DGGB III ■ ' ■ ■■■ ■ 
BGBBBGB ■ ■■■ ■ 
BBaBGGGBGBBBGBGu ' B JB 
BGaDBDBBBDBaGDBGBBBG 
CB'.iaBBGBDDGBGBBBGBGa 

bbbgagggbgbbbgbgggbg 
Fig. 1136. 



The next position for placing the 5 leaf satins — our foundation weaves — is given i:i Figs. 1 130 
and 1 131. 

Diagrams 1132, 1133, 1134 and 1135 show the four changes and Fig. 1136 the new weave 
obtained. 



275 



The fourth position of our 5 harness foundation weave as given in Figs. 1137 and 1138 results 
in the new weave Fig. 1143, and which corresponds to the formerly obtained weave Fig. 1129. 



GGGGB 


■ ■■■ 


giggo 


■ ■■■ 


■a 


■■■' ■ 


bgggg 


: ■■■■ 


GGBGG 


II IB 


Fig. 1137. 


Fig. 1138. 


GGBaaaaGGG 


BGGGBBBGBG 


ana MGBaaa 


DaDDDDDDHD 


Q^GGGGBGGa 


HG= = uBI 


W ■ DHDSLjaa 


Q BZ a 


■ '^GGG ODD 


CZe|3 B RD 


BZUGBGaGBG 


DDDQUDB ; 1 D 


lj DCBC1DQQD 


B IB ' eI'O 


azwomomama 


Ha^DGOLjQ'_/D 


DOG ! '^GGBG 


■■■DBnODOD 


BuSggubgbg 


□aQaanman 


Fig. 1140. 


Fig. 1141. 



cggggzggcg 
dgooddddbd 

DDDQDDDDnD 

ggzggcggzg 
cgggggbzzg 
gzgcglgggg 

■GGGGCGCaa 
CGGGGGGDDD 

GcaaHaaGaa 
Fig. 1139. 



CnSBGCZBZH 

hbhohdhgqd 

c^ rB_"jBHenn 
ezzzsbbqeg 
eni g'jbgbgb 
e sze„zzeb 

GH iSr:;:. m 
gdebbzszeg 
gzzbgbgbsb 
bgezggebbg 

Fig. 1142. 



aBBBGGGBGBaBBBGGCBCB 
BBB JB-BGG^BBBGB-ii _ ~ _ 


li ■_■■■ ■ ■ :■■■ : 


■ Dull! ■ ■ BBS ■ 


■■ i ■ ■ ■■■ :c: 1 ■ ■ 


B ■ B 1 DBBBDB^B""' BB 


GBGBBBGGGBGB' BBB~G I 


a dii ■ :■ . ■■■ ■ ■ 


r a ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ani 


BGB^GGBBflGBr"BGGCBBBG 


GBBB ' GB ■ BBBGGGBGB 


■■■_IZI ^BBBGB^BGGG 


CBGB III " ■ ■ ■■■ G 


■l_OUBBB'"'B ■ . ■■■ I 


BIG lGBuBGBBBncn|GBL_B 


■ ■ ■ BBB B I ' BB 


GB .III' G : I ■ BBB ~B 


1 III .1 I . ■■■ ■ ■ 


z ■ ■ bbi im.:iii 


BGBGGGBBB_B-_B GBBBG 


Fig. 1143. 



Diagrams 1139, 1140, 1141 and 1142 are the four changes. 

The fifth and last possible position of the foundation weaves as given in Figs. 1144 and 1145 
results in new weave, Fig. 1150, being in this instance again a duplicate of a former weave (1122). 



GGGBG 
BGCGG 
GGBQa 

gggcb 

• aBGGD- 
FlG. 1144. 



Ggc: 



NuJ^j_J^_J_ 



:gbggg 
uaaoBaoDDG 

BQBDJOBDSD 

GGGZGGZZIG 
BGSGHGwaGD 
GGBZGZC DDD 
SGCGaGBGHG 

Fig. 1147. 



BBGBB 
BBBBU 
BGBIB 

Fig. 1145. 



BGnGBZGBBD 

GaaaGGBaca 

DBBDBDBDBa 

e. . _::. :j 

BaBGGBBGaa 

dgggeqgd: g 

tft . I 

t-: l_ = i ■ 

GQfflaaacQGa 
Fig. 1148. 



GGGGGCCGGG 

GaaGGGicca 
GGGGaGuaaa 

■GO JOOQQOD 
DODDDDDDDO 

GGCGIGCCGa 
CCCG-jZCGGG 
CGGGGCCCBG 
GOGGGGCQCa 
GCBaGGGGGG 

Fig. 1146. 



dbgbcbhgcb 
e_.bgbggbeg 
e: obosobqs 
ciezezezeg 
cbgpbgzsszh 
bzbz.ziezeg 

[ RLhGSGf E J 

ezbzezez: ■ 
gbsggbzbzh 

ECGBEGEGEa 

Fig. 1149 



GBGBGBBGGBGBGBGBBGGB 
BQBGBGCBBCBGBGBGQBBL] 
BDDBDBDBDBBOQBQBDBDB 
LIILII IJ II I I I 

■ ■■ ■ ■;:■::■■ ■ ■ 

■DBDOBBGBDBDBDDBBGBD 

CBGBGBGBBG""BGBGBCBBa 
BGBGBGBGGBBGBCBCBCGB 
CBBGrBGBGBGBBGGBGBCB 
BG_ BBGBGB I ED ■ ■ 
[ ■ ■ ■■ I B ■ ■■ I 
BDBGBGQBBaBGBGBCGBBG 
BGGBGBGBCBIZL IZIZBCB 
■■ ■ ■ I II I ■ ■ 
IGBBGGBGBCBGBBCCBGB 

SBGIGBCB IICBG 
ZIIZZIZIZIZIBG 
BZBZIZIZZIIZIZIZIZZI 
CBBZ B B IGIBZ jBCBGB 

bggbbgbgbgbggbbgbgbg 
Fig. 1150. 



__s_s 
B BJ 



ii;i. 



































































F 


te 


.11 


52. 





-AzU 

S -I- S 



Diagrams 1146, 1147, 1148 and 1149 illustrate the four changes necessary for transform- 
ing the foundation weaves in the new 
weave. 

No doubt the student will, by means 
of examples given thus far, have mas- 
tered the subject of constructing the 
present, so important, class of weaves; 
thus in our next examples we only show 
the foundation weave and the final result, 
i.e., the new weaves. 

Weave Fig. 1 1 5 1 is the foundation for 
the new weaves, Figs. 1152, 1153, 1154, 
1 155 and 1 156, of which again two are 
found to be duplicates of former weaves, 
thus only three new weaves are actually 
obtained. 



















F 


Id. «l5i. 



























Fin 


n 


s*. 




FlC.115?. 





FlC 1154. 



Ficiifei 



FlG 1160. 





























































Fie ii62 

The same is the case with our next example — the same foundation but only the twill effect 
reversed — Fig. 1 1 57, and of which weaves Figs. 1158, 1159, 1160, 1161 and 1162 are obtained, 
two of which are duplicates. 

In order to show the student the immense chance in designing new weaves by the present 
method, the accompanying twelve examples are given. In each case we selected only three (the 
best results) of the many different new weaves thus possible to be obtained. 

The foundation weave is given by a type. 

Fig. 1 163 is the foundation for new weaves Figs. 1 164, 1 165 and 1 166. 

Fig. 1 167 is the foundation for new weaves Figs. 1 [68, 1169 and 1 170. 



276 



Is 2 

:±_::i::g 

lX x 

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XT "" _>? -' 

XIX 



FlG,ll63. 




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■LI I EL 

_np _i!Ht i 

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■ ■ \u fig 



1165, 















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x x 5 


X XX 


xx 5? 


x S x 


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x x, x" 


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I::l"s!:: 



Fig, H67. 





1168. 



1166. 



1169, 



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1170. 



IX x s x, 

|x X XX 
XJX X__S_ 

_az_Xx.__s_ 
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xxT x__x._ 
Ji T iix x 
x T x xx 
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Fig. M7I, 





1173. 

















1172 


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a- £* 


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87 5? 


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FIGJI75. 





Il7<t. 



1177. 



.1176. 







































































































































































































































































































































































1178. 



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Fig. 117?. 




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1180. 














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Fig. ii83. 



a 


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1181. 



118%,. 



1185 



1186, 



277 



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1190. 







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SHADED FABRICS. 



Shaded fabrics are produced by means of weaves in which a gradually 
exchange from light to dark (i. e. , filling to warp effect or vice versa) takes 
place. The name is derived from the fact, that by means of these weaves, we 
produce the effect of shading in designs. The shading can be produced by 
means of the weave, by means of color arrangement, or by means of weave 
and coloring. 

The Shading of Textile Fabrics by Means of the Weave. 

This is produced by starting with weaves having large warp or filling 
floats, and arranged the same, gradually shorter, until 
obtaining the opposite effect from the effect from which 
we started. 

> A. Satin Weaves. 



To give a clear understanding of the procedure, the 
accompanying illustration, Fig. 121 1, is given. In the 
same we show in effect A, the 5 -leaf satin filling effect, 
in which the filling float equals four ; the same is shown 
reduced to three warp-ends (7. e. , to float over three 
warp-ends) in effect B, being produced by adding one riser 
to the left of each spot of the original 5-leaf satin filling. 
In effect C, this filling float has been reduced to two ends 
(z. <?., the filling to float over two warp-threads only). 
In effect D, the opposite from effect A is given, being 
nothing else but the 5-leaf satin warp effect. 

Comparing effect A and effect D, we find just the 
opposite color (warp or filling) to show on the face, 
whereas effects indicated by letters of reference B and C, 
are the two grades of changing between the previously 
referred to main effects. 

If , in this example we refer to a fabric (for example 
a damask table cloth), in which the warp would be white 
and the filling red, effect A, would produce a nearly clear 
red effect, and D the opposite or a nearly clear white 
effect. 

The 5-leaf satin (if referring to cotton fabrics like 
table covers or upholstery or similar fabrics), is mostly 
used for cheap fabrics, i. e., such as produced with a low 



Fig. 1211. 



texture of warp and filling. For higher textures we 



o 



F 



E 



Fig. 1212. 



279 



must use weaves interlacing in a larger distance of threads, for example the S-leaf satin, the 10 or 
12-leaf satin, etc. 

To be sure that the student is thoroughly versed with the construction of these fabrics, we 
have given in Fig. 12 12 another example, dealing in this instance with the 8-leaf satin. The same 
is shown in effect A, in what is termed technical 8-leaf satin filling-effect, and in which the filling 
floats over seven warp-threads. This float has been reduced in effect B to only six warp-threads 
by means of adding one more riser to the left of the original satin weave previousl}' shown. In 
effect C we reduce this filling float to only five warp-threads by means of adding two risers to the 
original weave. In effect D the float has been reduced to only four threads by means of adding 
three additional risers to every original spot of the 8-leaf satin filling face. In effect E the charac- 
teristic float of the filling has been reduced to three threads, being the opposite to effect C, and 
which is produced by means of adding four risers to each original spot of the 8-leaf satin filling face. 
Effect F, which is the opposite from effect B, is produced by means of adding five risers to each spot 
of the original satin weave. By effect G we meet the opposite effect from our foundation effect A, 
being nothing else than the common 8-leaf satin warp effect. 

Effect A and G are the main or foundation effects, whereas effects B, C, D, E and F are the 
gradually exchanging between these two main effects. 

If we consider our subject applied to the manufacture of (for example table cloths or similar) 
fabrics dealing with a white warp and red filling we find that effect A will produce a nearl)- all red 
effect, whereas effect G will produce a nearly all white effect. By means of referring to white warp 
and red filling in table cloth we are not limited to these colors only, since frequently even white 
warp and white filling are used, producing in this instance a similar shading of the fabric, although 
not as prominent as if using different colors in warp and filling ; again, as previously already stated, 
these shaded weaves are not only used for table cloth only, they also find extensive use in the 
manufacture of upholstery, dress goods and other fabrics. 

This shading can be best applied to satin weaves, although, as we will see later on, we may 
also use twills. 

Rule for Shading Satin Weaves. 

Put the ground weave (filling for face) over the entire 
part of the :: designing paper, which is required to be 
shaded ; afterward add one, two, three or more spots 
(risers) to the spot which forms the foundation, or satin 
filling for face. The heaviness of the shading is regu- 
lated by the sketch or the fabric. For example : In an 
8-leaf satin the difference between filling for face and 
warp for face may be made with three or four changes only, 
or with the entire seven changes. 



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Fig. 



12 13 shows the shading of the 
5-leaf satin, four changes, each for eight 
warp threads, giving 4 x 8 or 32 threads 
for the effect, using in this instance every 
one of the four changes as explained and 
illustrated in detail by Fig. 121 1. 

In Fig. 12 14 we used again the 5- 
leaf satin for foundation ; however, in 
this instance with only three changes, viz.: ' ,, 2 :; , \t, 2 j, ' r , giving us in turn an exchanging 
of filling floats of from four threads to three threads, to two threads and return to the start. 
We have specially shown tip this example to impress the student that he is not compelled to 
use both extreme effects. No rule can be given for where to start and stop either effect, since 
the same is regulated by the amount of shading required by the design. 



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280 



In Fig. 12 15 another example of shading with the 8-leaf satin is 
given, using in the same 8 picks for each of the seven different effects, 
as previously explained by illustration, Fig. 12 12 (8 picks x 7 changes 
= 56 picks in repeat of pattern). 

B, Twills. 

If the shading in a fabric is required to have the appearance of rays, 
we must use in place of the satin weaves our common twills. In the accom- 
panying illustra- 
tions, Figs. 12 16 
and 1217, two 
examples of this 
kind are given. 
In the first ex- 
ample, Fig. 12 16, 
the points of in- 
terlacing of the 
foundation twill 
are shown by a 
type. The ef- 
ects (additional 
points) as neces- 
sary to produce 

the shade are arranged in a distance of 8 warp-threads. 

The first effect (commencing at the left of the weave) is produced by means of adding 6 

new risers, arranging 3 points above and 3 points below the original spot of the foundation 

twill. The second effect is produced by means of add- 
ing 5 new risers, putting 3 points below and 2 points 

above the original or foundation twill. The next effect 

is produced by only adding 4 new risers, 2 above and 2 

below, followed by 3 new risers in the next effect (2 

below and 1 above) . Two risers ( 1 below and 1 above) 

are added in the next effect, and only 1 riser in the 

following 8 warp-threads ; ending the weave with 8 

warp-threads of the foundation twill. 

In our next example, Fig. 12 17, the shading with 

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4_ > 3_ an( j 2_ g harness twills is shown, 




each effect being used for 8 ends, thus 8 x 5 = 40 
threads, repeat of pattern. 

Fancy Effects, 

Using- the Combination of Different Twills 
For shading is clearly explained by means of Fig. 12 18 which represents one of the latest styles 
of weaves for ladies' dress goods. In its construction we used the 



Xj 4 harness twill x 2 = 8 ends. 
i T 5 harness twill x 1 = 5 ends. 
J-j 4 harness twill x 3 = 1 2 ends. 
J-g- 3 harness twill xi= 3 ends. 
iy plain , change , to bal- 
ance effect = 2 ends. 
- 2 -y 3 harness twill x 1 = 3 ends. 



^Y 4 harness twill x 3 = 12 ends. 
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^Y 4 harness twill x 2 = 8 ends. 
-2-Y 3 harness twill x 1 = 3 ends. 
Xg. 3 harness twill x 1 = 3 ends. 

Repeat of Pattern = 64 ends. 



281 

By means of the principle of construction thus given, it will be easy for the student to design 
any number of new weaves of this character. 




Fig. 1218. 



Combining Shaded Effects with Regular Weaves. 

This subject is explained by weave Fig. 12 19 
showing 8-leaf satin shading combined with a strip of 
plain weaving. In the practical application of this 
weave to textile fabrics (dress goods) two beams are 
required on account of the great difference in inter- 
lacing of the 8-leaf satin compared to the plain 
weave. 





Fig. 1219. 

Fia. 1220. 

Fancy Effects in Shaded Iwills. 

m^TtiTi n 1 Sn ' h *7? Ve l SgiVen iU ** I22 ° ; bei "S a d{ *Z on « l sh * di »* Produced by 

with h/i . *' TV T T d T 4 ^ arneSS tWilL WeaVe Fi S- I22 < ^ows the shading in squares 
with the i^, -* T and - 3 - T 4 harness broken twills. L 



2S2 




Fig. ]221. 



Fancy Effects in Shaded Satins. 

This grade of shaded fabrics is shown by a specimen in weave, Fig. 1222 being the "shading 
in squares" with the 5-leaf satins. 

This subject of shading satins and twills has been sufficiently explained in beginning of this 
article, so that no further details are required by the student, and thus we now come to the 

Figured Effects 



of which three examples are given. Fig. 1223 
clearly illustrates the principle of developing a warp 
figure on a filling satin ground by shading from 
filling to warp effect. The outline of the figure is 
first sketched on the design paper, next the whole is 
covered with the satin dots. By adding single dots 
where required any degree of light and dark can be 
obtained. As a rule always add the dots (preferably 
in single dots) to the same side of the float. The 
effect is obtained by gradually increasing the float 
from one to seven, and thus there are seven changes 
possible between the contrast of the original 8 har- 
ness warp and filling satins. 

Fig. 1224 shows us " satin shading'" applied 
in figures to otherwise figured fabrics. Repeat of 
weave 80 x 80. 




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283 



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284 

Fig. 1225 shows us "twill shading" applied in figures to twill ground. Repeat of weave 
96 x 96. 

Both weaves Figs. 1224 and 1225 are what we commonly call figured dress goods designs. 




Fig. 1225. 



The Shading by Means of Color Combinations. 

This part of shading is a great deal easier for the designer than the until now explained and 
illustrated procedure of shading by means of the weave. With reference to which weave to use we 
have the greatest possible range at our disposal, and only must be careful so that the respective 
weave don't work against the effect to be derived. For example, if required to produce shaded 
stripes in the direction of the warp, the interlacing of warp and filling must be done with warp 
effect weaves ; if the shaded stripes are required to appear filling ways, the interlacing must be 
done by means of filling effect weaves. In the first instance the color of the filling, and in the 



285 



, x, x X x R 

■ 



Fig. 1226. 



latter case the color of the warp, is of little consideration, except that by means of using dark or 
light yarn, we either darken or lighten the general shade of color of the face of the fabric. 

If the shading in a fabric is required in both directions (horizontal and vertical) we must 
arrange the changes of colors for both systems of threads (warp and filling) ; besides we must 
use a weave forming face and back by equal portions of warp and filling ; for example, the common 

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The construction of a fabric to be produced by means of changes in colors, is thus very simple. 
Suppose we want to produce a gradual exchange from dark to light and back to dark in the form 
of stripes lengthwise (in the direction of the warp) in the cloth, we must (for example) dress our 
warp as follows : Example 1. — (A small effect. ) 

5 ends light, 1 end dark, 4 ends light, 1 end dark, 3 ends light, 1 end dark, 2 ends light, 1 end dark, 1 end 
light, 2 ends dark, 1 end light, 3 ends dark, 1 end light, 4 ends dark, 1 end light, 5 ends dark=36 ends repeat of 
dressing. 

It will be readily seen by the student that by means of these 
dressings of the warp, as well as any similar combinations, a 
gradual exchange from light to dark and back to light is produced. 

It is the adopted custom with textile designers to express 
this shading on point paper, examples of which are given in the 
accompanying Figs. 1226, 1227 and 1228. In the same (Figs. 
1226 and 1227) every square indicated by g type stands for a 
light, and every square shown in full black (b) for a dark thread. 

Thus diagram Fig. 1226 must be read off (z. e. , indicates 
to the designer a dressing of the warp) as follows : 

8 ends light, 1 end dark, 7 ends light, 1 end dark, 6 ends light, 1 end dark, 5 ends light, 1 end dark, 4 ends 
light, 1 end dark, 3 ends light, 1 end dark, 2 ends light, 1 end dark, 1 end light, 2 ends dark, 1 end light, 3 ends 
dark, 1 end light, 4 ends dark, 1 end light, 5 ends dark, 1 end light, 6 ends dark, 1 end light, 7 ends dark, 1 end 
light, 8 ends dark=84 ends repeat of dressing. 

This style of dressing produces a 
shade technically known as a "one- 
sided effect." 

In contrast to this is the ' ' shading 
towards each side," and of which an 
example is given in diagram Fig. 
1227, and which reads off as fol- 
lows : 

Fig. 1227. 

8 ends light, 1 end dark, 7 ends light, 1 end dark, 6 ends light, 1 end dark, 5 ends light, 1 end dark, 4 ends 
light, 1 end dark, 3 e